Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
304RB: Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change - Part B
Thursday, 25/Apr/2019:
10:45am - 12:15pm

Session Chair: Matthew John Colloff
Session Chair: Bruno Locatelli
Session Chair: Sandra Lavorel
Location: MB-106
Main Building, 1st floor, east wing, 78 seats
Session Topics:
How do we support transformation?

Session Abstract

Uncertain, novel changes to social-ecological systems caused by climate change and other drivers mean that we can no longer assume the ecosystems and ecosystem services we currently depend on for livelihoods and wellbeing will be supplied in the future. As ecosystems transform, so does society, driven by changes in ecosystem services and livelihoods.

Large-scale land ecosystem governance systems are emerging to address transformative adaptation, but it will increasingly fall to those whose livelihoods are most impacted to develop options for adaptation. To reflect on adaptation options for social-ecological systems, we need to envision possible adaptation pathways, assess how ecosystem services contribute to adaptation in those scenarios, and analyse how decision contexts should be reframed to allow new options for adaptation. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches are required to operationalize adaptation and to conceptualize how ecosystem services can be used for adaptation.

In this session, the objective is to focus on local-regional case studies on the design and implementation of transformative adaptation, with an emphasis on land social-ecological systems. In particular, we will focus on case studies that encompass progression from the conceptual phase to the operational phase to implementation and adoption, with an emphasis on identifying sets of fruitful approaches for methodological development and transfer.

These case studies include issues of re-framing of governance structures for ecosystem-based adaptation, knowledge co-production and learning, overcoming operational barriers to ecosystem-based adaptation, and mainstreaming transformative adaptation into policy and management. The objective of the session is congruent with the conference theme of building and enhancing scientific capacity to enable transformations in land systems for a sustainable future.

Session Organizers: Sandra Lavorel, Matt Colloff, and Bruno Locatelli

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Full talk
ID: 764 / 304RB: 1
304R Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change
Keywords: cultural landscape, transformation, ecosystem services, tourism, nature conservation

How does Collaborative Landscape Management (CLM) support transformative adaptation? – Lessons from a transdisciplinary case study in Germany

Jana Zscheischler1, Martina Schäfer2, Maria Busse1

1Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Germany; 2Centre for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany

Traditional cultural landscapes are of special value not only for reasons of nature conservation and high species diversity but also because they intersect with the identity of local communities, support recreation and tourism, and preserve cultural heritage. Structural changes in rural areas threaten these unique sceneries and environments in Europe and worldwide. As a result, the question of how to maintain and manage cultural landscapes where economic benefits are not assured has become a priority in science and in practice. In this context, community-based collaborative landscape management (CLM) can be considered a promising approach and possible adaption pathway.

This presentation will show results from a transdisciplinary case study examining the preconditions and opportunities for initiating a CLM to address transformative adaptation in the biosphere reserve known as ‘Spreewald’. Over a period of five years researchers and local actors collaboratively designed and tested various innovations and solutions to adapt to landscape change.

The results indicate that due to the type of problem (landscape change) – which is characterized by complexity, beneficial linkages to a multitude of actor groups, and broad problem awareness –a CLM appears to be feasible. However, other preconditions related to social relationships among actor groups, questions of legitimate coordination and the collaborative capacity of the community are not met, thus reducing the likelihood of success. To address these challenges, we discuss the potential of transdisciplinary processes (TD) to assist local communities in establishing such a collaborative problem-solving and management approach. We show that TD is highly valuable and supportive during this critical stage of emerging collaboration.

Full talk
ID: 820 / 304RB: 2
304R Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change
Keywords: Rural ecosystem, resilient communities, adaptability

Development interventions and sustainable opportunities for rural livelihood in the state of uttarakhand, india

Rakhi Parijat

Miranda House, University of Delhi, India

The future of innovation lies in rural areas of the country, especially in remote hill regions of the country. There are many villages that are facing extreme crisis and are devoid of even basic facilities. In some villages people are moving en masse. They are not only abandoning their native land but leaving the productive areas to degrade.

While the growth rate in urban districts in various parts of the country especially metropolitan cities are resulting in environmental and resource degradation that is unreservedly disturbing. Yet the streams of migration continue and people from rural areas are mindlessly moving out thinking that a utopian world exists outside their homelands. However they are slowly consumed by the toxic elements of the city chemically and socially and their quality of life is seriously threatened.

The urban communities are themselves in the state of collapse and many have crossed the thresholds of physical growth. In developing country like India, the focus of development is mostly urban biased as they are considered growth centres of the economy. Indian economies are still largely based on rural landscapes, yet the market forces and mind-set continues to feed for the urban needs.

Gandhiji, however believed that India lived in its villages, and it holds true even now. The study is based on devising an innovative approach for Pauri Garhwal, one of the worst affected rural districts in Uttarakhand.

Learning from past practices, efforts should be made in creating resilient rural communities. Some concerted effort should go towards the rural areas too which have satiated the urban demands for a long time. Now it is time to return the favour back to these hinterlands to support these communities and their land systems. It will result in better adaptability and help in sustenance of these rural societies.

Full talk
ID: 396 / 304RB: 3
304R Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change
Keywords: Pathways, climate change, transformation, adaptation, mitigation

Transformative adaptation and mitigation to high-end climate change: moving towards a sustainable and resilient Europe

Paula Ann Harrison1, Katharina Hölscher2, Jill Jäger3, Niki Frantzeskaki2, Ian Holman4

1Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, United Kingdom; 2Dutch Research Institute For Transitions, The Netherlands; 3Independent Scholar, Austria; 4Cranfield University, United Kingdom

Transformative approaches are needed to meet the Paris Agreement’s goal of keeping global mean temperatures below 2°C (and ideally below 1.5°C) above pre-industrial levels, as well as to adapt to and cope with severe climate change impacts. This presentation describes a suite of transformative mitigation and adaptation pathways co-created with stakeholders to avoid the most dangerous impacts of climate change, build the capacities to respond to climate impacts and create opportunities to deliver multiple benefits from land systems. The pathways were co-created in a participatory process with diverse yet representative stakeholders from four case studies at different scales: municipal (Hungary), river basin (Iberia), national (Scotland) and European scales.

The methodology ensures that the resulting pathways are oriented towards a commonly defined sustainability vision for each case study in 2100 and take into account the time-dependent scenario conditions, societal thresholds and synergies between strategies and responses. Eighteen pathways were formulated to transition towards sustainable and low-carbon lifestyles and economies and to reduce the impacts and vulnerabilities associated with high-end scenarios. They include strategies and actions focused on technological innovation, nature-based solutions, regulations and incentives, social innovations, education and governance innovation. While the pathways follow scenario-specific logics, cross-scenario analysis identifies robust enabling conditions for addressing climate change, dealing with uncertainty and promoting sustainability and resilience. These conditions embody new types of governance capacities for integrated, participatory and long-term sustainability decision-making and planning, multi-level collaboration, governance experimentation and learning, and local self-organisation.

The pathways support decision-making by synthesising stakeholder-led knowledge on strategies, actions and capacities for designing climate action in Europe. The development of pathways helps to link adaptation, mitigation and sustainability into cross-sectoral strategies and actions which take synergies and trade-offs across scales, sectors and time into account, thus supporting more integrated policy and practice.

Full talk
ID: 640 / 304RB: 4
304R Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change
Keywords: Transformation, adaptation, pastoral social-ecological systems

Transformative adaptation of nomad’s land systems in different ecological zones of Mongolia

Chuluun Togtokh1, Dennis Ojima2, Davaanyam Surenkhuu3, Altanbagana Myagmarsuren4

1National University of Mongolia, Mongolia; 2Colorado State University, USA; 3Ministry of Construction and Urban Development, Mongolia; 4Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolia

Pastoral systems in Mongolia have been sustainable for centuries, surviving recent changes. However, additional pressure from climate change is intersecting with social and economic changes since the transition to democracy and market economy in early 1990s. Dryland ecosystem services are diminishing due to climate change, overgrazing and decreased mobility of herders. A study of adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development of pastoral social-ecological systems in Mongolia contributed for a number of outcomes from local to regional and national scales. A summary of combined scientific and traditional knowledge led to transformation of nomadic civilization towards to green civilization concept, using green technologies such renewable energy and IT. As a result, the Green Development Policy of Mongolia was developed and adopted by the Parliament of Mongolia in 2014. An adaptation to increasing climate extreme events by local herder like predicting coming zud (severe for livestock winter condition), and slaughtering 40% of livestock and storing it in his winter house, gave an idea for scientific improved zud prediction system and renewable energy driven meat storage system development for transformative adaptation of pastoral social-ecological systems “Win-Win” outcomes ecologically and socio-economically.

The Government of Mongolia is currently working on a general plan of regional settlement and development – territorial governance of land social-ecological systems. A new regional settlement planning requires land system transformation. Our proposal on transformation of land systems is to give traditional cultural landscapes in traditional community ownership, opening opportunities for sustainable development and holistic management of all natural resources such as rangelands, water, forest, wildlife etc. However, a land ownership policy has to be ecosystem specific. We need to envision possible adaptation pathways in different social-ecological zones and analyze how decision contexts should be reframed to allow new options for adaptation and sustainability of nomadic lands in Mongolia.

Full talk
ID: 529 / 304RB: 5
304R Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change
Keywords: Adaptation, Vision, Ecosystem services, Participatory process, Alps

Adaptation toward which future? A participatory process to describe what is a desirable future of a mountain social-ecological system in 2040.

Enora Bruley, Sandra Lavorel

Laboratoire d'ECologie Alpine - CNRS, France

Mountain social-ecological systems (SES) provide a wide range of material and immaterial ecosystem services that people benefit to ensure their quality of life. To maintain it in the future, SES will have to adapt due to global change pressures. In particular, adaptation towards sustainability will require societal changes in the regulation of land systems and ecosystem services co-production under climate change. Understanding these mechanisms of change is critical to construct adaptation pathways. To that end, place-based and participatory processes are relevant to operationalize and implement reflection about adaptation by focusing on local knowledge and perceptions of key issues of a system. Such adaptation strategies first require setting a goal to be achieved in the future for social-ecological systems. Co-design this vision underscore what is perceived as a desirable future by mountain people for their region. The MountainPaths project implements a participatory process involving a wide range of local and regional stakeholders in the Pays de la Meije (French Alps). We used a normative scenario approach for questioning stakeholders about their vision for their region in 2040. Their vision informs about desirable values, quality of life and a range of socioeconomic activities under climate change constraints and was obtained through workshops, focus groups and interviews. Building this vision with stakeholders around the desired socioeconomic activities in 2040 provided a broad view of the goals to be achieved for this SES in 2040. First by highlighting future demand for ecosystem services and adaptation services linked to these activities and resultant landscape and land use changes. Potential synergies and conflicts between desirable goals could also be identified. Moreover, while co-designing the vision, stakeholder’s narratives gives important insights about changes needed in values, local and regional governance and land management associated with the vision. These elements will be crucial for adaptation pathways construction.

Full talk
ID: 422 / 304RB: 6
304R Transformative adaptation for land systems: ecosystem services in pathways of adaptation to global change
Keywords: Livelihood, Serious game, Alps, Adptation pathways

Livelihood portfolios and adaptation pathways in response to global changes in the Alps: reflecting on potential pathways with stakeholders using serious games

Nicolas Salliou1, Enora Bruley2, Sandra Lavorel2, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey1

1ETH Zürich, Switzerland; 2LECA-CNRS, France

Mountain systems are particularly vulnerable to natural climate harshness, exposure to natural risks, as well as socio-economic changes. Traditionally, inhabitants of these systems tend to rely on a diversified portfolio of activities to spread the exposure to risks. Climate and other global changes to come add another level of difficulty for the livelihood. In particular, if not properly considered in advance, some of these changes can undermine key future ecosystem services which would reduce the range of potentially available livelihood strategies, and thus limit inhabitants’ capacities for future adaptation. Bearing in mind challenges to come, our research explores together with stakeholders from Alpine communities if they could identify adaptation pathways leading to a satisfactory future according to said stakeholders. In particular, we want to see how the portfolio of activities, which actually sustain their livelihood, may have to adapt and contribute to the availability of services necessary for such adaptation. To do so, we designed together with mountain inhabitants a serious game on adaptation pathways where players can explore diverse portfolios of activities in order to sustain their livelihoods, collectively ensure key services, as well as reacting and adapting to climate and global changes up to the year 2040. Debriefing with players opens a discussion on their in-game success or failure to find pathways to achieve their desired vision for 2040 (which inhabitants previously set in participatory workshops). This serious game fosters discussions on major predicaments such as landscape abandonment, climate and global change risk exposures, and the future of tourism and agriculture. It especially highlights the tension between individual strategies for sustaining their livelihood and the collective investment necessary to sustain key adaptation services. Such an approach can contribute to meaningful discussions among mountain stakeholders and policy makers concerning critical decisions for climate and sustainable development governance decisions.

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