Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
334R: Urban expansion and ecosystem services
Time:
Friday, 26/Apr/2019:
3:00pm - 4:15pm

Session Chair: Christopher Bren d'Amour
Location: MB-205
Main Building, room 205, second floor, east wing, 90 seats
Session Topics:
How do we support transformation?

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Presentations
Flash talk
ID: 507 / 334R: 1
107R Assessing, modelling, and analysing land use and land management impacts on the Earth system
Keywords: Land use change; natural habitat; ecosystem services

Impacts of cropland expansion on natural habitat in rapid urbanization areas: A case study in China

Xinli KE, Lanping TANG

Huazhong Agricultural University, China, People's Republic of

Natural habitat plays an important role in protecting ecosystem services to respond to global climate change and achieving sustainable development of society. Land use changes, including urban expansion and cropland expansion, inevitably exert substantial impacts on natural habitat. Many studies focus on the effects of urban expansion on natural habitat, but research on the impacts of cropland expansion on natural habitat is insufficient. Cropland expansion is a wide and general practice in China in order to secure an increasing food supply, so the land reclamation for farming is made obligatory by the Cropland Balance Policy (a state policy in China). However, cropland expansion may result in natural habitat loss, which is often overlooked. Taking China as the study area, this paper aims to explore the impacts of cropland expansion on natural habitat. The results indicate that cropland expansion led to considerable loss of natural habitat (with 22,051 km2) in China from 2000 to 2010, and grassland suffered the heaviest loss (52% of the total loss). Furthermore, the spatial distribution of impact of cropland expansion on natural habitat with the decreased characteristics from west to east and from north to south in China. Noticeably, special attention needs to be paid to the ecologically fragile zones, especially in Xinjiang and Heilongjiang. Importantly, the natural habitat loss caused by cropland expansion was 11 times as much as that caused by urban expansion. This study highlights the negative effect of cropland expansion on natural habitat, which is serious but ignored. Thus, China must prevent more natural habitat from being wiped out by cropland expansion, and effective land use policies and regulations must take the considerably negative impacts of cropland expansion on natural habitat into the consideration to achieve the sustainable development goals.



Full talk
ID: 862 / 334R: 2
203R Land use change processes and interactions along the urban-rural gradient
Keywords: flash floods, sediment transport, WaTEM/SEDEM, urban area, GIS

The interaction of rural and urban areas by flash floods and sediment transport

Miroslav Bauer, Tomas Dostal, Josef Krasa, Barbora Jachymova

CTU in Prague, Czech Republic

Intense rainfall-runoff events and subsequent soil erosion can cause serious damage to the infrastructure in urban areas. In the Czech Republic, the Ministry of the Interior has supported an analysis dealing with the risks to residents, infrastructure, and water bodies from flash floods. A total of more than 150 000 risk points over whole Czech Republic area (78 866 km2) were identified by GIS morphology and land-use analysis. The threat from rural areas (open landscape), the vulnerability for urban areas, and the resulting risk categories at boundaries were determined for each of these points. The WaTEM/SEDEM model was used to assess the threat with 10 m data resolution. The summarized vulnerability of real objects on individual runoff trajectories was combined with the threat of sediment transport, resulting in the overall risk represented by a 5-degree scale, from lowest (1) to highest (5). Generally 19% of the sites in the Czech Republic, i.e. more than 23 400 sites, have been assigned to categories 4 and 5, with a high level of risk. 34 % of cadastral units are classified as the high risky (4416 cadasters, with a total area 24707 km2). Approximately 30% of the population of the Czech Republic live in high-risk cadastral areas, potentially touched by high sediment transport to urban area. To reduce risk, four scenarios of protection were modeled. The most effective solution, covered by technical measures implementation or conversion to grassland within the contributing areas, can reduce the number of high-risk sites from 23 400 to 3 700.

The research has been supported by projects No. Mobility7AMB18DE006; SHui 773903; COST LTC18030; SGS17/173/OHK1/3T/11 and QK1720289.



Flash talk
ID: 254 / 334R: 3
203R Land use change processes and interactions along the urban-rural gradient
Keywords: Rural development, heritage, tourism, urbanization, transformation

Heritage tourism, urbanization and the changing rural landscape: case study of the world heritage site of honghe hani rice terrace

yan wang

University of Lausanne, IGD, Switzerland

The World Heritage Site of Honghe hani rice terrace, also a marginal rural region in Southern China, is undergoing rapid change because of urbanization and heritage tourism. Influenced by out-migration and changing ways of living in urbanization process, the place sees a tendency of losing its rice terrace landscape and traditional settlements. However, heritage tourism tends to keep the past, valorize them for tourism purposes and diversifies rural livelihood strategies. The place stands at this development trajectories, where the same resources are subjected to different uses by different actors.

The research seeks to answer the questions of how the site is transformed in urbanization and heritage tourism, how it is co-constructed by different institutions, practices and actors, and how local livelihood is affected. The research aims to describe the transformation of villages and rice terraces, analyze the place-making process, and assess the impact of heritage tourism on local livelihood. To achieve the objectives, the research uses a mixed of methods including direct observation, participant observation, interviews; collects various data of images, words, narratives and statistics, and analyze them qualitatively and qualitatively.

Theoretically, it is hoped that the research bring more thoughts from a functional perspective on heritage in relation to rural development. Practically, it is also anticipated that the research could access the linkage between tourism and local livelihood, and generate concrete development suggestions.



Full talk
ID: 468 / 334R: 4
308R Mixed-methods approaches to identify and include the peoples’ needs in modeling urban spaces and their settings
Keywords: urban expansion, socioeconomic segregation, agent-based modeling, Suriname

Agent-based modeling of socioeconomic segregation within the Greater Paramaribo Region, Suriname

Kimberley Fung-Loy1,2, Lisa-Marie Hemerijckx2, Jeroen Royer2, Anton Van Rompaey2

1Department of Infrastructure, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname; 2Geography and Tourism Research Group, Department Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

In the past 15 years, the urban Greater Paramaribo region (population circa 400.000) in Suriname experienced a population growth of circa 1% per year, resulting in an urban sprawl. The urban growth has been caused by natural growth, as well as rural-urban migrations. Each social group in Greater Paramaribo is affected differently by the urban sprawl process, resulting in very specific socioeconomic segregation patterns. The poor often end up in inaccessible slum areas, lacking access to running water, electricity, schools and hospitals, while the rich end up in exclusive, expensive neighbourhoods. In order to address these undesirable unequal distribution patterns, adequate spatial planning policies, that stimulate sustainable growth with a good quality of life for all, need to be developed. This research presents a modelling tool that could support a sustainable development of Greater Paramaribo.
Firstly, to gain insight into the drivers of land use change of the different population groups, ca. 700 interviews were conducted at household level. A k-prototype clustering method was applied to the interview data to identify the different socioeconomic groups. Secondly, on the basis of the collected data, an agent-based model was developed that simulates both urban expansion and social segregation. The model simulations show that, under a business as usual scenario, urban expansion is expected to continue, through outward expansion of the current urban extent. This process could leave the weaker social groups underserved in terms of access to utilities and services. Finally, the impact of some planning options such as the construction of new roads and bridges and the upgrading of certain neighbourhoods is explored.



Full talk
ID: 577 / 334R: 5
321R Land resources conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa: Which knowledge and governance systems can end the siloed thinking?
Keywords: Land, Conflict, Governance, Localized strategy, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Urban land conflict and governance: experiences from the greater Port Harcourt city, Nigeria

UTCHAY OKORJI1, MODUPE M. OMIRIN2, ESTHER OROMIDAYO THONTTEH3

1Rivers State University, Nigeria; 2UNILAG, Nigeria; 3University of Lagos, Nigeria

The upsurge of various forms of contest and conflict over land in the oil-rich Greater Port Harcourt city, Southern Nigeria has remained a daunting issue affecting land in the urban center and creating restiveness. This paper investigates the local profile of the extant land governance framework and examines the local policies, processes, and bottlenecks associated with land governance in Port Harcourt and its contributions to the urban land conflicts in the area. The study is purposive in nature, analysis was carried out using biserial correlation, t-test, standard deviation and variance. The study showed the localized nature of the various conflict types which are caused by the lacuna created by weak urban land governance framework within the area. The study recommends a more localized, proactive and robust approach to land governance in the area. To this end, the paper suggests that proper and domesticated policies should be put forward, realistic processes embraced and necessary actions taken to achieve better localized land management in the area.



Flash talk
ID: 608 / 334R: 6
206R Relevance of long-term land-use change for sustainable land management
Keywords: ecosystem service value; management mode; land-use and land-cover change; Fujin City

The impact of management modes on ecosystem service values: a case study in fujin city, northeast china

Shuwen Zhang

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, China, People's Republic of

Abstract: Different management modes can influence land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), resulting in changes to ecosystem service values (ESVs). There is much research on the effect of LULCC on ESV changes, but few studies compared the differences in ESV changes under different management modes. In this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Operational Land Imager (OLI) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images were used to obtain the LULCC for Fujin City over four periods (1986, 1995, 2005 and 2015). The equivalent value factors (EVF) method was modified by crop yield to estimate the ESV in different years. Finally, we compared and analyzed the impact of management modes on changes to ecosystem service values and ecosystem service structures. The results show that cultivated land expanded quickly at the expense of wetland, forest and grassland in two regions under different management modes. Paddy expanded more quickly in the reclamation region than in the agricultural region. The agricultural products function exhibited a larger increase and the freshwater supply function exhibited a greater decrease in the reclamation region than in the agricultural region. Based on the related analysis, several suggestions regarding sustainable development for the two regions are provided.



Full talk
ID: 317 / 334R: 7
315R The role of policy and planning in urban land change: conceptualizations and evidence
Keywords: ecosystem service planning, urban growth modeling, non-point source pollution, carbon sequestration, urban form, urban density

Anticipating trade-offs between urban growth and ecosystem service production: scenario analyses of sprawl alternatives for a rapidly urbanizing region

Douglas A. Shoemaker1, Todd K. BenDor2, Ross K. Meentemeyer3

1University of North Carolina Charlotte, United States of America; 2University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, United States of America; 3North Carolina State University, United States of America

Anticipating the aggregated effect emerging from regulatory choices has long constituted a challenge to planners looking for sustainable development outcomes. Expanding demand for low-density development (‘sprawl’) has restructured the urban-rural frontier throughout North America, shifting the burden of ecosystem provisioning to increasingly fragmented green infrastructure remnants. Planners have responded with approaches to control sprawl, however, the ability of alternatives to preserve ecosystem services have not been systematically evaluated. Using a novel integration of land change simulation and ecosystem services modeling, we used proxies to estimate changes in water quality, climate regulation and biodiversity, and returns to landowners associated with sprawl alternatives and business-as-usual trends for the rapidly urbanizing Charlotte (NC) region by 2030.

We found no single growth scenario simultaneously reduced pollution, stored additional carbon, and retained sensitive habitat, underscoring trade-offs likely encountered when balancing development and environmental outcomes. Watersheds at the extremes of the urban-rural gradient exhibited significantly different and often opposing responses to policies aimed at reducing environmental impacts. Our findings point to the benefits of retaining greenfields behind the development frontier in rapidly urbanizing areas. Scenarios of increased land use density yielded stronger financial returns to landowners as concentrated economic activity drove up land rents while minimizing broader pollution costs.These findings suggest that the promotion of urban density can foster sustainable development especially when geographic context is considered. Our simulated landscape approach overcame limitations associated with scale and data, and projected regional environmental outcomes emerging from local development events.



 
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