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Online Service Switching Intentions and Attitudes towards Data Portability - The Role of Technology-related Attitudes and Privacy
Robert Luzsa1, Susanne Mayr1, Emmanuel Syrmoudis2, Jens Grossklags2, Sophie Kübler-Wachendorff3, Johann Kranz3
1University of Passau, Germany; 2Technical University of Munich, Germany; 3Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany
The European General Data Protection Regulation aims at empowering users of online services. In particular, the Right to Data Portability is intended to facilitate switching between online services by allowing users to port data between service providers. However, little is known about psychological factors that influence whether users desire switching between services and using data portability. Identifying such factors could support the design of user-friendly data portability solutions and awareness-raising measures, thereby strengthening users' digital sovereignty. The present study therefore examines predictors of users' intentions to switch online services and their attitudes towards data portability (i.e., intention to use portability). Drawing upon related research, switching intentions and attitudes towards data portability are assumed to be affected by users' technology acceptance, technology competency and subjective importance of privacy. An online quantitative questionnaire study with a large, sociodemographically diverse German sample (N = 995) was conducted, and data were analyzed via logistic regression modelling. The results reveal that switching intentions are more prevalent among users who attach great importance to privacy, users who are open towards new technologies, as well as younger users and users with a university degree. Higher importance of privacy and higher technology competency are linked to an increased desire to use data portability. Users reported the greatest need for data portability for data-storage (i.e., cloud) services. From the results, conclusions for implementing user-friendly data portability solutions and public information campaigns are drawn, and directions for further user-centered research on online service switching and data portability are discussed.
11:15am - 11:30am
Alexa, It's Me! An Online Survey on the User Experience of Smart Speaker Authentication
Andreas Renz1, Matthias Baldauf1, Edith Maier1, Florian Alt2
1Eastern Switzerland University of Applied Sciences, St.Gallen, Schweiz; 2University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Germany
Verifying the identify of the speaker is a crucial requirement for security-critical voice-based services on smart speakers, such as transferring money or making online purchases. Whilst various studies have explored novel authentication mechanisms for voice-based services, there is little research on the user experience of respective authentication methods. To address this gap, we conducted a comprehensive online survey (n=696). We compared five authentication methods (spoken PIN, biometrics, app with button/voice confirmation, card reader) regarding their perceived efficiency, security, ease of use, and error susceptibility. Additionally, we investigated users' willingness to use security-critical services in banking and government. We found an overall preference to confirm actions triggered by voice by pressing a button on a mobile authentication app followed by PIN-based authentication. In contrast, biometric authentication by voice is considered unreliable, while applying a card reader is regarded secure, yet less convenient.
11:30am - 11:45am
Perceptions and Use of Warning Apps – Did Recent Crises Lead to Changes in Germany?
Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter
Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC), Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany
Warning and emergency apps are an integral part of crisis informatics and particularly relevant in countries that currently do not have cell broadcast, such as Germany. Previous studies have shown that such apps are regarded as relevant, but only around 16% of German citizens used them in 2017 and 2019. Warning apps and other ICT used in crises are still relatively new and developing rapidly. With the COVID-19 pandemic and a devastating flash flood, Germany has recently experienced severe crisis-related losses. By comparing data from representative surveys from 2017, 2019 and 2021, this study investigates whether these events have changed the perceptions of warning apps and their usage patterns in Germany. The study shows that while multi-hazard emergency and warning apps have been easily surpassed in usage by COVID-19 contact tracing apps, the use of warning apps has also increased and the pandemic has added new desired features. While these have been little-used during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially non-users see smartphone messengers app channels as possible alternatives to warning apps.
11:45am - 12:00pm
Mid-Air Haptic Cues for Safety-Critical Communication: (Re-)Exploring Air-Vortex Rings in Human-Machine Interaction
Philipp Hein1, Dursune Gönültas2, Max Bernhagen1, André Dettmann1, Angelika C. Bullinger1
1Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany; 2Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, Germany
In safety-critical human-machine interaction the allocation of users’ attention and the communication of key system information is crucial. Haptic feedback is a promising addition to visual and audio feedback as the latter communication channels are often heavily used in human-machine interaction. Mid-air haptic (MAH) feedback systems have shown to increase immersion, improve the usability of gesture-based interactions and thus might be beneficial for communicating system information in safety-critical environments. Ultrasound feedback systems are at the focus of current research as they deliver high resolution and instantaneous feedback. They come with two major drawbacks: limited interaction space and weak feedback intensity. Although having a lower resolution, feedback systems providing MAH feedback via air vortex rings promise to be better suited for interaction scenarios that require adaptive interaction spaces and high feedback intensities. In this paper, we explore air vortex rings as an alternative to ultrasound-based MAH feedback systems for communicating critical information. We present a vortex generator design that provides a wide interaction space and enables more complex feedback design. We evaluated MAH feedback within a user study (N = 21) using an integrated dual-task design within take-over requests in autonomous driving scenarios. Reaction time was measured to quantify objective performance. Participants further rated the subjective perceivability of the haptic feedback. We observed similar objective performance of vortex rings compared to ultrasound, visual and audio feedback. Qualitative data shows mixed results: feedback via vortex rings felt more intrusive and in part unpleasant to participants but was perceived to have a higher intensity. An expert workshop was conducted to gain insights on feedback design for vortex ring systems and to identify further application areas and research goals.
12:00pm - 12:15pm
Automating Contextual Privacy Policies: Design and Evaluation of a Production Tool for Digital Consumer Privacy Awareness
Maximiliane Windl1, Niels Henze2, Albrecht Schmidt1, Sebastian Feger1
1LMU Munich; 2University of Regensburg
Users avoid engaging with privacy policies because they are lengthy and complex, making it challenging to retrieve relevant information. In response, research proposed contextual privacy policies (CPPs) that embed relevant privacy information directly into their affiliated contexts. To date, CPPs are limited to concept showcases. This work evolves CPPs into a production tool that automatically extracts and displays concise policy information. We first evaluated the technical functionality on the US’s 500 most visited websites with 59 participants. Based on our results, we further revised the tool to deploy it in the wild with 11 participants over ten days. We found that our tool is effective at embedding CPP information on websites. Moreover, we found that the tool’s usage led to more reflective privacy behavior, making CPPs powerful in helping users understand the consequences of their online activities. We contribute design implications around CPP presentation to inform future systems design.