Rescue on the Road: Design Recommendations for Vehicle Assistant Systems to Support Effective First Aid Measures
1Hochschule Ruhr West, Germany; 2University of Duisburg-Essen
One of the main goals of driving assistant systems is to prevent road accidents. However, if an accident has happened, system support is comparably sparse. In this paper, we, therefore, focus on the period after an accident has happened and conduct interviews (N=7) with experienced rescue workers.
We provide insights into the rescue process and initial design requirements, as well as a classification of potential post-accident systems' roles (accident scout, virtual first responder, virtual first aid partner, chronologist).
Overall, an extension of post-accident assistant systems could be a meaningful step to improving future road safety concepts.
Usability and User Experience of Medical Devices – Insights from Laypersons and Healthcare Professionals
1Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany; 2Use-Lab GmbH, Germany
Technological progress and the increasing use of medical technology are linked to greater medical device complexity. Yet, increased complexity increases risks due to human error, which stresses the importance of usability. However, standard instruments used to assess medical device usability lack optimal construct representation. The present study addresses this important issue by identifying relevant dimensions and subfacets of usability and user experience (UX) in medical technology based on critical incidents and event reconstruction. We conducted two qualitative in-depth interview studies with professional users (N = 25, Study 1) and laypersons without any professional healthcare training (N = 25, Study 2). Additionally, we conducted a quantitative survey on main dimensions of usability and UX. We analyzed the interviews using qualitative content analysis. Results confirmed dimensions from existing literature but also revealed new dimensions; we thus propose an extended perspective on the use of medical technology through a category system of all relevant aspects. In addition, differences in the findings from Study 1 and 2 indicate a need for a more differentiated consideration based on the professional experience level of medical device users and use setting. Finally, we provide suggestions for an empirical validation of our proposed content-related clustering of categories as well as implications for future research.
UNeedS: Development of Scales to Measure the Satisfaction and Frustration of 13 Fundamental Needs
Institute Human-Computer Media, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Germany
Good user experience can be described as the result of satisfying fundamental human needs through interaction with technology. Therefore, HCI researchers and practitioners strive to promote need satisfaction and avoid need frustration through their technology and interaction designs. However, HCI lacks appropriate measurement instruments to examine and evaluate experiences with technology in terms of their satisfaction (or frustration) of needs. Instead, researchers and practitioners frequently use measurement instruments developed in (consumer) psychology that are not tailored to the needs of HCI.
Here we report on the development of the User Needs Scales (UNeedS), a set of scales designed to measure the satisfaction and frustration of 13 fundamental needs identified for HCI, and report on our first experiences applying it. Preliminary data indicate good item qualities and internal consistencies, but further research must substantiate these claims.
All scales and the full UNeedS are available in the supplemental materials.
Give Weight to VR: Manipulating Users’ Perception of Weight in Virtual Reality with Electric Muscle Stimulation
University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Virtual Reality (VR) devices empower users to experience virtual worlds through rich visual and auditory sensations. However, believable haptic feedback that communicates the physical properties of virtual objects, such as their weight, is still unsolved in VR. The current trend towards hand tracking-based interactions, neglecting the typical controllers, further amplifies this problem. Hence, in this work, we investigate the combination of passive haptics and electric muscle stimulation to manipulate users’ perception of weight, and thus, simulate objects with different weights. In a laboratory user study, we investigate four differing electrode placements, stimulating different muscles, to determine which muscle results in the most potent perception of weight with the highest comfort. We found that actuating the biceps brachii or the triceps brachii muscles increased the weight perception of the users. Our findings lay the foundation for future investigations on weight perception in VR.
Life-Death Interfaces: Tangible Ways of Legacy-Making, Grief, and Remembrance
Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Germany
In this paper, we present the results of a design project that investigated new ways of preparing for one's own death, of remembering loved ones and of joining others in grief. These ways include a pillow for remembering the voices of loved ones, an hourglass containing human ashes as a ritual object for grieving, an additive monument for collective mourning, and a set of nested gift boxes for staying present in the life of a loved one after one's death. We present our designs and initial user reactions. We discuss our findings, concluding that actively engaging with the difficult topic of death and dying can be rewarding.
WearEC Kits: Designing Toolkits for Exploring Subtle Visual Outputs on Wearables with Electrochromic Displays
University of Lapland, Finland
For designers, exploring subtle visual output modalities in the early phases of wearable design is a challenging task. In this work, we present the design and implementation of two toolkits, Transparent and Programmable WearEC Kits, that aim to enable designers to quickly explore electrochromic displays (EC) as a subtle output modality for wearables. EC displays are graphical displays that transition between two predefined visual states when a small voltage is applied. They are flexible, transparent and can be fabricated in a free-form shape, which makes them fitting candidates for designing wearables. Our work contributes the description of the novel design and implementation of the WearEC kits and reports a design exploration study conducted with a fashion designer.
A cautionary tale about AI-generated goal suggestions
1Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Tübingen, Germany; 2Graz University of Technology, Austria
Setting the right goals and prioritizing them might be the most crucial and the most challenging type of decisions people make for themselves, their teams, and their organizations. In this article, we explore whether it might be possible to leverage artificial intelligence (AI) to help people set better goals and which potential problems might arise from such applications. We devised the first prototype of an AI-powered digital goal-setting assistant and a rigorous empirical paradigm for assessing the quality of AI-generated goal suggestions. Our empirical paradigm compares the AI-generated goal suggestions against randomly generated goal suggestions and unassisted goal-setting on a battery of self-report measures of important goal characteristics, motivation, and usability in a large-scale repeated-measures online experiment. The results of an online experiment with 259 participants revealed that our intuitively compelling goal suggestion algorithm was actively harmful to the quality of the people's goals and their motivation to pursue them. These surprising findings highlight three crucial problems to be tackled by future work on leveraging AI to help people set better goals: i) aligning the objective function of the AI algorithms with the design goals, ii) helping people quantify how valuable different goals are to them, and iii) preserving the user's sense of autonomy.
Analyzing Eye Tracking Data in Mirror Exposure
1Psychology of Intelligent Interactive Systems, University of Würzburg, Germany; 2Human-Computer Interaction Group, University of Würzburg, Germany
Mirror exposure is an important method in the treatment of body image disturbances. Eye tracking can support the unaffected assessment of attention biases during mirror exposure. However, the analysis of eye tracking data in mirror exposure comes with various difficulties and is associated with a high manual workload during data processing. We present an automated data processing framework that enables us to determine any body part as an area of interest without placing markers on the bodies of participants. A short, formative user study proved the quality compared to the gold standard. The automatic processing and openness for different systems allow a broad range of applications.
Sentiment Analysis of Participants Interactions in a Hackathon Context: The Example of a Slack Corpus
1University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; 2University of Tartu, Estonia
This paper presents the analysis of participants' interactions during an online hackathon using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. In particular, we explored the communication of groups facilitated by Slack and how communication may affect sentiment. Our findings suggest that most used emojis are positive, while negative emojis appeared rarely. Sentiment of written messages was overall positive and could be linked to topics such as motivation or achievements. Topics about participants’ disappointment regarding their progress or the hackathon organization, technical issues and criticism were associated with negative sentiment. We envision that our work offers insights regarding online communication in group and collaborative contexts with an emphasis on group work and interest-based activities.
WristConduct: Biometric User Authentication Using Bone Conduction at the Wrist
Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Biometric user authentication is an important factor to ensure security and privacy for personal devices. While many devices such as smartphones or laptops can be unlocked based on biometric data, smartwatches or other wrist-worn mobile devices still rely on knowledge-based schemes such as PINs or passwords. In a proof-of-concept study with 24 participants, we show that it is possible to identify individuals using sound waves passing through the wrist bones using a bone conduction speaker and a laryngophone (microphone). We tested support vector machines (SVMs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for binary classification. Using ANNs our method shows an authentication accuracy of 98.7%. We discuss the implications of integrating our approach into future devices and contribute with our findings in doing the first step for continuous passive user authentication at the wrist.
Emergency Alerting Through Smartphone Apps Functions, Usage and Usability Issues From the First Responder's Point of View
University of Münster, Germany
In Germany alone, there are more than one million active members of fire departments, relief organizations and disaster control . In case of an emergency, alerting apps are being used more and more in both professional and lay contexts. Fire departments, in particular, supplement alerts of their firefighters with alerting apps. These apps send the same alarm cue to the smartphones simultaneously with the (digital) radio message receivers of the first responders. To date, an overview of the functions of such apps and their respective importance is missing. Our research fills this research gap by summarizing functions of alerting apps in an overview manner. In addition, first responders (N = 287) as users of alerting apps rated and ranked the functions in terms of their importance, the app usability and were openly asked about advantages and disadvantages of such apps. The resulting ranking enables the selection of suitable alerting apps. However, both quantitative data and responses to open questions show clear deficits mentioned by the users in the area of usability and technical requirements. This is particularly critical, since every second counts in the alerting of first responders by their main departments.
Unfolding Values through Systematic Guidance: Conducting a Value-Centered Participatory Workshop for a Patient-Oriented Data Donation
Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Routinely collected clinical patient data posits a valuable resource for data-driven medical innovation. Such secondary data use for medical research purposes is dependent on patients' consent. To gain an understanding of the patients' values and needs regarding medical data donations, we developed a participatory workshop method, integrating approaches from value-sensitive and reflective design to explore patients' values and translate them into hypothetical, ideal design solutions. The data gathered in the workshop is used to derive practicable design requirements for the examined context. In this paper, we introduce the workshop process and evaluate its application.
“Hopohopo”: A Virtual Reality Awareness Application about Social Anxiety Disorder
University of Applied Sciences Potsdam, Germany
Virtual Reality (VR) applications play an increasingly important role in the context of mental health. While VR-based therapeutic interventions are increasingly well-established, the application of VR in the field of mental health awareness represents a novel and promising development. We present our mental health awareness VR application “hopohopo”, in which the user takes the perspective of a person suffering from social anxiety. Through the VR journey, the user experiences what it could feel like to suffer from constant fear of being negatively judged by others in everyday social situations. The aim of the application is to allow nonaffected users to expand their knowledge and to raise mental health awareness. In this paper, we report our findings on the potential of this immersive VR application for psychoeducation and destigmatization of social anxiety. In this respect, we provide the scope of our VR application and first results of its ongoing usability and usefulness evaluation process.
“I Want My Control Room To Be…”: On the Aesthetics of Interaction in a Safety-Critical Working Environment
1Trier University of Applied Sciences, Germany; 2University of Siegen, Germany
Control rooms are safety-relevant working environments characterized by complex IT infrastructure. With regard to the interaction of operators with control room systems, usability has been the major criteria for decades. However, there is increasing discussion about the extent to which the concept of user experience (UX) also plays a role in such safety-critical contexts. What is still largely missing is the application of concrete UX-specific methods in the context of control rooms. This paper explains how and with what results 9 operators used an interaction vocabulary focusing on pragmatic and hedonic qualities to complete the sentence “I want my control room to be…”. Results first suggest that pragmatic, i.e., usability-oriented, attributions are of greater importance to operators. However, especially the more UX-specific terms of the interaction vocabulary, which were initially not found to be so relevant, yielded many valuable hints and inspiration for the future design of control room workplaces. By reflecting on the process of discussing the aesthetics of interactions in such a safety-critical working environment, recommendations are provided for considering UX in safety.
Links Between Online Privacy Fatigue, Technology Attitudes and Sociodemographic Factors in a German Population Sample
University of Passau, Germany
Frequent cases of misuse of online service users’ data and legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation GDPR emphasize the need for usable and user-oriented privacy and security solutions. In order to make privacy usable, characteristics of different user groups need to be taken into account when designing solutions. A user characteristic gaining increasing attention in privacy research is the concept of privacy fatigue. Privacy fatigue refers to online users feeling exhausted and cynical due to dealing with online privacy issues. It can be considered a risk factor for privacy violations, as users with higher privacy fatigue are more likely to disclose personal data and feel helpless regarding privacy threats. However, little is known about the expression of privacy fatigue in the population and about its relations to other relevant user characteristics like self-perceived technology competency and acceptance. The present online questionnaire study therefore examined in a German population sample (N = 995) how two facets of privacy fatigue - exhaustion and cynicism - are expressed in different sociodemographic groups and how they are linked to technology-related attitudes. The study reveals, among other links, that privacy exhaustion and cynicism are highest among users with lower technology competency and lower educational level. From the results, implications for the design of privacy tools and privacy-oriented services are drawn and further steps for research on privacy fatigue discussed.
Collaborating in a Crisis: Perspectives on Trust and Technological Framework in Organising a COVID-19 Online Hackathon
1University of Lapland, Finland; 2University of Oulu, Finland
This paper explores trust in online-only-collaboration, where a team was gathered to organise a COVID-19 online hackathon with only three days notice. The study is based on the thematic analysis of ten in-depth interviews with the hackathon organisers. The findings report how trust among the organisers was encapsulated in 1) the shared big goal, 2) the significance of real-life networks, 3) a strong lead organiser on the collaboration forming on the fly, and 4) the lack of face-to-face contact in relation to becoming familiar or staying unknown. Technology related findings showed that the collaboration platforms were selected based on familiarity and ease of use. The chosen communication channels created a split between age groups, and transparency of the communication suffered somewhat from one-to-one communications in the background and divided application use. However, trust between the organisers helped them to overcame the transparency challenges. The findings are applicable to societal crisis situations in which technologies are used to build collaboration in aim to address shared challenges.
Hey, Siri®! Ok, Google®! Does talking to voice assistants enhance emotional aspects of mobile phone user experience?
1Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; 2Hochschule Osnabrück, Germany
This study examines the influence of voice control usage on emotional aspects of mobile phone user experience. For this purpose, an online survey in Germany (N = 665) was conducted and analyzed through multivariate and univariate analysis of variance as well as canonical discriminant functions. We found that a frequent use of voice control is associated with both positive and, with limitations, also negative emotions towards the mobile phone. In sum, the study only partially confirms Herzberg’s two-factor theory when transferred to user experience. A more frequent use of voice control primarily affects positive emotions, but the combination of both emotion types can make a difference. Therefore, future studies should consider both types of emotions separately and together.
Lessons Learnt from Using Electrical Muscle Stimulation to Actuate Agonist and Antagonist Muscle Pairs
University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Electrical muscle stimulation is widely explored in human-computer interaction. While most of the studies focus on the possible applications, others are directed towards the actuated movement accuracy. Extending the latter, we tested 9 different signal designs that combine the actuation of the muscle with the actuation of its antagonist. Our results indicate that the movement is not consistent when combining two opposing actuations although single muscles can be actuated consistently. Based on our obtained results, we distill design recommendations.
MultiKnob — A Knob for Multiplexing Rotation Inputs by Multitouch-based Grasp Recognition
Technische Hochschule Köln, Germany
Rotary knobs are used on many devices. However, while we enrich the functionalities of smart devices, controlling such functionalities by using the rotation as sole input appears to be rather limited. Therefore, we created a physical rotary controller which enriches the input capabilities of a rotary knob, called MultiKnob. It takes the count of applied fingers as an input parameter for multiplexing rotation. The paper discusses three iterations of our prototyping: Beginning with an attempt to extend an existing rotary controller using conductive paint, to the development of several conductive 3D printed prototypes for use on a smartphone display, to a cylinder sensing multi-touch based on infrared light. We discuss possible applications and limitations of a knob which allows to recognize a user's grasp.
Physics-Based Hand-Object-Interaction for Immersive Environments
University of Applied Sciences, Germany
In this work, we developed a physics-based hand-object interaction that can be used in immersive virtual environments. The resulting interaction technique enables the user to interact with objects in a pseudo-realistic way that works on the calculation of forces, friction and other factors. Event though this approach can lead to a grasping method that is suitable for arbitrary interactions and is not limited by predefined gestures and data, our prototype is limited to sliding objects on a plane. We evaluated our implementation in a user study in which users had to move an object with their virtual hands, and made a comparison with a rule-based interaction method.
Gaze-Controlled Instructions for Manual Assembly Tasks – A Usability Evaluation Study
Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, Germany
Side Effects of Increasing Participation in a Contextual Design Process: A Knowledge Management Case Study
1Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Germany; 2Hochschule Furtwangen University
In a previous case study, we carried out the Contextual Design Process with additional elements of Participatory Design in cooperation with a microenterprise facing the challenge of knowledge management. By involving the users in the ideation phase, we noticed several side effects on the company and its members. Using Reflexive Thematic Analysis, we identified patterns revealing these observed effects of our work. The Contextual Design Process promoted the awareness of the company's internal status focusing problems and the independent addressing of them. In particular the participatory Wall Walk with the company members served as a key event for changes in the company. Furthermore, we discuss our findings on the challenges and implications of a small and consistent user group throughout the user-centred and participatory process.
Zoomorphic Robots and People with Disabilities
1Information Systems and New Media, University of Siegen, Germany; 2Centre for Planning and Evaluation of Social Services (ZPE), University of Siegen, Germany
Although zoomorphic robots are already popular as companions in some parts of the world, like Japan, they are still a niche product in Germany and are primarily present in academia. In this study, we analyse the effects of the new version of the zoomorphic robot AIBO on people with disabilities living in residential care homes. We observed the interaction for four weeks, giving the care workers and residents complete control of the robot. We specifically looked at factors like well-being and interaction strategies. Our findings show mixed results. Whereas AIBO seems to have positive effects on some residents, e.g. reducing loneliness and enhancing personal well-being, others relate less positively to its limited functions and language restrictions. This study indicates that AIBO has the potential to be used meaningfully in real-world care contexts in Germany but needs improvement to have a fully positive impact.
Personalized Motion Analysis with Consideration of Body Segment Shapes
1University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf; 2Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg
Our aim is the configuration and evaluation of individual exoskeletons. To do so, we decided to analyze individual biomechanical models of 3D scanned human bodies and subsequent motions in OpenSim (OSim). Other than most existing approaches, our biomechanical model is reduced to be well suited for the fundamental assessment of exoskeletons.
To create the model, parameters are derived from body segment shapes. Further, motion trajectories from various tracking systems can be integrated due to the utilization of Mirevi Motion Hub (MMH). Tools are provided in order to cut the scanned body into segments, to automatically calculate mass as well as
inertia properties and to integrate them in an OSim model. In addition, we propose a conversion from the MMH file format into an OSim readable file format. Overall, we consider our solution as flexible, as we only assume a mesh as output of the body scan and as different tracking systems can be leveraged by using the MMH middleware. Future work will address the evaluation of our framework.
Adoption of Just Another Digital Assistant or Establishing Social Interactions with a New Friend over Time? - Conceptual Research Model of a Long-Term Analysis of First-Time Users’ Adoption and Social Interactions with Smart Speakers
Julius-Maximilians-University Wuerzburg, Germany
Social interactions have been exclusive to human-human interactions, until recently. However, modern technologies with adaptive and intelligent features such as smart speakers imitate human social characteristics and appear to be allegedly social interaction partners. Research going beyond the analysis of mere usage and conceptualizing devices as interaction partners is rare, also because studying the establishment of social interactions would require analyses over time. The present paper addresses this research desideratum and introduces a concept of a longitudinal study which involves the collection of different data types from different sources (online questionnaires, providers’ log files, interviews) and interdisciplinary data analytical methods (social science, data science). Its cross-sectional and longitudinal research questions ask for the adoption and the usage of the usage of smart speakers, for the establishment of social interactions with the device. In sum, this study contributes to the research area by presenting a conceptual research model, which provides a framework for the systematic long-term analysis of both the adoption of technology over time as well as the establishment of potential social interactions.
Autonomous Driving - Analysing the Impact of Resilience Engineering Features in Smart Car Interfaces
TU Darmstadt, Germany
The communication between driver and vehicle plays an important role in the development of car automation. Being able to perform non-driving related tasks in uncritical situations is one of the biggest advantages of autonomous driving in smart cars. Yet, critical situations often require the driver to take over control again, thereby making the design of takeover maneuvers a highly relevant task.
Our study thus investigated the impact of basic vs. enhanced HMIs considering the principles of resilience engineering on supporting drivers in taking control over the vehicle. We investigated driving on the highway in two critical scenarios: a roadworks and a potential collision scenario. In a VR study in a driving simulator, 45 participants tested three HMIs: basic, visual, and visual + speech-based. Even though the results indicate high usability scores and a positive user experience for all HMIs, no significant differences regarding takeover time could be measured between the HMIs. Reasons include the visual differences in the interface design with regards to resilience engineering being minor and the sample size being too small to detect small effects. Implications for future research and the design of takeover maneuvers are discussed.
Digital Security Story Cards for Women with a Refugee and Migrant Background
1University of Siegen, Germany; 2CRC 1187 - Media of Cooperation
Our work focuses on the design process of a prototype of “story cards” to address digital security topics in an accessible manner, allowing for learning and reflection through dialogue and storytelling, for women with a refugee and migrant background. We describe crucial aspects behind the design process of the prototype, including related work on digital security, connectivity, and refugees, the process behind the identification of needs and challenges around digital security and ICT usage of our target group, as well as our findings, limitations, reflections, and opportunities for future work. With this contribution, we want to shed light on the necessity of digital security learning materials that are accessible and adequate to the needs of individuals and groups, particularly women, with a refugee and migrant background.
Eine sprachbasierte KI für politische Beteiligung
1Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany; 2ZBW - Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
In dieser Studie wird ein erster experimenteller Ansatz für den Einsatz von Sprachassistenten zur Unterstützung von politischer Beteiligung vorgestellt. Um möglichst viele Bürger:innen in partizipative politische Prozesse, wie der Suchen nach einem Endlagerstandort für hochradioaktive Abfälle, einbinden zu können, könnten Sprachassistenten eine Möglichkeit bieten, auf interaktive Weise Informationen zu vermitteln und Interesse für solche komplexen Themen zu wecken. Es stellt sich allerdings die Frage, ob ein Sprachassistent ein solches Thema adäquat vermitteln kann und eine angemessene Usability trotz vieler komplexer Dialoge mit dem Nutzer gewährleistet werden kann. Die explorative Studie stellt die Ergebnisse mit einem prototypisch umgesetzten Amazon Alexa Skill vor. Hierbei konnten im Vergleich zu einer Webseite, welche dieselben Fragen thematisiert wie der Skill, eine geringfügig schlechtere Usability festgestellt werden. Aufbauend auf diese erste Studie ergaben sich verschiedene Fragestellungen, die es in zukünftigen Studien zu untersuchen gilt. Hierzu zählen unter anderem Fragen mit Bezug zur Vertrauenswürdigkeit solcher Anwendungen und Herausforderungen bezüglicher der auditiven Darstellungen verschiedener politischer Meinungen.
Pop-Up Probes: Using pop-up paper elements for cultural probes to understand domestic routines
1Bosch, Germany; 2Bauhaus-University Weimar
Cultural probes are a popular approach for research settings where researchers cannot observe directly, instead letting participants work on tasks in their own time. The creation of attractive cultural probes can be a time-consuming process requiring a diverse skillset. We suggest the use of pop-up paper elements as a simple, cheap, and effective way to engage participants. We explain how to craft the material based on a case study with Pop-Up Probes used as warm-up exercise for a co-creation session to make participants reflect on their own relationship with objects in their home. Based on this case study we illustrate what information can be attained from the cultural probes and discuss opportunities to transfer the method to other contexts.
Usability and User Experience of Virtual Objects Supporting Learning and Communicating in Virtual Reality
Universität Würzburg, Germany
This study aims to evaluate the usability and user experience of the InteractionSuitecase. This is a collection of virtual objects that have cultural connotations (associated with German or Anglo-American culture). They are intended to promote communication about cultural differences and similarities in English lessons at German schools. They are thus part of a didactic concept for using social VR for trans- and intercultural learning. Future teacher used the virtual objects during a practical seminar and rated them as useful. Further they associates a positive user experience. Since the virtual objects should encourage communication, the sense of connectedness instead of isolation is a very important results. The results proved the readiness of the InteractionSuitcase for further pedagogical applications.
How to Design User-Centered Decision Support Systems in Public Budgeting? Guidelines and a Web-Based Prototype With First Insights From a Mixed-Methods Study
Universität zu Lübeck, Germany
Due to increasing complexity and high political importance, public budgeting should be technically supported in the best way possible. In this paper, the use of a decision support prototype is explored to assist stakeholders in the context of public budgeting, to address the questions of what information is needed to facilitate decisions, and how to design and embed such a system. A user-centered approach was chosen, including a context analysis, qualitative interviews, and a shortened design sprint. From the insights gained, design implications as well as two hands-on application scenarios were derived. Based on this, a high-fidelity prototype was developed with modern web technologies. Afterwards, a summative evaluation was conducted in an interactive and cohesive online survey where participants could interact directly with the embedded prototype. The results show that the majority of participants expect such a system to have a positive impact on decision-making during budget preparations. Furthermore, most of the defined design requirements were fulfilled and the usability as well as the visual aesthetics of the prototype, were evaluated in a positive manner. The design implications provide a profound basis for further research and design iterations.
Creation of In-Situ Instructions Made Easy: Development and Evaluation of a Prototypical AR Tool
Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Germany
In-situ overlays are considered forward-looking for technical service instructions. Creating these instructions usually requires expertise in 3D modeling, AR environment creation, and the domain of the instruction being created. The goal of this work was to develop a prototype that simplifies the creation of in-situ overlays. For this purpose, concepts for functions and operation of the tool were elaborated, a functional prototype was developed and subsequently evaluated in a user study.
Modeling 3D representations was simplified with the approach of creating objects by assembling basic geometric shapes. By using augmented reality, the basic shapes can be placed directly around the real object. The virtual objects can then be positioned in relation to real objects through the flexible use of an AR marker. The augmented instructions created in this way can be retrieved at any time.
In our user study, all subjects were able to successfully create in-situ instructions quickly and without prior knowledge. This work contributes to a better usage of augmented in-situ instructions without 3D modeling knowledge.
Designing Gaze-Aware Attention Feedback for Learning in Mixed Reality
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
Mixed Reality (MR) has demonstrated its potential in the application field of education. In particular, in contrast to traditional learning, students using MR get the possibility of learning and exploring the content in a self-directed way. Meanwhile, research in learning technology has revealed the significance of supporting learning activities with feedback. Since such feedback is often missing in MR-based learning environments, we propose a solution of using eye-tracking in MR to provide gaze-aware attention feedback to students and evaluate it with potential users in a preliminary user study.
Requirements for AI Support in Occupational Safety Risk Analysis
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Germany
Risk analysis in occupational safety settings is becoming more complex with the ever faster influx of innovative technologies. Even for less complex work places, smaller enterprises already struggle to keep up due to a lack of specialist personnel and missing systematic safety processes. One approach to support occupational safety risk analysis is to use artificial intelligence techniques to support the process. To investigate the requirements of designing such a system, in this paper we report results from six expert interviews with occupational safety experts from a German government agency and highlight which sub-tasks can be supported by AI and what the most significant issues for an appropriate UI design are.
Towards Human-Robotic Collaboration: Observing Teamwork of Experienced Surgeons in Robotic-Assisted Surgery
1Human-Centered Computing, Institute of Computer Science, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery, Charité- Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte and Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Germany
Current robotic systems in surgery are telemanipulators, but the future will likely be more automated. Past and current developments literally put the robotic system at the center of the action, and force the surgical team to adapt to it. In addition to important advantages of robotic surgery, empirical studies identify serious disadvantages in sensory perception and team communication, leading to decreased situational awareness among the surgeon and the team. We therefore raise two interrelated questions: Which actors of a surgical team should be part of a controlled, semi-automated robotic assistance and how should the collaborative interaction between the actors (including the robot) be designed. Previous research has examined the situation awareness in robotic-assisted surgeries with bedside assistant, being either residents or specifically trained registered nurse first assistants, with advantages of one over the other. We built on this work by observing for the first time robotic-assisted surgeries with highly experienced bedside assistants, senior surgeons. We found that a senior surgeon in this role excelled once again, for example, through lively medical discussions and independent problem solving, and was more likely to give us clues about a thoughtful development of semi-autonomous, collaborative surgical robots. These new insights will form the basis for subsequent interviews in which surgical teams will reflect on their expectations of the robotic agency. Our overarching goal is then to translate the results into new user interface designs for robotic surgery through repeated cycles of participatory design workshops and expert evaluations.
Untraining Ethnocentric Biases about Gender Roles: A Preliminary Empirical Study Presenting Art as Stimulus
1Kuwait University, Kuwait; 2San Jose State University, United States of America
Human interaction with art and how ethnocentric and gender biases apply in this context via the use of human-computer interface design is poorly studied to date. This study leverages art as stimulus to untrain gender bias. The interface includes digital representations of a database of 19th century Middle Eastern paintings by European artists. We categorized images that portrayed females or males in an intellectualized state e.g., reading, playing musical instruments, etc. (Category FI or MI) or paintings of females only posing in the picture (Category FO). We cropped the original images and gave participants two unrelated choices to select the best fit from their own perspective. We ran an experiment with 3 blocks, where in the first block the participant was randomly shown an equal number of images from all categories, in the second block we only showed Category FI female intellectuals, and then in the third block a repeat of block one. Across participants from 4 English-speaking countries with female and male participants, we found a bias towards non-intellectual images for females which diminished after the middle (training) block. This study offers quantitative insight into measuring biases, thoughtful interaction with art as stimulus, and how we can start to untrain these ethnocentric or gender biases.
Simultaneously Fostering Computational Thinking and Social-Emotional Competencies in 4th Graders Using Scratch: A Feasibility Study
1University of Graz; 2Graz University of Technology; 3Know-Center GmbH
Social-emotional skills and computational thinking are related to problem-solving skills. Even though these are crucial areas in today’s world, they are only rarely taught in school and interventions that target these areas simultaneously are still very rare. We therefore developed a four-day workshop with the aim of fostering computational thinking and social-emotional skills in Grade 4 students. To do so, we used the child-friendly programming language Scratch. In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of such a workshop. In total, 18 students participated. Data was collected via observation and interviews and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results showed that students liked working with Scratch and liked working on social-emotional challenges. The workshop was found to work well and students worked independently. Pair work activity was found to be particularly beneficial. Although some issues initially proved challenging (mostly relating to “how to” issues in Scratch), these may easily be addressed by making suitable adaptations to the introduction of the programme provided on Day 1 of the workshop.
Supporting gender-neutral writing in German
FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany
The avoidance of the generic masculine is an important part of a gender-neutral use of the German language. This paper presents a rule-based natural language processing system that identifies occurrences of the generic masculine and suggests gender-neutral corrections.
The system was evaluated with 238 labeled news articles from the TIGER corpus. About 88 % of the occurrences were correctly identified. Grammatically well-formed suggestions could be generated for about 94 % of the correctly identified occurrences. In a web-based text editor, the system supports gender-neutral writing by suggesting a correction for nouns and pronouns written in the generic masculine.
Ethische Herausforderungen in inklusiven Softwareentwicklungsprojekten mit Menschen mit kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen
TU Dortmund University, Germany
Die Vorteile partizipativer Ansätze in der Softwareentwicklung sind unbestritten, wenn es um die Entwicklung gut gestalteter und gut nutzbarer Systeme geht. Der Einbezug von Nutzenden und insbesondere von Nutzenden mit Beeinträchtigungen in Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojekte ist jedoch nach wie vor eine Seltenheit, die mit vielen ethischen, technischen und sozialen Herausforderungen einhergeht. Menschen mit kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen sind in ihren Möglichkeiten an der digitalen Transformation teilzuhaben besonders benachteiligt. Im Vergleich zu anderen Gruppen von Menschen mit Behinderungen haben sie nur wenige technische Möglichkeiten oder Hilfsmittel zur Verfügung, mit denen sie die Zugänglichkeit digitaler Ressourcen verbessern können. Daher sind sie oft auf die Unterstützung von Familienmitgliedern oder Betreuern angewiesen. Um geeignete Technologien zur Unterstützung dieser immer größer werdenden Gruppe von Menschen zu entwickeln, müssen sie stärker in die technische Forschung und Entwicklung einbezogen werden. Bislang gibt es nur sehr wenige Methoden und Ansätze, die den ethischen und menschlichen Herausforderungen in inklusiven Softwareentwicklungsprojekten gerecht werden.
In dem von CCC geförderten Projekt XXX wurde gemeinsam mit Menschen mit kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen ein Software-Framework für die automatische personalisierte Vereinfachung bestehender Websites entwickelt. In diesem Beitrag werden die im Projekt entwickelten Methoden und Lösungen für die ethischen Herausforderungen im Projekt vorgestellt. In einer abschließenden Diskussion werden die praktischen Implikationen der erarbeiteten Lösungen für Entwicklungsprojekte mit Menschen mit kognitiven Einschränkungen bewertet. Es werden noch bestehende Grenzen der entwickelten Methoden aufgezeigt und Impulse für die weitere Forschung gegeben.
Elevating Stress Levels - Exploring Multimodality for Stress Induction in VR
1OFFIS - Institute for IT, Germany; 2Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
Simulation training in Virtual Reality (VR) has gained attraction in recent years. With its broad application possibilities and implicit safety for users, simulation-based training may be imagined for safety-critical situations and exposure therapy. Beyond visual and auditory representation of the environment and stressors, upcoming hardware supports olfactory and haptic feedback. To examine the benefits of these technological advances in stress training, we present a Wizard of Oz pilot study (N=12). Therein, a bimodal presentation of the scenario ‘being stuck in an elevator’ was compared to a multimodal one. For the comparison, we measured qualitative feedback, the iGroup presence questionnaire scores, and physiological stress reactions by recording changes in cardiac and pulmonary activity. Results show trends for moderately more pronounced stress levels and perceived presence for the multimodal presentation. Thus, we argue that multimodal stress induction may better simulate hazardous situations in stress training.
Correlation Between Heart Rate, Skin Temperature and Emotional State in Exergames
Jade Hochschule, Germany
Computer games have become an established medium, exergames are a special type of game. These are controlled by movement and are designed to improve its users performance. Emotions are an important component during gameplay because they can provide inferences about the user experience. This paper therefore conducts a study to test the correlation of different emotional stages with metrics of heart rate, heart rate variability and skin temperature. This is to validate the feasibility of this data in exergames. To this end, two exergames were played while biosignals were recorded. The discretely measurable data is combined with subjective assessments of the users to identify a correlation to the individually perceived emotion. Statistically significant correlations were found between the physiological characteristics and the affective state of the subjects.
The Negative Effect on Postural Ergonomics of Non-Sedentary Workplace Desks in Virtual Reality
Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Virtual reality (VR) is gaining increasing importance in an increasing number of places in daily life, particularly when gaming or working. Moreover, immersive activities are often performed while standing at physical desks and current devices can even register the physical properties of a virtual workplace to match the virtual content with haptics in the real world in front of the user. However, little is known about the effects of VR on how users perceive and ergonomically adapt to workplace desks when wearing a head-mounted display (HMD). In this user study, we conducted an experiment with 19 participants to investigate the effects of non-sedentary VR on the postural risk level, workload, and preferred desk height. The results indicate that being in VR negatively influences objective and subjective measures of ergonomics and increases postural risk while the preferred desk height remained unaffected. We found evidence that wearing the HMD negatively affects the neck posture at non-sedentary workplace desks. We contribute with our findings and highlight the need for improving the field-of-view and weight of HMDs for lower postural risk levels at workplace desks in non-seated VR.
Stretching Projection - Projektionsbasierte visuelle Kontrolle und Unterstützung bei Sportübungen
Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Im vorliegenden Paper wird das Konzept einer interaktiven Trainingsumgebung in Form eines computergestützten Visualisierungssystems, das die Effizienz und Sicherheit des Trainings steigern soll, vorgestellt. Verschiedene Fitnesstracker ermöglichen es Vitalwerte zu kontrollieren, Schritte zu zählen oder die Ausführungsdauer einer Übung zu messen. Über die Korrektheit der Ausführung einer Sportübung stellt ein Fitnesstracker jedoch keine Informationen bereit. An diesem Punkt setzt unser Beitrag an.
Basierend auf der Recherche zu Virtual und Augmented Reality Technologien, Projektionssystemen und deren Einsatz im Bereich Sport, sowie einer Anforderungsanalyse wird ein Systementwurf in Textform und mit einem Mockup beschrieben. Anhand einer Auswahl von Dehnübungen wird unser Konzept demonstriert. Das vorgestellte System soll Menschen bei Dehnübungen unterstützen und durch Anleitung sowie Kontrolle auf korrekte Ausführung von Übungen die Verletzungsgefahr minimieren. Ein Projektionssystem ermöglicht die Bereitstellung der visuellen Informationen im Blickfeld der nutzenden Person, in Abhängigkeit von der jeweils ausgeführten Übung. Die Einbindung einer Kamera in das System ermöglicht eine visuelle Kontrolle der korrekten Ausführung.
Informed ShoppAR - Visualizing Privacy Information in Augmented Reality
1Uni Oldenburg, Germany; 2OFFIS Institute of Information Technology
Personal informatics devices, such as fitness trackers, become increasingly popular. When selecting a product in store, users do not only make a decision about a product’s functionality. Beyond what is written on the packaging, a purchase also decides about which consumer data will be collected, how it will be used and with whom it will be shared. Privacy policies and terms and conditions inform users before the initial product usage. Many do not read these texts and remain unaware of what they agreed to.
With this paper we argue that privacy information should be shown before purchasing a device. We explore how Augmented Reality (AR) may be used to facilitate informed decision-making. We implemented and evaluated the user experience of an AR app in a mock-up electronics store. Our results highlight the potential of AR visualizations for displaying privacy information in a purchasing context.
"Do metaphors influence the usability of access control?": a gamified survey.
University of Bremen, Germany
Metaphors are often considered to be a useful tool in user interface design. They teach a user new mechanics via transferring knowledge from one domain, where the user is experienced, to a new target domain. Specifically, this is helpful in areas with advanced technologies, such as security with its encryption and access control mechanisms. At the same time, some controversy exist on the efficacy of metaphors in user interface design.
In this paper, we present our study results on the role of metaphors in a user interface for an access control decision mechanism. We performed our evaluation in a form of a web-based game, obtaining in total 143 responses. The study compared two interface metaphors along with a no-metaphor condition. Our main result suggests that metaphors in user interfaces of security applications can improve user performance, but the observed effect is limited.
What Do Construction Workers Know About Artificial Intelligence? An Exploratory Case Study in an Austrian SME
1Know-Center GmbH, Austria; 2Graz University of Technology; 3University of Graz
Artificial intelligence (AI) is by now used in many different work settings, including construction industry. As new technologies change business and work processes, one important aspect is to understand how potentially affected workers perceive and understand the existing and upcoming AI in their work environment. In this work, we present the results of an exploratory case study with 20 construction workers in a small Austrian company about their knowledge of and attitudes toward AI. Our results show that construction workers’ understanding of AI as a concept is rather superficial, diffuse, and vague, often linked to physical and tangible entities such as robots, and often based on inappropriate sources of information which can lead to misconceptions about AI and AI anxiety. Learning opportunities for promoting (future) construction workers’ AI literacy should be accessible and understandable for learners at various educational levels and encompass aspects such as i) conveying the basics of digitalization, automation, and AI to enable a clear distinction of these concepts, ii) building on the learners’ actual experience realm, i.e., taking into account their focus on physical, tangible, and visible entities, and iii) reducing AI anxiety by elaborating on the limits of AI.
Automatic detection of good and bad usability in web forms using eye-tracking-data
Universität Koblenz-Landau, Deutschland
An established method for detecting existing usability problems is analyzing gaze behavior with an eye tracker. These studies require a lot of effort to evaluate the data. An automated detection of good and bad usability in recorded user data can support usability experts in eye-tracking evaluation and reduce the effort. In the present work, suitable eye-tracking metrics are presented that correlate with the quality of usability. A quantitative A/B-user-study with eye-tracking was conducted and recorded the gaze behavior of 30 subjects while filling out a web form. The web form was designed in such a way that each web form page was available as a good and bad variant according to known usability guidelines. The results confirm a significant correlation between the eye-tracking metric „visits to an AOI“ and the usability. The eye-tracking metrics „number of fixations within an AOI“ and „duration of fixations within an AOI“ also correlate with the quality of usability. No correlation could be confirmed for the „time of first fixation within an AOI“.
Care: A chatbot for dementia care
University of Siegen, Germany
In recent decades various digital artifacts have been integrated into our daily life. One such integration is chatbots or conversational agents like Siri and Alexa. Even though those devices are helping primarily in daily activities, they can potentially be used for medical and health care purposes. In our research, we tried to focus on the current trend of using conversational agents in daily life and potential ways of using those in the medical field. Primarily we focused on chatbot uses in dementia care. Within our work, we analyzed interviews from care facilities and referred to some other research articles to find potential ways of using chatbots in care facilities. As a prototype, we developed a chatbot that will act as a communication medium between caregivers and dementia patients. We also conducted an interview to explore further improvement areas of the chatbot.
An Extension to the Keystroke-Level Model for Extended Reality Interactions
Fachhochschule Dortmund, Germany
Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are acquiring increasing importance. In light of the fact that this is true not only for gaming or entertainment, but also for business and scientific scenarios, such immersive technologies may become as immensely important to us as Web 2.0 did over a decade ago. For such paradigms with rising significance over time, well defined guidelines, models, or even standards can be advantageous for enhancing usability. In the 1980s, the Keystroke-Level Model introduced a method with this objective in mind. Also providing developers with the means to efficiently evaluate and enhance the usability of their application in terms of time and effort. In this paper, we present a fist step toward such a model for immersive applications by extending the Keystroke-Level Model. We determine new operators, specific to AR and VR, and after that, providing unit times for each of the new operators by measuring the times it takes to carry out a specific operation as part of a user study.
Smart City for women’s safety: exploration of the problems and solutions through Co-Design
Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany
Smart City technology is a rapidly developing field that aims to solve city-problems through technological modernization of the environment and society, including safety and security of citizens. The level of safety of the urban space influences inhabitants’ mobility levels, meaning that unsafe places restrict citizens from traveling there in general, by themselves, or at specific time of the day. These usually affect female citizens more, as they are likelier to be exposed to unsolicited dangerous attention –including sexual context–, while being less bodily able to protect themselves. This study investigates the requirements of women for future urban technological solutions through a Co-Design approach. Covering topics from the fears that women experience to the solution ideation, this work contributes to a better understanding of women's perspectives on the use of Smart City technology for safety and highlights the benefits of using Co-Design method in the research of topics alike.