9:00am - 9:15am
Development and Validation of a German Version of the Player Experience Inventory (PXI)
1University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; 2German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence; 3TU Wien; 4Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
The Player Experience Inventory (PXI), initially developed by Abeele et al. (2020), measures player experiences among English-speaking players. However, empirically validated translations of the PXI are sparse, limiting the use of the scale among non-English speaking players. In this paper, we address this issue by providing a translated version of the scale in German, the most widely spoken first language in the European Union. After translating the original items, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (N=506) to validate the German version of the PXI. Our results confirmed a 10-factor model - which the original authors of the instrument suggested - and show that the German PXI has valid psychometric properties. While model fit, internal consistency and convergent validity were acceptable, there was room for improvement regarding discriminant validity. Based on our results, we advocate for the German PXI as a valid and reliable instrument for assessing player experiences in German-speaking samples.
9:15am - 9:30am
Examining joy of use and usability during mobile phone interactions within a multimodal methods approach
1Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO, Germany; 2Department of Psychology, University of Oldenburg, Germany; 3Institute of Human Factors and Technology Management, University of Stuttgart, Germany; 4Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH, German Research Center, Germany
Objective: We investigate experienced joy of use (JoU) and usability using a multimodal methods approach by systematically varying mobile phone interactions. Methods: We combined subjective and objective measures to investigate whether positive emotional experiences and moments of joy during the interaction can be distinguished from neutral and negative emotional experiences. In a study with 30 participants, electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), facial emotion
recognition, and questionnaires were used. Results: There were greater positive experiences in interactions designed to elicit JoU, even under bad usability. We did not observe a difference between the conditions in the EEG indices. However, a higher heart rate and components in the EDA phasic response as well as facial muscle activity associated with anger were linked to good usability combined with no JoU. Conclusion: The multimodal methods approach reveals great potential to investigate JoU and usability in naturalistic
scenarios. Application: The developed framework provides a groundwork to evaluate and improve interactions with technology. Thereby, users and their emotional experiences are placed at the centre when designing user interfaces. By detecting moments of joy, this approach can support a better understanding of how technology can be purposefully designed for joyful experiences.
9:30am - 9:45am
The Effects of Auditory Latency on Experienced First-Person Shooter Players
Universitiy of Regensburg, Germany
Latency is inherently part of every interactive system and is especially critical in video games. Previous work shows that visual latency above 25 ms reduces game experience and player performance. However, latency does not only affect visual perception but also may influence auditory elements of video games. It is unclear if auditory latency impairs the gaming experience and player performance with the same magnitude as visual latency. Therefore, we conducted an experiment with 24 participants playing Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. Participants played with four levels (0 ms, 40 ms, 270 ms, and 500 ms) of controlled auditory latency to reveal effects on game experience and player performance. Our analysis shows that auditory latency in video games increases the perceived tension, decreases positive feelings towards the game, and on its highest tested level (500 ms), even causes significantly stronger associations with negative feelings towards the game. Furthermore, we found that the negative effects of auditory latency are particularly pronounced for high-skilled players. We conclude that auditory latency negatively affects video games and their players. Therefore, researchers should investigate it with the same rigor as visual latency.
9:45am - 10:00am
The Influence of Unequal Chatbot Treatment on Users in Group Chat
Technische Universität Clausthal, Germany
The area of unfair treatment by artificial intelligences in human-AI interaction has seen frequent attention over the recent years. However, research in this area tends to target one-on-one interaction. Experiments which focus on perceived unfairness in group settings that involve an AI are mostly nonexistent. This work intends to provide insight into settings such as these through conducting a comparative study that exposes groups of people to AIs which treat parts of the participants differently than others in a cooking setting. Our results show significant differences between participants who have been treated unfairly by the AI, but also in groups not directly affected by the unfair treatment; the latter also thought worse of the AI if they felt another group partner was treated unfairly. We discuss these results and theorize about possible reasons
10:00am - 10:15am
Enthusiasts, Pragmatists, and Skeptics: Investigating Users’ Attitudes Towards Emotion- and Personality-Aware Voice Assistants across Cultures
1LMU Munich; 2Bundeswehr University Munich
Voice Assistants (VAs) are becoming a regular part of our daily life. They are embedded in our smartphones or smart home devices. Just as natural language processing has improved the conversation with VAs, ongoing work in speech emotion recognition also suggests that VAs will soon become emotion- and personality-aware. However, the social implications, ethical borders, and the users’ general attitude towards such VAs remain underexplored. In this paper, we investigate users’ attitudes towards and preferences for emotionally aware VAs in three diﬀerent cultures. We conducted an online questionnaire with N = 364 participants in Germany, China, and Egypt to identify diﬀerences and similarities in attitudes. Using cluster analysis, we identified three diﬀerent basic user types (Enthusiasts, Pragmatists, and Sceptics), which exist in all cultures. We contribute characteristic properties of these user types and highlight how future VAs should support customizable interactions to enhance user experience across cultures.
10:15am - 10:30am
Investigating Usability and User Experience of Individually Verifiable Internet Voting Schemes
1Technical University of Darmstadt; 2University of Luxembourg; 3Keio University
Internet voting can afford more inclusive and inexpensive elections. The flip side is that the integrity of the election can be compromised by adversarial attacks and malfunctioning voting infrastructure. Individual verifiability aims to protect against such risks by letting voters verify that their votes are correctly registered in the electronic ballot box. Therefore, voters need to carry out additional tasks making human factors crucial for security. In this article, we establish a categorization of individually verifiable Internet voting schemes based on voter interactions. For each category in our proposed categorization, we evaluate a voting scheme in a user study with a total of 100 participants. In our study, we assessed usability, user experience, trust, and further qualitative data to gain deeper insights into voting schemes. Based on our results, we conclude with recommendations for developers and policymakers to inform the choices and design of individually verifiable Internet voting schemes.