Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
202R: Integrating the landscape concept into land change science
Time:
Thursday, 25/Apr/2019:
3:15pm - 4:45pm

Session Chair: Felix Kienast
Session Chair: Matthias Bürgi
Location: MB-205
Main Building, room 205, second floor, east wing, 90 seats
Session Topics:
What do people want from land?

Session Abstract

The notion of “landscape” in socio-environmental science is variously interpreted, but is generally accepted to encompass people’s needs and values, as well as the diversity of their perspectives. There is broad consensus that interpretations of cultural landscapes – together with local community history and character – defines a sense of place and the strength of such attachments. The ‘landscape approach’ seeks to take account of such social and cultural perspectives by embedding them in processes of landscape management policy, planning, and practice. We aim to evaluate the extent to which a landscape perspective has indeed changed the practice of science for impact, and identify the added value generated by the landscape approach. We also ask in what respect does a landscape perspective help for “navigating the trade-offs and fostering synergies in land systems” – as described in one of the conference themes.

Following up on a session organized at the OSM in Beijing, we want to specify the diversity of linkages between landscape and land change science, and explore the specific merits for land system transformations. All contributions are welcome which explicitly address the landscape dimension, be it by working at the landscape scale, adopting a landscape perspective or following a landscape approach.


Presentations
Full talk
ID: 269 / 202R: 1
202R Integrating the landscape concept into land change science
Keywords: place attachment, place identity

Landscapes are important entities for place identity and place attachment in mobile societies

Felix Kienast, Marcel Hunziker, Matthias Buchecker

Swiss Federal Research INstitute WSL, Switzerland

People’s well-being is influenced by the ability to establish a bond with a place and attach meanings to it. There is a broad consensus that (1) direct place experiences – together with (2) social integration in the local community defines a sense of place and the strength of place attachments. Place experience is strongly linked to the perceived and interpreted everyday landscapes. The latter is not only the land use of a given patch of land but the total contextual information of tangible and non-tangible land objects in the immediate and larger surrounding of a patch of land. This makes it imperative to consider the landscape scale and the topic landscape in the concept of land change science. We claim that landscapes have (1) an important role for place attachment, and (2) an inclusive role in today’s global societies, where the length of residency is vastly reduced because of, e.g., individualistic lifestyles, global workplaces and forced migration (e.g., caused by war or climate change). We have evidence that the landscape scale is very relevant for the planning realm, as it depicts the life-world of individuals, groups or entire societies. However, as landscapes are increasingly homogenized we have to establish scientific knowledge on how to design landscapes that can be appropriated easily and quickly by many cultural groups. At the same time, however, these places should not simply become trivial and exchangeable.



Full talk
ID: 497 / 202R: 2
202R Integrating the landscape concept into land change science
Keywords: preference study, physiological response, landscape assessment, renewable energy systems

Getting deeper insight into people’s preferences for renewable energy landscapes – A study combining emotional and cognitive responses on landscape changes

Reto Spielhofer1, Boris Salak2, Ulrike Wissen Hayek1, Marcel Hunziker2

1ETH Zürich, Switzerland, Planning of Landscape and Urban Systems; 2Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)

Renewable energy systems (RES) are being promoted noticeably by nations around the globe to reduce CO2 emissions and to reach climate targets. Nevertheless, compared to conventional energy production systems, RES are more decentralized in space and in turn, their conflicts with landscape and related ecosystem services per megawatt tend to be higher. Experiences over the past decade show, that impacts of RES on the perceived landscape quality are often accompanied by local resistance and tend to hamper energy transitions. The perceived visual impact of renewable energy infrastructures on the landscapes and its cognitive evaluation is one of the most decisive factors in public acceptance of RES. Furthermore, psychological research has demonstrated that landscape related questions highly involve emotional responses.

In practice, however, representative landscape assessments and decision experiments are not capable to capture the emotional dimension of the perceived landscape quality. On the contrary, laboratory experiments measuring emotional reactions (e.g. skin conductance response) are limited in its representativeness due to often too small case numbers. We present a study design and results of combining emotional and cognitive responses on renewable energy landscape scenarios.

We assessed peoples preferences concerning RES in a Swiss representative online panel survey (N=1000). In view of a nested study design, we additionally measured arousal responses on landscape changes caused by RES under laboratory conditions with students (N=100). To combine both datasets we grouped participants based on their demographics and attitudes towards RES and landscape. The results contribute to a better understanding of how people, based on their personal interests, perceive and evaluate landscape changes due to RES. This may better inform landscape development strategies with RES by taking into account public perceptions and preference.



Full talk
ID: 267 / 202R: 3
202R Integrating the landscape concept into land change science
Keywords: Cultural values, PPGIS, narratives, land-use conflicts, Faroe Islands

Identifying and assessing the potential for conflict between landscape values and development preferences

Tobias Plieninger1,2, Nora Fagerholm3, Eydfinn Magnussen4, Christopher M. Raymond5, Anton Stahl Olafsson6, Laura N.H. Verbrugge7

1University of Göttingen, Germany; 2University of Kassel, Germany; 3University of Turku, Finland; 4University of the Faroe Islands; 5University of Helsinki, Finland; 6University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 7University of Twente, The Netherlands

Small islands are characterised by geographic isolation, strong place attachment, and vulnerabilities to social, economic, and ecological changes. They are often subject to development activities that raise concerns about impacts on multiple land- and seascape values. This study elicits a range of land- and seascape values, development preferences, and land-use conflicts in a Northern Atlantic islands setting. We do so by linking participatory mapping with narrative analysis techniques to elicit landscape values and development preferences and to identify the potential for land-use conflicts. Four narratives were illustrative of human-nature relationships in the North Atlantic, revealing a great appreciation for wildlife and landforms, for peaceful and undisturbed ecosystems, for open access to land and sea, and for people being part of nature as major themes. The overlay of mapped landscape values and development preferences identified areas with a high potential for future land-use conflicts. Tourism development had a particularly high potential for conflicts. The local narratives on development activities – tourism, renewable energy, and fish farming/processing – confirmed diverging viewpoints. Respondents acknowledge the need for new economic opportunities that may create employment and wealth, but are concerned about negative effects for nature and society and the perceived inability to govern these developments. We argue that planning for multiple landscape values and preferences is crucial to manage the potential for trade-offs in land- and seascape development that is influenced by a range of pressures and drivers of change.



Full talk
ID: 888 / 202R: 4
202R Integrating the landscape concept into land change science
Keywords: landscape approaches, cultural landscapes, institutions, governance, decision-making

What do cultural ‘landscape approaches” look like and why are they important to consider?

Gretchen Marie Walters

University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Landscape approaches, as described in the recent, western anglophone literature, describe processes of addressing landscape-level issues by bringing together stakeholders from different sectors to address a common issue at the landscape scale through decision-making fora. Adopting such an approach requires looking at not only the physical landscape and the people in it but also the institutional conditions that shape how local people decide on the use of the landscape’s natural resources. As such, the historical and current decision-making processes shape the landscape. However, the current literature does not factor in a landscape’s historical and cultural processes, and so give insufficient attention to how these issues come to bear on current attempts to work across sectors in the same landscapes. To bring this idea into perspective, this paper explores how the Bateke people of Central Africa’s Bateke Plateaux not only historically employed the landscape approach to deal with cross-sectoral resource problems, but how their historical resistance to attempts to remove their resource rights both reduced the impact of colonial rule on their lands and side-lined them from future development. The paper thus shows how a traditional landscape approach worked and how the history of engaging with the landscape’s local institutions downplayed the potential for them to engage with future external actors working in their territories on modern landscape approaches. In ignoring the historical and cultural ways of dealing with cross-sectoral issues, landscape approaches not only miss out on methods that could enrich the current landscape approach toolbox, but also in contextualising the landscape approach within a particular place.



Full talk
ID: 896 / 202R: 5
202R Integrating the landscape concept into land change science
Keywords: design approaches; land system architectures; landscape planning; sustainablity

Linking landscape/land system and design approaches to achieve sustainability

Jianguo {Jingle} Wu

Arizona State University, United States of America

Sustainability science is a use-inspired and place-based transdisciplinary enterprise that integrates natural and social sciences, engineering/design sciences, and humanities to produce actionable knowledge for improving human wellbeing while maintaining long-term environmental integrity. Regional landscapes represent a pivotal scale domain for studying and practicing sustainability because they integrate human-environment interactions, link local processes below and global drivers above, and provide a common platform for scientists, land designers/planners, policymakers, and stakeholders to collaborate on sustainability issues that resonate with all. An interdisciplinary confluence of ecological, geographical, and design/planning sciences is underway, but how this confluence can effectively contribute to the science and practice of sustainability is not clear. In this paper, I review several landscape and land system-based approaches, including land change science, land system science, land system architecture, landscape ecology, landscape sustainability science, and geodesign, and discuss why and how they can be linked together for achieving the common goal of sustainability.