10-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions
Endline evaluation findings for USAID’s responsible land-based investment pilot in Mozambique
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International, United States of America; 3United States Agency for International Development, United States of America
Mozambique’s land law of 1997 recognizes customary and community land rights, and also aims to facilitate growing private investment in the country. Many rural smallholder farmers have low familiarity with the country’s land laws and the majority still operate under undocumented customary arrangements, leaving them vulnerable to expropriation. We present the endline findings from an evaluation of an innovative USAID-funded private-sector partnership to strengthen land tenure security and minimize risks associated with large-scale agricultural investments in Mozambique. The project supported participatory mapping and delivered land rights certificates for 1,642 land users around a sugar cane estate. The evaluation uses a qualitative pre-post design coupled with a 500-person telephone survey of pilot participants at endline to examine community perceptions and effects on land management, tenure security, and engagement with private sector investors. Findings add to the limited evidence on use of the private sector-focused Analytical Framework to reduce land tenure risks.
The impacts of Second-Level Land Certification (SLLC) in Ethiopia: empirical evidence using panel data
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia
In 2013, Ethiopia has launched a mega project on second-level land certification program in the four major regions in the country (Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray). The program aims to enhance tenure security, transferability of land, access to credit and land related dispute resolutions. This study, thus, aims to investigate these program outcomes using a unique 3-wave panel data of 6600 households collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2013, 2015 and 2018. The fact that the first-round survey in 2013 is collected just before the DFID-sponsored mega SLLC program in the country provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impacts of the SLLC program with the data before-and-after the program was launched. Findings from the study are expected to provide insights to inform policy directions in the form of formalization of land rights not only in Ethiopia but also elsewhere in the continent.
Mobilizing for title: A mixed-methods randomized evaluation of a homestead land rights initiative in Bihar, India
1Northwestern University, United States of America; 2Deshkal Society, India
Bihar state law guarantees each rural household the right to hold title over a plot of homestead land, yet many poor households lack title. This article studies a social accountability program that established, trained, and mobilized village-level community-based organizations to assist households in obtaining homestead title. The study employs a survey-based field experiment to estimate the program’s impact while qualitative methods are used to examine ground-level processes. We find that the program strongly increased perceived land security and access to entitlements, moderately increased asset ownership and homestead satisfaction, and exerted a modest but significant positive effect on food security. However, we do not find evidence for impacts on investment in dwellings or homestead-based livelihood activities. The qualitative analysis suggests a key mechanism by which the program improved entitlement access: enabling target households to circumvent profit-seeking intermediaries. Results contribute to development studies research on social accountability, service delivery, and land rights.
Certified to stay? Experimental evidence on property rights and migration in Benin
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Agence Française de Développement, France
Women’s ownership and control of land in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is often mediated through their relationship to a male spouse or a male relative. These limited rights can rapidly disappear in the event of the death of the husband – with stark welfare implications for the widow and her children. We examine the following question in the context of a randomized controlled trial in rural Benin: can land formalization interventions strengthen a widow’s right to stay? Drawing on two rounds of data from approximately 3,500 households, we find that female-headed households are more likely to remain in their original community, and this effect is driven by widows in treatment villages. We also find that the land intervention leads to a change in planned inheritance patterns away from sons and towards daughters and wives.