Education and working life
Isolating Geolminthiasis Infection In School Aged-Children Who Work In Artisanal Mining In North - Kivu, DRC
Volunteers for the Conservation of Fauna and Flora, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Health is closely related to the quality of the environment in which people live.
Geohelminthiasis infections are among the most common infections in the word affecting the poorest communities. The WHO recommends periodic deworming for children (1-15 years) living in areas where the prevalence of infections is estimated at more than 20%.
In Democratic Republic of Congo, especially in the underserved region of North Kivu, many children working in artisanal mining may not receive necessary treatment. The goal of this study was to identify the parasite carriage in this group. We collected and analysed 125 fecal samples from children aged: 6-15 who work in artisanal mining. We found that 65.6% of children have Ancylostoma duodenale, 94.4% have Trichuris trichura and 96.8% have Ascaris lumbricoides many of them have never been dewormed. Our research demonstrates the immediate need for deworming program and health education for disease prevention in the North Kivu mining region. The ultimate goal of our work is to eliminate child mining work, given the risk of exposure to multiple disease, injury, and radiation exposure common in artisanal mining though the challenge is great given the prevalence of poverty and war in region.
Once In NEET, Always In NEET? The School-To-Work Patterns Of Young Adults From A Life Course Perspective
University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
Objectives: Young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment and health outcomes. As earlier studies often measured NEET status at one time point, is it unclear if NEET patterns exist over time. Therefore, the aims are to 1) examine the educational and employment status of young adults over time and 2) identify risk factors in childhood.
Methods: Data were used from 1499 participants of the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 15-year follow-up. NEET status was assessed at age 19, 22 and 26 years. Parental SES, negative life events, physical and mental health were measured at age 11 years. Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression analysis.
Results: Four school-to-work patterns were identified: 1) Non NEETs: those who have never been in NEET (N = 1277, 85.2%), 2) Early NEETs: those in NEET at age 19 or 22 years, (N = 68, 4.5%) 3) Late NEETs: those in NEET at age 26 years (N = 86, 5.7%), and 4) Persistent NEETs: those in NEET at two or three time points (N = 68, 4.5%). Having (borderline) clinical internalizing problems at age 11 was identified as risk factor for early NEETs (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.09-3.44). Low parental SES and exposure to negative life events (≥ 3) were identified as risk factors for persistent NEETs (OR 4.45, 95% 2.00-9.91 and OR 4.42, 95% 1.62-12.08, respectively).
Conclusions: Four different patterns of young adults in NEET from late adolescence to young adulthood were identified; associated with different risk factors in childhood. Monitoring during childhood should be directed towards low parental SES, exposure of negative life events and internalizing problems, to help young adults to transition smoothly from school into the labour market.
Youth Outside the Labour Force
1National Advisory Unit on Occupational Rehabilitation-AiR, Norway; 2SINTEF Technology and society, Dep. of Health, Norway
Introduction: Young people, who neither participate in education nor are employed, are an increasing challenge in Western societies. The aim of the present study was to identify barriers to education or employment in order to recommend effective interventions. The study was previously reported by Ose and Jensen1.
Methods: Interviews of 60 case-managers from all labour and welfare offices (25 NAV offices) in one county in Norway were conducted. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and a ten-step method was used to sort and structure the data, which were analyzed using an inductive approach. An internet based survey was also conducted among 586 young adults (18-29 years), who did not participate in education or had a job. Descriptive analyses of the survey data were conducted.
Results: Three main barriers were identified in the interviews of the case managers; low client motivation, a sense of lack of achievement/defeat and unrealistic expectations about working life. The survey among the youth revealed other barriers; health problems (60%), low education (55%), lack of work experience (41%), the feeling of being exhausted (38%), low self-esteem (36%), feeling depressed (35%), sleeping problems (35%) and very often a combination of these barriers. Loneliness was experienced by 70% of the respondents and 75% reported money problems.
Conclusions: Case managers and their clients emphasise different reasons for youth being outside the labour force. The young clients reported health barriers as dominating barriers. Accordingly, treatment is often carried out by mental health care services, which may not be optimal when social problems seem to contribute considerably to the problems. More multidisciplinary efforts are needed.
Does Labour Market Participation Among Parents Affect Self-rated Health Of Their Children? A Study Of 11,267 Adolescents And Their Parents
1Department of Public Health, Aarhus University; 2Research Centre for Youth & Employment, Herning, Denmark; 3Centre for Social Medicine, Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg Hospital, Denmark; 4Department of Occupational Medicine, Danish Ramazzini Centre, Regional Hospital West Jutland, University Research Clinic, Herning, Denmark
The association between the adolescents’ SRH in relation to parents’ labour market attachment was examined by logistic regression. Analyses were performed on 11,267 adolescents and 22,175 parents.
Interventions Targeting Sickness Absence Among Pregnant Women In Health Care Settings And Workplaces - A Systematic Review
1DEFACTUM - Social & Health Services and Labour Market, Central Denmark Region, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Clinical Social Medicine and Rehabilitation, Aarhus University, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and Department of Gynaecology Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; 4Research Unit for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, 5000 Odense, Denmark
The high rate of sickness absence from work during pregnancy is recognized as a problem, and may be higher than necessary from a health perspective. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in health care settings and workplaces targeting sickness absence among pregnant women.
Studies were eligible if they included pregnant women participating in any intervention in health care settings or workplaces. The outcome was length of sickness absence in days or number of episodes. Study design had to be either randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental studies.
The search for studies was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and the WHO trial registry. Risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute standardized quality assessment instrument.
A total of nine studies were quality assessed and of these, four were excluded due to insufficient methodological quality. Five RCTs conducted in health care settings in Sweden and Norway were included. Due to heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not performed.
Two RCTs examined complementary and alternative medicine and three RCTs the effect of physical exercise. In general the frequency of women on sickness absence was lower in the intervention groups than the control groups, however only among pregnant women who participated in a 12-week exercise program the frequency was significantly lower (22% vs. 30%, p=0.04).
The evidence of interventions targeting sickness absence among pregnant women in health care settings is sparse, and no studies were conducted at workplaces.
Future interventions including physical activity provided in collaboration with health care settings and workplaces are requested. Studies should measure sickness absence based on valid methods, measure compliance to the intervention, and provide transparency of statistical methods.
Work-Focused Interventions That Promote The Labor Market Transition Of Young Adults with Chronic Disabling Health Conditions: A Systematic Review
1Institute for Work & Health; 2University of Toronto; 3University of British Columbia; 4McMaster University; 5Queen's University
Background: Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase where one establishes their career. Young adults living with chronic disabling health conditions are underrepresented in the labor market, and experience difficulties with employment participation that can extend across working life course and impact health and quality of life.
Objective: To examine the effectiveness of work-focused interventions that support the labor market transition of young adults with chronic disabling health conditions; and to examine whether the effectiveness of work-focused interventions differ depending on the phase of work transition (e.g., preparation, entry and sustaining work, and employment advancement) and disability type.
Methods: A systematic review of articles published between January 1990 to July 2018 was conducted. Medline, EMBASE, and PsycInfo were searched, and titles/abstracts and full-texts of articles were reviewed for eligibility. Relevant articles were appraised for methodological quality. A best evidence synthesis approach was applied to medium/high-quality studies to develop recommendations.
Results: 5,815 articles were identified; ten articles were relevant and of moderate-high methodological quality. Five intervention categories were identified which focused primarily on young adults with mental health (n=6) or intellectual and developmental disabilities (n=3), and addressed employment preparation (n=10) and/or work entry (n=9). No interventions addressed at-work issues or career advancement. A moderate level of evidence existed for supported employment interventions having a positive impact on competitive employment outcomes, especially among young adults with mental health conditions.
Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence-based interventions that address the employment needs of young adults with disabling health conditions as they transition into the labor market. Supported employment has the potential to be an effective intervention that encourages preparation and entry into employment. Research is required to examine interventions that facilitate sustained work and career advancement of young adults with disabling conditions to promote employment over the life course.