The Green Revolution: Science, Politics and Unintended Consequences
Purdue University, United States of America
During the late twentieth century, agricultural science promised a Green Revolution in South Asia and Africa. The term projects a belief that science can solve all problems unhindered by politics, environment, and culture. Yet, politics and the environment not agricultural science determined the successes and failures of the Green Revolution in South Asia and Africa. Governments appropriated the scientific benefits of the Green Revolution for their own nationalist and political agendas. Frequently, increased food production fostered by agricultural science did not reach the people for whom it was intended due to political maneuvering that perpetuated social and economic inequalities in the countryside and the persistence of poverty for a majority of the rural population in developing nations.
This paper will provide an analysis of the intersection of agricultural science and politics regarding the Green Revolution in South Asia and Africa. It will show that by the twenty-first century, the Green Revolution had become more important as an agent of rural social and economic change for elites than as an applied agricultural science intended to provide more food for food deficit people. It will also show that the Green Revolution could not be seamlessly transferred from one continent to another.
Agricultural development of developing countries into a transnational perspective
Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Italy
The paper aims to discover the causes of agricultural development of developing countries, with particular regard to development theories and strategic plans elaborated during the 50's and the 60's. In this paper, the agricultural development is not only conceived as progress related to taking advantage of land potentialities, but also as institutional and social development related to that. The perspective is transnational, with particular attention to the inter-linkages and development possibilities of the euromediterranean area, focusing on the countries around the Mediterranean sea. Related to that, the guidelines and recommendations of the main international organisations dedicated to this theme, such as FAO and OEEC, will be particularly taken into account.
A special attention deserves the problem of foodstuffs for poor and underdeveloped communities: the study aims to understand the agricultural development dynamics both in the nutritional requirements satisfaction of that communities perspective and in the agricultural surplus trading possibilities perspective. This last one goal is the focus point for starting a social and economic development.
The collapse of Zimbabwe commercial tobacco industry and rise of tobacco contract farming
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
The Zimbabwe Land reform Programme in 2000 destroyed large-scale commercial tobacco farming. The result was the immediate collapse of the Zimbabwean tobacco industry which was initially based on the operations of commercial largely white commercial farmers. The majority of large scale commercial farmers had their land seized by ‘inexperienced’ indigenous farmers who also lacked capital. This resulted in the reduction of tobacco production due to lack of means and knowledge by small-scale farmers to efficiently grow the crop, amongst other problems. In this regard, tobacco contract farming began in 2003 in Zimbabwe, soon after several small scale farmers were resettled to resuscitate the tobacco production levels. Contract farming has seen the increase in tobacco growing, not only in re-settled areas but in communal areas as well. This has increased since 2009, after the dollarization of the economy which brought currency stabilisation. Since the Land Reform Programme in 2000, tobacco production in Zimbabwe has become more dominated by the small scale farmers. Lucrative market prices for tobacco, compared to other crops such as maize, which the farmers usually grew, have also been a factor in the shift to tobacco growing.
Agricultural development in Italy and in developing countries in the thought of Giorgio Ceriani Sebregondi, 1950-1958
European University of Rome, Italy
Italy’s transition from being a mainly agricultural economy to a mainly industrial economy took place in the 1950s. During that time, development thought in Italy revolved mainly around SVIMEZ, the Association for the Development of Southern Italy, this latter being the largest depressed area in Western Europe at that time. From 1950 to 1958 Giorgio Ceriani Sebregondi was the director of the Sociological Department of SVIMEZ, promoting multidisciplinary approaches and team-work to development issues. His interest in agricultural issues is evident in his papers and writings. Aiming at promoting a more balanced growth of agriculture and industry, he leveraged on three points: community development, international cooperation, the values of rural society. Sebregondi was frequently involved in missions abroad on behalf of the SVIMEZ and of the Italian government, and prepared plans for developing countries such as Iran and Somalia. His participation to international conferences and to the international community of scholars also contributed to the transnational circulation of his ideas, some of which influenced Father Lebret and Pope Montini’s own thought. Sebregondi died in 1958, aged 41, and his contribution has been long overlooked since then.
Integrated development and basic needs approach: analysis of its application to rural areas (1965-1985)
Institut of Agricultural Researh and Training. Retired. Consultant on Agroenvironmental Economics and Rural Development., Spain
The Integrated Development Model (ID) was born in the late 1960s, in response to the failure, particularly in rural areas, of previous development strategies based on sectorial policies. On the other hand, the Basic Needs (BN) paradigm, which appeared at the same time, focusing as main development objective improving the situation of the population with lower incomes, is assumed as a goal by the new ID strategies.
The paper, after analysing the genesis and nature of both (DI and NB), deals with the application to rural areas of developing countries of DI-NB programs under the auspices of the World Bank, during the MacNamara period, linked to the birth of an international body for agricultural research (CGIAR), and the postulates of the Green Revolution. The positive and negative effects of such programs are also commented.
The late attempts to implement ID policies in the European Union, and their rapid replacement by Endogenous Development Programs already in the eighties , is, finally, discussed.
The transformation of African Agriculture through Switzerland-Zimbabwe Agricultural programme in the 1980s
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
The paper examines the role played by Ciba-Geigy in facilitating agricultural production in Zimbabwe through a programme called Kohwa Pakuru, literary translated “Get Higher Yields’. Ciba-Geigy was a chemical industry operating in parts of Africa and had its headquarters in Basel, Switzerland. The role of Ciba-geigy highlighted how private companies can work together with public sectors for a ‘common’ good. It was against the background of alarming quantitative statistics presented in the National Archives of Zimbabwe that drew attention into the investigation of this programme. Emerging in the 1980s, the programme was critical in ensuring communal and resettled farmers crop production. Evidence suggests that the programme was very pivotal in increasing farmers’ production. However, the ultimate question was, why then did the programme fail in 1988? This paper gives explanations of why and how the programme suddenly dissolved. Through the use of correspondences, reports, minutes of meetings amid others, the paper highlighted how the company coordinated progress across boarders from Basel to Zimbabwe. The company files gave information on the aims, objectives and operations of the company in the 1980s. Several interviews also give detailed responds of communal farmers and testimonies by the managing directors in Zimbabwe on how a multi-national company operated.
“The effects of globalization: migration flows in Southern Italy, from 1989 to present”
Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Italy
This paper will deepen the research about the migratory phenomenon in the Mediterranean area. It is proven that migration flows are strictly related to the globalization of commodity and labor markets. The paper will analyse the history of migration in Southern Italy, where people traditionally coming from Africa are exploited in seasonal harvesting campaigns.
Thus, the research will investigate issues linked to migration. At first, it will focus on an analysis of Mediterranean area. Then, the paper will go on through an history of African migration in Southern Italy.
Great attention will be dedicated to the humanitarian issue pointing out the alarming lack of legislation in Italy.
Finally, the paper will explore the connection between migration and agriculture in Southern Italy. The research will prove that migrants have stabilized as “itinerant workers”, freeing resources for development.
As for the first section of the paper, the research will be carried out by analysing some fundamental economic essays about globalization.
Issues of the second and third sections will be investigated through the collection of data on field and by reading articles published in the ‘80s and ‘90s.
The role of cooperative enterprises in the agricultural development of Northeast Italy
University of Udine, Italy
The research aims at investigate the role of cooperative enterprises in the agricultural development of North Italy, focusing on the areas of Veneto and Friuli, from the mid-nineteenth century to the sixties of the twentieth century. As emerged from the agricultural survey (the final report of 1884), these areas, as most of the country, were characterized by low productivity (compared with other european countries), caused by backward cultivation systems, the misery of the peasants (low level of education, poor food consumption, usurious rates of interest) and by large tax burden. Starting from the origins of credit cooperatives (Raiffesen system) and farmers’ cooperatives (from dairies to wineries) the research analyzes their further devolopment not only from the quantitative point of view, but also considering the different ways they contributed to the solution of many of the social and economic problems of the areas under investigation. Did these cooperatives contribute to the expansion of the market and the specialization of crops? Could these cooperatives be considered as determinant factors of the agricultural development? The analysis will also include the comparison with other countries’ experiences.