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Volumetric 3D Printing Of Elastomers By Tomographic Back-Projections
Christophe Moser, Damien Loterie, Paul Delrot
EPFL, Laboratory of Applied Photonics Devices, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Additive manufacturing methods such as fused-deposition modelling, selective laser melting or stereolithography create objects sequentially one layer at a time. This type of process imposes limitations on the shapes and the materials that can be printed. For example, overhanging structures need additional supports during printing, and soft or elastic materials are difficult to print since they deform as new layers are added. While casting can be used instead to create certain elastic parts, design freedom is limited because cavities or tubes are difficult to unmold. Here we use a volumetric 3D printing method based on tomography, where the entire volume of a photopolymerizable resin is solidified at the same time. We demonstrate very rapid (<30 sec) printing of a variety of complex structures with acrylates and silicones.
Femtosecond Laser Micromachining Of Fabry-Pérot Interferometers For Magnetic Field Sensing
João M. Maia1,2, Vítor A. Amorim1,2, Duarte Viveiros1,2, P. V. S. Marques1,2
1CAP - Centre for Applied Photonics, INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre 4150-179, Porto, Portugal; 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007, Porto, Portugal
Fs-laser micromachining is a high precision fabrication technique that can be used to write novel three-dimensional structures, depending on the nature of light-matter interaction. In fused silica, the material modification can lead to (i) an increase of the refractive index around the focal volume, resulting in the formation of optical circuits, or (ii) an enhancement of the etch rate of the laser-affected zones relative to the pristine material, leading to a selective and anisotropic etching reaction that enables fabrication of microfluidic systems. Here, both effects are combined to fabricate a Fabry-Pérot interferometer, where optical waveguides and microfluidic channels are integrated monolithically in a fused silica chip. By filling the channel with a magnetic fluid whose refractive index changes with an external magnetic field, the device can be used as a magnetic field sensor. A linear sensitivity of 0.12 nm/mT is obtained in the 5.0±0.5 to 33.0±0.5 mT range, with the field being applied parallel to the light propagation direction.
Airidas Žukauskas, Andreas R. Stilling-Andersen, Xiaolong Zhu, Anders Kristensen
Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Conventional three-dimensional optics requires curvature to control the wave front of light thus making it difficult to reduce the size of the optical systems. Furthermore, for correction of optical aberrations, complex optical systems comprising more than one lens are used. This adds additional bulk, mass and complexity to the optical systems. Recent development in diffractive optics has enabled new thin lightweight optical elements such as metalenses. We introduce resonant laser printing technique as a flexible photo-thermal technology for metalens fabrication with the ability to control the light with microscale precision. Our laser printed metalenses can be integrated in bio-sensors, bio-imaging systems, and optofluidical devices.
Bi-phase Emulsion Droplets as Dynamic Fluid Optical Systems
Sara Nagelberg1, Amy Goodling2, Kaushikaram Subramanian3, George Barbastathis1, Moritz Kreysing3, Tim Swager1, Lauren Zarzar2, Mathias Kolle1
1Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; 2The Pennsylvania State University, USA; 3Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Germany
Micro-scale optical components play a critical role in many applications, in particular when these components are capable of dynamically responding to different stimuli with a controlled variation of their optical behavior. Here, we discuss the potential of micro-scale bi-phase emulsion droplets as a material platform for dynamic fluid optical components. Such droplets act as liquid compound micro-lenses with dynamically tunable focal lengths. They can be reconfigured to focus or scatter light and form images. In addition, we discuss how these droplets can be used to create iridescent structural color with large angular spectral separation. Experimental demonstrations of the emulsion droplet optics are complemented by theoretical analysis and wave-optical modelling. Finally, we provide evidence of the droplets utility as fluidic optical elements in potential application scenarios.