|Location: MC 8-100|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-08: Methodological approaches to urban property valuation|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Ruud Kathmann, Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Self-declaration of value: an option for the urban property tax
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK
The ad valorem property tax is a presumptive tax based on an estimate of the property’s value. The estimation of value is normally undertaken by the valuation authority. To assist the authority, there is usually a legislative requirement whereby the taxpayer (whether owner or occupier) is obliged to declare certain information regarding the property. The information sought is typically related quantitative characteristics of the property such as age, size, and accommodation. In addition, some value based information such as tenancies, lease details, business/trade turnover and rents can be sought. This is information that the valuation authority use in their estimation of the value of the property.
The focus of this paper is to consider whether the owner should be obliged to submit a declaration of their property’s value. The question is whether these valuations could be used for the property tax.
Valuing property with bad data: utilizing GIS and spatial modeling to achieve equitable property tax valuations in the face of incomplete data
Missing, incomplete, or inaccurate data have the ability to compromise any predictive model (Beaver, 1966; Pifer & Meyer, 1970; Martin, 1977; Altman, 1981; Bansal et al. 1993). For models used for ad valorem property tax purposes, such data inadequacies can result in financial burdens that arise from inaccurate valuations. Recent advances in spatial modeling methodologies and the availability of open data sources have presented governments with ways to “do more with less” – specifically achieving more accurate valuations without incurring additional data collection costs.
This research will present recent findings on how spatial modeling and open data can be harnessed by governments to promote more fair and uniform property valuations with fewer costs incurred. This presentation will bridge the current literature gap by making explicit methodological prescriptions for valuations that will be yield uniform and equitable valuation results for governments faced with technological or financial constraints.
Response surface analysis (RSA): modeling values in geographically sparse markets
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2International Association of Assessing Officers, Kansas, United States; 3School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK
Due to physical, legal, and other barriers, as well as cost-prohibitive reasons associated with data collection and storage, sparse data can be a common hurdle in the effectiveness of governments who depend on or are considering the implementation of a property tax regime. The ability to estimate accurate, equitable property valuations is oftentimes a difficult task, particularly in areas with little or no sales transactions. In developing and transitioning economies with limited, inaccurate, or outdated sales information, the data needed to create reliable estimates of value is often times very difficult, or even impossible, to attain.
Standard price points in spatial interpolation. A case study
National Land Survey, Finland
This paper explores various spatial interpolation techniques and tries to find an optimal mix of automa-tion and manual fine tuning for mass valuation purposes for property taxation. The value of land should be estimated to the tax base of 2 million units, in a system of higher tax rate on land than on buildings. Machine learning techniques such as ordinary kriging, empirical bayesian kriging (EBK), geographically weighted regression (GWR), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and spatially constrained cluster analysis (SCCA) have been tested. The paper offers a comparison between those methods and a compari-son to a more manual approach.
Using remote sensing data and machine learning to value property in Kigali, Rwanda
1German Aerospace Center; 2International Growth Centre, Rwanda; 3University of Tübingen; 4Ministry of Economic and Financial Planning, Rwanda; 5Carnegie Mellon University
This paper develops two property valuation models for Kigali, Rwanda, and tests them on a unique dataset combining remote sensing data for buildings in Kigali, with sales transaction data for 2015. This paper credits and builds on a similar paper by Deininger et al (2018) but also covers both the built up area of Kigali and the whole of Kigali Province, it addresses temporal prediction issues beyond 2015, it employs an expanded set of variables, and it uses machine learning techniques to employ Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy to select the model that best predicts property price data using Ordinary Least Squares. The model in this paper is intended as a prototype of a Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal system for Kigali that could be used to calculate the revenue potential of a new property tax introduced in Rwanda in 2019, and to help detect under-declaration of property values for tax purposes.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-08: Remote sensing and automation for property tax assessment|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Amy Rasmussen, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Supporting local government administrations through public private partnerships (PPP).
1Cotecna Inspection SA, United Arab Emirates; 2Cotecna Inspection SA, Geneva
In a decentralised framework, local government is generally charged with the responsibility of delivering basic services to its constituencies, and for this system to work, local government entities are also given the right to raise their own revenues. The revenue from land & property tax is necessary if local government wants to achieve financial viability.
With the support of the WB, many governments have modernised their Land Information Systems, creating the platform for local government to collect property taxes. However, the failure of the vast majority of local governments to efficiently collect the property tax means that it is necessary for the private sector to provide support. Local governments undoubtedly need help to implement land & property tax systems.
This paper outlines practical and tangible measures of how innovation and collaboration with the private sector can help local government to be more successful in raising their internally generated revenue (IGR).
Land characteristics survey in Korea, utilizing spatial information
Korea Appraisal Board, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The purpose of this presentation is to show how the land characteristics survey method of Public Land Price Assessment System (PASLP) of the South Korea developed by applying spatial information science, with specific examples.
The Korea Appraisal Board developed the Automatic Land Characteristics Survey (ALCS) System with its own GIS and information technologies in order to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of land characteristic survey with less survey error.
By using geospatial technology, the said automated survey system of land characteristics influences pricing of land. It is especially used to analyze topography, parcel shape, aspect, road adjacency, area, zoning, land use, planning and accessibility to land parcels for public facilities. It allows quick and accurate field surveys of each land parcels throughout the country, improving time efficiency and saving human labor. Moreover, it enhances the accuracy, objectivity and consistency in field surveys, saving the cost of field surveys.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a satellite–based approach to maintaining a property database
Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom
Maintaining up-to-date and accurate information about all assets and services owned and operated by organisations is essential for good governance. Often insufficient attention or resources are provided to ensure this occurs and in rapidly changing environments, such as exist in the developing world, where increasing urbanisation is a major factor, information about land and property is all too often inaccurate, considerably out of date and not maintained in any meaningful way. The change detection project in Dakar, which uses the analysis of Very High Resolution satellite imagery to identify urban change, provides a means to keep the database of land and property up-to-date at reasonable cost. However it is only of benefit if, upon the completion of a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), the method adopted is demonstrably shown to be carried out at a lower cost than the alternative approaches, such as a field-only based approach.
The points-based method: simplification of valuation processes for property tax purposes
International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD), Cameroon
It is widely acknowledged that property taxation systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are severely underperforming due in part to ineffective valuation. The paper discusses the importance of simplifying valuation in contexts where property markets are inexistent, institutional flaws are rife and valuation rolls are incomplete. Drawing on experiences from Sierra Leone, Malawi and Senegal, it argues that simplified valuation like the Points-Based Method (PBM) are easier to administer and particularly more attractive options in resolving challenges linked to the more traditional market and surface area methods. Outcomes of the implementation of iterative processes of PBM clearly show that the method is: flexible, transparent and ensures efficient coverage of wider areas. It mimics market price trends and is easily managed using simple ICT systems. Therefore, a strong empirical case exists to take progressive medium-term steps to substitute traditional with more simplified methods that improve chances of optimizing property tax yields.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-08: Making property tax systems transparent and equitable|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Ronald Worth, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Open Government - Building trust and strengthening the delivery of valuation services
1Council for Real Estate Assessment, The Netherlands; 2Valuation Office, Ireland
Based on experiences of the Valuation Office in Ireland and the Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment in this presentation different methods to achieve transparency and to improve citizen participation are explained.
In Ireland valuation for taxation purposes are carried out by the central Valuation Office. This paper describes how the Valuation Office, through a pilot approach known as Occupier Assisted Valuation (OAV), encouraged taxpayer participation. The outcome of this enhanced interaction between the VO and taxpayer is a more open, transparent and responsive valuation service with a better understanding by taxpayers.
In the Netherlands the responsibility for property valuation for taxation purposes lies with the municipalities. The Netherlands system promotes transparency of municipalities with the goal to advance the public trust in the property valuation. We will present results from municipalities involving taxpayers in checking quality of data but also results of measuring taxpayers trust in the assessed value.
Customer relations and communication in land administration
Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom
As land administration and property tax reforms gain pace around the World this paper focuses on the need to develop the methodology and techniques that public entities can use to communicate with customers. The citizens and tax payers must be informed about their and rights and responsibilities in any reform or on-going process. In essence the overall objective is to put in place innovative approaches to communication which
• Ensure proper public participation in the reform process
• Improve potential tax compliance, by ensuring that open and clear information is provided to those with interest in the land or taxpayers;
• Improve the credibility of the public entity, by promoting concepts such as attitude, efficiency, integrity, service quality and professionalism, and
• Are “future” proofed.
This is a paper that provides details on the various tools that can be utilised in the communication process to achieve a successful outcome.
Property Taxation in India: Issues impacting revenue performance and suggestions for reform
World Bank, United States of America
Rapid urbanization in India means that Indian cities face a tremendous challenge to finance and deliver the increasing demand for basic municipal services. When compared to OECD peers, India performs poorly in terms of generating revenues from the urban immovable property tax. Several factors lead to low property tax revenue in India: undervaluation; incomplete registers; policy inadequacy; ineffective administration and lack of accurate property tax rolls in the jurisdiction of the urban local bodies (ULBs). Property tax reform in India would need to undertake a range of activities: updating property tax laws, getting rid of ineffective exemptions, completing property registers, adopting more effective valuation approaches, and strengthening administration.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-08: Implementing urban land value capture|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Riel Franzsen, University of Pretoria, South Africa
The role of transferrable development rights in emerging economies
1Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom; 2World Bank, Washington DC, USA; 3World Bank, Ankara, Turkey
In recent years a number of emerging economies have experimented with the use of transferrable development rights (TDRs) to support urban development, including Brazil, India, and Turkey. Most TDR schemes are found in USA and are used to protect vulnerable land and buildings from being destroyed by development by persuading their owners voluntarily to accept restrictions on their ability to undertake legally permitted development in return for credits which can be sold to developers for use in designated receiving areas. The paper examines the potential uses of TDRs and the economic and governance environment needed to make them effective. It considers how effective a spatial planning tool TDRs are likely to be in emerging economies and whether there are better alternative ways of achieving the objectives aimed for in TDR programs.
Is there a role of Land Value Capture Instruments for financing infrastructure investments in a messy urban growth scenario?
Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
Many cities experienced a highly disorganized urban growth resulting in severe under-provision of urban infrastructure due to institutional and budgetary fiscal weaknesses. This study explores the feasibility of widening public funding of infrastructure investment using LVC tools in Metropolitan Buenos Aires, taking into account the wide income dispersion of households. A simulation model, estimates the potential collection from alternative LVCs and their feasibility in terms of the impact on income distribution due to income dispersion in each municipality where specific infrastructure is to be developed. Novel data on land values, household income/expenditures and land regulation are used, adding to local/state land revenues which are combined with the infrastructure plans advanced by the government. A general estimation of the share of land value increases that could be captured through various LVC instruments is provided, as well as the comparison of this projected revenue relative to public funds generated via other mechanisms.
Unlocking the potential of urban land in Kenya
1World Bank, Kenya; 2Walker Kontos Advocates, Kenya
An ambitious public infrastructure program funded by public debt has positioned Kenya as a regional economic hub with growth in the financial, technology, service and hospitality sectors. Kenya has become an attractive and preferred destination for foreign companies who set up assembly plants in Kenyan business districts to penetrate the lucrative markets in the region. Ideally, the substantial investment in infrastructure should result in similar or higher return to the government through increased revenue collection. This is however not the case as the revenue generated in these business districts is less than optimal. The government is not getting a fair return on its investment and has to contend with rising public debt. This paper recommends innovative alternative funding sources such as land value capture, as a way of ensuring direct beneficiaries of infrastructure developments pay their fair share towards reducing the mismatch between public expenditure and revenue collection.
Institutional arrangements as a catalyzing instrument for land value capture processes in public transportation projects
JFP & Asociados, Colombia
Land value capture (LVC) tools and policies are arousing as innovative mechanisms that could serve to accomplish a two-way goal: to fund public construction and to enhance accurate urban development.
Among other urban processes, public transportation projects in cities in developing countries represent at the same time an opportunity and a challenge for public administrations to execute LVC policies.
Three cities in Latin America, have started the path to build and urban strategy to adavance LVC and TOD policies in their metro systems: Bogotá, City of Panamá, and Quito. From different contexts the cases are showing that is crucial to look close to institutional arrangements and found ways to set a solid basis for the dialogue between urban planning and transport.
Lessons learned in each case should bring important conclusions to understand how institutional arrangements could work as an innovative mechanism that could catalyze LVC processes implementation.
The untold story of Taiwan's land-based financing program - land readjustment or land grabbing?
1National Chengchi University, Taiwan; 2China University of Technology, Taiwan
Land-based finance (LBF) has become an important topic in recent years. To a local government this represents a valuable source of income from which to fund services, infrastructure development and maintenance programs. LBF encompasses a variety of taxes, charges, income from the sale of development rights and public lands, and land readjustment. Urban land readjustment (ULR) is one of the major ways in which Taiwan's LBF programs have accrued great revenues for government. However, the untold story is that ULR deprives landowners of their human rights, especially for those powerless to object. Who owns the power to decide the ULR zone? Can landowners say no to it? Can the ULR be justified only by its financial contributions to the government? These are important questions that this article aims to explore.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-08: New ways of registering customary land|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Janet L. Banda SC., Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Addressing fuzzy boundaries in community delimitations for systematic cadaster in Mozambique
1National Directorate of Lands, Mozambique; 2EXI, Lda, Mozambique; 3Verde Azul, Lda, Mozambique; 4Kadaster, The Netherlands
This article draws from experiences conducted regarding the systematic land tenure registration in Mozambique, both for communities and individual occupants. It is constitutional obligation of the State to recognize these rights. The recognition of land rights involves the definition of limits and boundaries. While boundaries are interpreted as discontinuities in people to land relationships, cases have been found of harmonious joint use of the same area by different communities. Disputes over boundaries have potentially serious consequences for social and economic stability, and must then be avoided.. The proposed solution is the explicit incorporation of the knowledge of these discrepancies, overlaps and uncertainties in the tools for systematic registration of community and individual land rights and its maintenance. Field staff and communities shall be trained to adequately employ such tools. A specific land use category of areas with overlapping community land use rights.
Moving from debate to implementation: Opportunities for Community Land Registration in Kenya
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya
Drawing lessons from the experience in implementing of the European Union (EU) funded Communal Land Governance Programme by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in the 8 ASAL counties of Kenya, this paper highlights opportunities the government (national and county) of Kenya should take advantage of to ensure that registration of community land is participatory, practical and cost-efficient. Additionally, the paper discusses these opportunities with an awareness of the history of inter-community conflict over territory, and forms of elite capture that happen during community engagement on access and use of land and land-based resources. The paper takes into account the realities of communities' nomadic way of life, and the vastness of the land to be registered as well as the limited technical personnel to carry out the registration process.
“Grazing agreements: negotiated resource access and conflict mediation at the private property-common property nexus in Kenya’s rangelands”
Independent Consultant, United States of America
Pastoralist access to private property is increasingly being mediated through formal, contractual arrangements. This paper explores how formalizing access provisions through the grazing agreement contract provides significant benefits to both parties of the arrangement. The engagement of formal access agreements observed in this case study
demonstrates institutional innovation on the part of both ranchers and pastoralists. Drawing on original field work as well as academic reference literature, this paper expands on the grazing agreement concept and explain its benefits from the perspective of private property management, natural resource management, conflict management and prevention, and its contributions to pastoralist rangelands property rights strategy. Grazing agreements can be leveraged to maintain and defend property rights while also creating additional opportunities for the pastoralist production strategy. This arrangement involving resource allocation has implications for resource access in pastoralist production and for rangelands governance.
Social and institutional innovation in land reform: local land charters in Burkina
DID international, Burkina Faso
Customary land right is one of the most challenging issues which need to be adequately addressed if land is to play its proper role in African development. The Burkina land reform adopted a bold innovation known as the “local land charters” (LLCs), inspired by principles of decentralization and empowerment of local communities and aiming at reflecting the diversity of land customs.
While LLCs seem a promising avenue for making the land laws more effective on the ground, the innovation fosters resistances from land administration agencies as it it challenges the dominant perception of land as a set standardized norms applicable at national level. It also questions the short term nature of donor led land projects
The paper discusses the generating factors of LLCs and analyses the conditions under which social and institutional innovation in land can be not just a theoretical construction, but a powerful change factor
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-08: Providing low-cost housing|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Rajan Samuel, Habitat for Humanity India, India
Understanding multiplicity of urban governance and planning regulations for a metropolitan region with focus on land and private development – Case study NCR – Delhi, India
University of Tokyo, Japan
Through this research we like to bring forth the urban land use pattern and Urban morphology created in absence of a comprehensive land and private development regulation within a metropolitan region. The aim for this study is to identify the actors/agents and their corresponding network within the governance framework of land and private development.
Wrong-Headed policies in the name of the poor: Case of Mumbai’s Cessed-Buildings
Mumbai School of Economics and Public Policy (MSE-PP), University of Mumbai, India
This paper is based on the premise that good governance and policy design must be informed by sound economic principles since, policies create incentives that influence behavior of the agents and agencies leading to take actions that in turn lead to outcomes. Such outcomes, when undesired, can distort the respective markets. Indeed, policies in the name of the poor have often led to repositioning of the ‘agents and agencies’ that lead to situations that ultimately harm the interests of the poor. Hence, we believe that, upon noticing the undesired outcomes, a critical evaluation of the underlying policy framework is paramount to deal with the root cause instead of symptomatic treatment. As an illustration of the above argument, we scrutinize the case of an important segment of housing market in Mumbai viz., cessed- buildings that came about as an outcome of the Rent Control Act 1947 and its surrounding offshoots/ tributaries.
Community resource mobilization for informal settlements regularization: impact of private community partnership in Tanzania
Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) Company Limited, Tanzania
The need to mobilize resources from alternative sources beyond government revenues and donor grants is very critical towards achieving not only Tanzania urban development, but also the global goal of ensuring inclusive and sustainable cities and communities by 2030.
This Paper offers practical approaches from a Private Community Partnership that strategically addressed resource gap for financing sustainable urban planning, development and management with a special focus on Informal Settlements Regularization. It presents best practices from the Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) – a private Urban Planning firm that mobilized over 1.5 Billion TZS (equivalent to 639, 577.02 USD) from informally developed communities in Dar-Es-Salaam city. The ongoing Partnership has so far put in regularization over 30,404 land parcels that benefit over 148,979 lives in a span of 8 months.
It concludes that there is a huge potential of resources at community level that, if well tapped, can finance public developmental projects.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-08: Improving housing delivery|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Shishir Ranjan Dash, Tata Trusts, India
Social mix and social cohesion using housing mix: a review of the Chilean and British experience
1University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
This paper explores the evolution of housing policies in the UK and Chile, and takes into consideration the political and cultural context in which policies were developed. In both states and over time governments using conservative and more neo-liberal political discourses have prevailed. The blueprint of the policies set on the early 1980’s have changed little since favouring home-ownership over any other form of tenure via the ABC approach in Chile and the RTB and HTB in the UK. While Chile pursued a strategy of segregation by creating socially homogeneous neighbourhoods, the UK has always aimed to achieve social mix via tenure mix. However, with decreasing tenure types and wide criticism to ‘forced’ social mix, the UK approach is facing challenging times. The Chilean system in particular is reviewed here with the aim of furthering the debate on homogeneous vs socially mixed neighbourhoods in property-ownership democracies.
Affordable housing: a land suitability perspective
1World Bank, Indonesia; 2CAPSUS, Mexico
Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization rates, which have caused an increased demand for housing, especially in central urban areas. There, the supply of land and housing is becoming increasingly limited, causing prices to rise. While centric urban regions become more expensive, low-income families seek for accommodation in the outskirts of the cities, where land is cheaper, but access to services, infrastructure, and economic opportunities decreases, causing a great disadvantage. In this work, the locations of existing social housing projects Semarang city, Indonesia were analyzed according to their implications on: human well-being, distance to central urban areas, and cost of land. Considering these indicators and with the help of the urban planning tool -Suitability- areas to develop future housing projects were proposed. The results of this analysis show that a significant improvement in service accessibility and well-being for urban dwellers does not necessarily implicate high investment costs regarding land acquisition.
Harnessing the real estate market for equitable affordable housing provision through land value capture: Insights from San Francisco City, California
University of Salford, United Kingdom
Affordable housing remains a serious problem in many countries. Even as the housing affordability crisis deepens, most cities continue to exhibit robust real estate markets with high property prices. The low-income and poor households are unable to access affordable housing and remain excluded. This paper draws from empirical research conducted in the city of San Francisco and focusses on the application of Land Value Capture (LVC) through increased Inclusionary Housing (IH) requirements after rezoning San Francisco’s Eastern Neighbourhoods to evaluate its effects on the goals of increasing both affordable housing and social inclusion. Findings reveal that the increased inclusionary requirements used as LVC mechanism enabled 76.2% of all the affordable housing units produced in the eastern neighbourhoods to be financed through the market. The study demonstrates that upzoning underutilized land coupled with a well-planned LVC mechanism can help harness the strength of the real estate market and increase affordable housing
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-08: Land tenure insecurity and land-related investment|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
Customary tenure and agricultural investment in Uganda
University of California Davis, United States of America
In customary tenure systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, multiple actors hold different rights over a given parcel. Distributing rights influences (perceived) tenure security: anticipating another's actions can cause insecurity. I incorporate this strategic interaction in a model of agricultural investment, predicting how farmers under different tenure regimes respond to an intervention in different land value environments. Rising land values may lead local elites to assert their historic sales rights to outsiders. The farmer, anticipating this, makes fewer investments on customary land as land values rise.
I bring qualitative insights to an economic framework, modeling how farmers respond to incentives, and quantitatively documenting effects of elite capture. I propose an empirical test, in the context of an RCT in Uganda. I use household fixed effects, as many Ugandan farmers operate under multiple tenure regimes. Rather than using tenure type as a (poor) proxy for tenure security, I consider tenure type throughout.
Rural land in Mauritania facing the challenge of development
Université de Nouakchott, Mauritania
In all countries of the world, the redistribution of wealth poses serious problems. Natural resources and especially land are a major issue in most underdeveloped countries. In Mauritania, for example, "after the Diama anti-salt dam" has triggered a wave of claims of all kinds. The old farmers, strong in the theory of autochthony, consider themselves the most legitimate; other citizens want, as taxpayers, to participate in the development of newly developed land through public investment. Both are encouraged by the state, which wants to develop an important potential for food self-sufficiency. Public funds are injected for the benefit of the operators, which further exacerbates the competition.
We will report specific facts where investor intervention is considered grabbing. The public argument will be explained thus the forms of claims of the former owners or so-called owners.
Going for hybrid maize: the importance of land for the success of maize crop insurance in Tanzania
Erasmus university Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Increased drought contribute to farmers' problems in Tanzania, but the core problem is low agricultural productivity. Local extension services are not functioning properly, while farmers need to move from traditional to hybrid seeds to assure food security. A non-commercial private sector initiative is helping them by providing crop insurance. The Swiss Capacity Building Facility, a non-governmental organization (NGO) financed by ten Swiss insurance companies, funded four projects in Tanzania aiming to introduce crop insurances for maize farmers in the Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions. Land is an important asset for these farmers and our study analyzes the role of land, owned or leased and the prices paid for land. The impact of the size of the holdings was analyzed, showing that there is something like a land market in Tanzania and that the bigger farmers benefit relatively more of the opportunity to get inputs and insure themselves for crop failure.
Land rights and livelihoods in rural South Africa – a gendered perspective
University of Johannesburg, South Africa
The global food price and financial challenges that emerged towards the end of the third quarter of the decade beginning 2000 witnessed a wave of studies located in the land grabbing phenomenon. The analytic gaze of academics and civil society in Africa subsequently shifted towards conceptualisations of land grabs somewhat pushing micro-level analyses to the peripheries of mainstream agrarian research. To ensure that ‘the micro’ retains a meaningful spot in mainstream debates, this article goes beyond land grabbing discourses to explore gendered and classed institutions – marriage and kinship among others – that shape and legitimise longstanding labour structures and hierarchised agrarian and social relations in rural South Africa. Through a contextual and gendered analysis, this article concludes that women from Mtubatuba – a local Municipality north-east of South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province – challenge intersecting socially produced institutions and structures that regulate access to (non-)agricultural resources key to rural livelihoods.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Heather Huntington, DevLab@Duke, United States of America
Evaluating the impact of community forestry practices in Sumatra island, Indonesia
1World Resources Institute, Indonesia; 2Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, United States of America
Managing common-pool resources has always been a local challenge with global implications. Community-based forest (CBF) management is often cited as a solution to improve livelihood of communities while conserving the forests. This study investigates the extent to which CBF practices in Indonesia managed to achieve its dual mandates. We focused on evaluating impacts of Community Forest (CF) scheme on forest cover loss, as it is the most likely mechanism to expand community control of forests in Indonesia. We applied propensity scoring approach to empirically measure the relative performances of conservation and watershed protection forests with and without CF concessions in reducing deforestation rate between 2007-2016 in Lampung province. CF concessions have managed to maintain forest loss in relatively low levels compared to those that are not managed by communities. This result shows that generating economic benefit and improving communities’ access to forest resources does not necessarily lead to forests degradation.
Impact, diffusion and scaling-up of a comprehensive land-use planning approach in the Philippines – Results from a rigorous impact evaluation
DEval - German Institute for Development Evaluation, Germany
The authors present results from a rigorous impact evaluation, applying a quasi-experimental and mixed-methods design, of a large-scale, multi-level land-use planning intervention in the Philippines. We assessed the impact on core aspects of socio-economic development, environmental sustainability, disaster risk management, local governance, and also estimated innovation diffusion to non-intervention municipalities.
The intervention by the Philippine-German cooperation supported municipalities to conduct comprehensive land-use planning and aimed at reducing vulnerability to negative effects of uncontrolled development and to multiple hazards, including human-made risks, and climate change. We show the impacts of this technical approach on municipal planning capacities, on plan quality and comprehensiveness, and in five impact fields. We shed light on the implications resulting from mainstreaming the approach into national policy-making.
Based on our results, we provide several conclusions and recommendations for policy makers, development agencies and local stakeholders involved with land-use planning, disaster risk management and local governance.
Results from land tenure formalization activities in the Senegal River valley: a mixed-methods evaluation at medium-term
Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America
In 2015, Senegal completed a five-year project of land tenure formalization, registration and land management capacity building, which was combined with irrigation, drainage and road system construction in nine municipalities in the Senegal River valley. The MCC-funded project included post-project evaluation to measure the impacts and outcomes of the activities, provide lessons, and help insure the sustainability of the capital investments, processes and reforms. Early findings showed that local citizens had improved understanding of the rights and benefits of land tenure formalization and were coming forward in significant numbers to request agricultural parcels or formalization of parcels they already held informally. This paper presents updated, medium-term evaluation findings in the format of case studies of four of the nine municipalities, focusing on the land-related outcomes. The variations of the situations of these communes help explain differences in the quantitative outcomes and citizen perceptions reported in the midterm evaluation.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Endline evaluation findings for USAID’s responsible land-based investment pilot in Mozambique
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International, United States of America; 3United States Agency for International Development, United States of America
Mozambique’s land law of 1997 recognizes customary and community land rights, and also aims to facilitate growing private investment in the country. Many rural smallholder farmers have low familiarity with the country’s land laws and the majority still operate under undocumented customary arrangements, leaving them vulnerable to expropriation. We present the endline findings from an evaluation of an innovative USAID-funded private-sector partnership to strengthen land tenure security and minimize risks associated with large-scale agricultural investments in Mozambique. The project supported participatory mapping and delivered land rights certificates for 1,642 land users around a sugar cane estate. The evaluation uses a qualitative pre-post design coupled with a 500-person telephone survey of pilot participants at endline to examine community perceptions and effects on land management, tenure security, and engagement with private sector investors. Findings add to the limited evidence on use of the private sector-focused Analytical Framework to reduce land tenure risks.
The impacts of Second-Level Land Certification (SLLC) in Ethiopia: empirical evidence using panel data
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia
In 2013, Ethiopia has launched a mega project on second-level land certification program in the four major regions in the country (Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray). The program aims to enhance tenure security, transferability of land, access to credit and land related dispute resolutions. This study, thus, aims to investigate these program outcomes using a unique 3-wave panel data of 6600 households collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2013, 2015 and 2018. The fact that the first-round survey in 2013 is collected just before the DFID-sponsored mega SLLC program in the country provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impacts of the SLLC program with the data before-and-after the program was launched. Findings from the study are expected to provide insights to inform policy directions in the form of formalization of land rights not only in Ethiopia but also elsewhere in the continent.
Mobilizing for title: A mixed-methods randomized evaluation of a homestead land rights initiative in Bihar, India
1Northwestern University, United States of America; 2Deshkal Society, India
Bihar state law guarantees each rural household the right to hold title over a plot of homestead land, yet many poor households lack title. This article studies a social accountability program that established, trained, and mobilized village-level community-based organizations to assist households in obtaining homestead title. The study employs a survey-based field experiment to estimate the program’s impact while qualitative methods are used to examine ground-level processes. We find that the program strongly increased perceived land security and access to entitlements, moderately increased asset ownership and homestead satisfaction, and exerted a modest but significant positive effect on food security. However, we do not find evidence for impacts on investment in dwellings or homestead-based livelihood activities. The qualitative analysis suggests a key mechanism by which the program improved entitlement access: enabling target households to circumvent profit-seeking intermediaries. Results contribute to development studies research on social accountability, service delivery, and land rights.
Certified to stay? Experimental evidence on property rights and migration in Benin
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Agence Française de Développement, France
Women’s ownership and control of land in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is often mediated through their relationship to a male spouse or a male relative. These limited rights can rapidly disappear in the event of the death of the husband – with stark welfare implications for the widow and her children. We examine the following question in the context of a randomized controlled trial in rural Benin: can land formalization interventions strengthen a widow’s right to stay? Drawing on two rounds of data from approximately 3,500 households, we find that female-headed households are more likely to remain in their original community, and this effect is driven by widows in treatment villages. We also find that the land intervention leads to a change in planned inheritance patterns away from sons and towards daughters and wives.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-08: Improving access to land for the youth|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Violet Shivutse, HUAIROU COMMISSION, Kenya
An assessment of youth land rights in rural Liberia
1Landesa, United States of America; 2Development Education Network, Liberia
This paper summarizes the evidence on youth land rights in Liberia from a literature review combined with primary research from two separate studies - 1) a qualitative assessment conducted as formative research to inform the design of the Land Rights and Sustainable Development (LRSD) project for Landesa and its partners’ community level interventions and 2) a quantitative baseline survey of program beneficiaries as part of an impact evaluation of the LRSD project. The findings are presented using Landesa's Women's Land Rights (WLR) Analytical Framework that examines youth land rights through a gender lens. The evidence highlights that female and male youth in Liberia face significant but different barriers to long term access to land, as well as to participation in decisions related to land. Our suggested recommendations offer insights for the implementation of Liberia's Land Rights Act as well as for community-level interventions focused on increasing youth tenure security in Liberia.
Harnessing the potential for rural youth-inclusive agri-food systems livelihoods: A landscape analysis
Mississippi State University, United States of America
There is limited evidence on what works best to support and empower youth within agri-food systems, especially as related to improving their livelihood opportunities. In order to help close this evidence gap, the authors are conducting a multi-disciplinary analytic literature review to identify which agri-food system sectors are best suited to engage youth in sustainable livelihoods. Peer-reviewed empirical and analytic research relevant to the inclusion of rural youth in agri-food systems will be collected and analyzed to address two questions:
1. Which areas of agri-food systems are best suited to engage youth?
2. Are there youth-specific constraints to engaging in agri-food systems, and do those constraints differ by gender, socio-cultural and enabling environment factors?
Land access and youth spatial and occupational mobility in Africa: the case of Nigeria
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2International Food Policy Research Institute, Nigeria
The paper examines the role of land access in youth migration and employment decisions using a two-wave panel data (2012/3 and 2015/16 LSMS-ISA datasets) from Nigeria. Overall, findings show land access is significantly and negatively associated with long-distance migration, migration-to-urban areas, and employment in the non-agricultural sector while the impact is negligible temporary migration. A more-disaggregated analysis considering individual characteristics of the youth shows that results are more elastic for older youth and those that are less educated, while we find no difference when comparisons are made by gender. Disaggregated results further reveal that youth in areas with a high level of agricultural commercialization and modernization seem to be more responsive to land access than are youth residing in less commercialized areas. Similarly, the agricultural ladder hypothesis seems to be more explained by less educated youth as the more educated youth are shown to be less responsive to land access.
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-04: Guidelines on resilience and land administration|
Location: MC 8-100
Guidelines on resilience and land administration
World Bank, United States of America
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-04: "Its4land" - innovative geospatial tools for fit-for-purpose land rights mapping|
Location: MC 8-100
"Its4land" - innovative geospatial tools for fit-for-purpose land rights mapping
1University of Twente ITC, Netherlands; 2Hansa Luftbild AG; 3Katholieke Universiteit Leuven; 4Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität; 5Esri Rwanda Ltd; 6Institute of Applied Sciences INES Rwanda; 7Bahir Dar University BDU Ethiopia; 8Technical University Kenya TUK Kenya
Sub Saharan Africa has an immense challenge to rapidly and cheaply map millions of unrecognized land rights. Existing approaches have failed. Good land records can help to deliver tenure security, dispute reduction and good governance. This is the main goal of “its4land”, a European Commission Horizon 2020 project that aims to develop innovative tools that respond to the continuum of land rights and fit-for-purpose approach. its4land is using strategic collaboration between the EU and East Africa to deliver innovative, scalable, and transferrable ICT solutions. The project moved beyond the state of the art in all its intended impact areas: partnership building, ICT advances, end-user understandings and enhancing innovation capacity. The masterclass presents the recent achievements, findings and challenges faced during the first half of the its4land project. We believe that sharing our current results we will provoke discussions, knowledge exchange and may engage users and decision makers for future collaboration.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-04: Practical approaches to implementing and monitoring free, prior and informed consent processes|
Location: MC 8-100
Session Chair: Luis Felipe Duchicela, Equitable Origin, United States of America
Practical approaches to implementing and monitoring free, prior and informed consent processes
Equitable Origin, United States of America