|Location: MC C1-100|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-11: Fit for purpose land administration|
Session Chair: Yerach Doytsher, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Secure Tenure for all starts to emerge: New Experiences of Countries implementing a Fit-For-Purpose Approach to Land Administration
1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2KnowEdge, United Kingdom
This paper initially provides background to the 2030 Global Agenda and the realisation that many of these goals will not be achieved without quickly solving the current insecurity of tenure crisis through the FFP approach to land administration. New technology and emerging trends for land administration identified within the World Bank’s Guide (2017) will then be reviewed within the context of implementing Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) land administration solutions. Finally, the paper will review the lessons learned from implementing FFP land administration solutions in three developing countries, Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda, to identify how their country strategies were evolved, how the FFP land administration guidelines were interpreted and adapted, how politicians and decision makers signed onto the approach, and how the mind-set of key stakeholders, including surveyors, were changed to embrace FFP land administration.
Fit-for-purpose land administration strategy: an innovative approach to implement land policies in Nepal
1Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Government of Nepal; 2Kathmandu University, Nepal; 3UNHABITAT, Nepal; 4Aalborg University, Denmark; 5Land and GLTN Unit, Land and Governance Branch, UN-Habitat, Kenya; 6Community Self Reliance Center, Kathmandu Nepal; 7Land and GLTN Unit, UN-Habitat, Kenya
The current Nepalese Land Administration System only deals with the formal land tenure system. Approximately 10 million land parcels are under informal tenure and outside the formal cadaster. Families, under such informal tenure, are highly vulnerable to eviction due to unsecured land tenure. Informal tenure is causing huge loss to economy and the valuable land asset is dumped as “dead capital”.
Addressing this problem of informality with the existing traditional approach may require huge financial resources, long time span and large number of trained human resources, which could be difficult to manage for a country like Nepal. In this context, this paper presents an innovative approach and fit for purpose strategy of land administration which could be a solution to manage informal land tenure and implement the provisions in the proposed land policies and newly enacted Constitution of Nepal. The results are encouraging and can be implemented throughout the country.
Creating resilience to natural disasters through FFP land administration – an application in Nepal
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2UN-Habitat Nepal; 3UN-Habitat Global Land Tool Network; 4University Twente, ITC Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation; 5Swinburne University of Technology
Information on people to land relationships - documented in a land administration system - is crucial in occurrence of any natural disaster. Fit–For Purpose approaches and interventions have been used in the process of earthquake recovery and to improve the resilience for four affected communities in the Dolakha district in Nepal. Therefore innovative land tools have been used in a post-earthquake context to support the management and recordation of customary and informal land rights for communities. The FFP LA approach in the post-earthquake context brought quick results and benefited not only four communities in Dolakha district but also had impact at national level as it supported the national land policy formulation process and ignited the FFP country implementation strategy.
Fit for Purpose Land Administration: Innovations as a result of country implementations
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Twente University - ITC
There is an urgent need for the administration of property and land use rights worldwide as a basis for inclusive social and economic growth. To continue in the conventional way will not lead to inclusion of the remaining 70% within our lifetime. It is time for new, innovative approaches to land administration. Time to build affordable, inclusive, scalable and sustainable systems that quickly provide complete coverage of the tenure situation in territories.
Based on our experiences in the implementation of FFP methodologies in projects over the last year, we will define lessons learned in e.g. Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, Indonesia. Some lessons are of a more general nature, and other lessons are country and context specific. These lessons are significant for scaling up and ‘scaling forward’ FFP land administration and will result in innovations of methodology, technology and approaches.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-11: Fit for purpose land administration|
Session Chair: Rudolf Staiger, FIG- International Federation of Surveyors, Germany
Delivering land administration services at scale
Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, Malaysia
A proper land administration system should be established in order to ensure stability in society by creating security not only for landowners but also for investors, traders and the government. The improvements and changes have assisted more foreign and local investments to this country and further strengthened Malaysia’s position in World Bank Ease Doing Business.
As the country moved from an agriculture-based economy to manufacturing and technology-based one. The usage of physical documents and hard copy files can no longer cope with the surge of the economic activities, so manual land registration was converted to electronic system.
Despite the use of technology and the introduction of various systems to expedite and simplify conveyancing. Such improvements require both commitment and willingness at the government side as well as the business community.
Using participatory approaches and innovative technology to empower communities in securing their land
US Agency for International Development, United States of America
Land and resources documentation can improve rural livelihoods by increasing access to credit and encouraging long-term sustainable investments in the land. However, obtaining land documentation can be difficult due to the high costs of surveying land, stringent accuracy requirements, and outdated land registries. To overcome these constraints, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) supported the development of participatory approaches as part of Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure (MAST). Through participatory methods and innovative tools, MAST supports systematic mapping and documentation of community land resources in an efficient, sustainable, and participatory manner.Local community members and land resource managers receive training in resources governance, land rights, and participatory approaches to mapping land and resources.MAST has been tested in Tanzania, Zambia, and Burkina-Faso, where it significantly reduced claim processing times, led to increased awareness of land rights by community members, and resulted in unprecedented parity in women’s claims to land ownership.
Low-cost cadastre and valuation with lightweight technology
Esri, United States of America
Configurable off-the-shelf GIS technologies for cadastral systems and valuation systems are affordable and easy to use. There is no longer a need for custom programming, complex implementations, and special skills. Leveraging standard data models such as the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GIS data and technology deliver systems that are quickly implemented, scalable, evolve with changing requirements and supported by numerous public, private, and NGO communities.
This new approach addresses many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, accurate GPS use, scalability and security. This presentation will detail the technology used including Android, survey accurate GPS, LADM, and ArcGIS Online combined with innovative ways to collect ownership information. This presentation will detail technology used in pilot projects in Kenya and Colombia.
Digitization of the Land Registry within a Plural Legislative Framework: A case study of land registry innovations in Trinidad and Tobago
1Land Administration Consultant, Bolivia, Plurinational State of; 2Ministry of the Attorney General and Legal Affairs, Trinidad & Tobago
The practice of managing land involves policy, legislative and administrative structures. Technology-based land use solutions require standardization of data and countries that introduce land management technology often face difficulties in creating and sustaining accurate and complete databases. In Trinidad and Tobago, the approach to digitization of land records is set under a plural legislative framework that governs land transfers. With two islands, two levels of government (local and national) and two legal registration frameworks - Common Law and Real Property Act (Torrens-based), this twin-island republic faces ongoing challenges related to digitizing two types of records (Deeds and Titles) standardizing metadata fields, capturing non-land related transactions under the Deeds system; and improving quality, accuracy and completeness in an integrated database. The paper will focus on past and current approaches to digitization and the impact of the digitization outputs on future electronic systems in the country.
Taking matters into their own hands: why innovation in community land data collection matters
Cadasta Foundation, United States of America
This paper addresses practical, on-the-ground solutions to bridging the gap between government land systems and undocumented or informally documented communities. Case studies highlight how communities are using a digital platform and tools for community-collected data used for decision-making, advocating for land rights and tenure recognition, and accessing public and private sector services, such as loans, insurance, and other goods and services. This paper shares data on how putting accessible and appropriate land documentation technologies and training into the hands of local partners and vulnerable communities has transformed and empowered communities left out of the land registry system. Four case studies are highlighted to show different uses of land rights data: land rights for slum dwellers in Odisha State, India; supply chain transparency with Seed Change in Tanzania; rural community land governance with iCT-F in Mozambique; and prevention of urban settlement evictions and infrastructure upgrading with C-MAP in Nigeria.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-11: Interoperability of land data: Conceptual issues|
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Land administration data integration – modern concept
Innola Solutions, Inc., United States of America
Building a national scale land administration system inevitably depends upon existing data digitization, migration and ultimately, integration of the digitized data into the system as a pre-requisite of the system rollout. Separating data digitization from system implementation makes it easier to early start the data production processes using different available tools - mainly serving specific needs such as scanning, indexing and maps digitization. However, the real content of the land administration records requires a more complicated data structure and, accordingly, more elaborate technologies to ensure the quality, completeness, sequence and integrity of the produced digital data. Based on the experience gained in several national-scale projects, the authors describe a holistic “top-down” approach of data digitization and acquisition. Modern concept is in evaluation of different data sources from a prospective of the future services and system functions, and defining a clear schema of how those various data are going to be integrated.
Land Administration Models - A central register and land information system containing as much information as possible about a property
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
We review the benefits of centralised land information and registration systems, defined as an integrated land information system, where formal registration of legal information as well as technical information about land is supervised, controlled and operated by one authority, so that all matters affecting one parcel of land can be easily accessed.
Land registration and cadastral functions are more effective under a centralised system. Decentralisation of land administration may help to develop local democracy and skills, but in the longer run could hold back progress. Local conditions may mean that it is difficult to implement a centralised system and innovative decentralised solutions may help in the short term. However, improvement of a centralised system is likely to be more advantageous in the long term than developing a decentralised model where there is a risk of introducing or perpetuating a fragmented system of land registration and land information.
An applicative approach for cadastral processes implementation in multi-dimensional land management systems
Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
The world’s population is expected to reach 9.7 billion in 2050, 66% of them will live in urban areas, resulting in the crucial need for multi-dimensional cadastral systems that are required for an efficient management of the urban space. Our study aims at setting an approach for augmenting existing 2D cadastral systems to multi-dimensional ones. The full integration of the height, time and scale dimensions, including all topological aspects within the same system, will prevent the need of handling management and functional properties in segregated systems to support decision-making and multi-purpose applications, as well as providing the opportunity of sharing geo-data by diverse users. A simulation of planning a new 3D project in a complex urban environment, offering functionalities and data model for performing complex 3D analysis and editing, is presented. Our solution is a first step towards the implementation of multi-dimensional cadastral systems.
The impact of the agricultural land management information system on the work of local self-government units and directorate for agricultural land
GIZ- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, United States of America
This Impact Study assesses the impact the IT-solution for the management of state-owned agricultural land has had on the work of municipalities and the Directorate for Agricultural Land in Serbia. It analyzes the biggest changes the system brought to the local and national level, as well as the influence it had on the end beneficiaries. Data was collected from three sources: document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews, and an online questionnaire sent to all 145 municipalities. Analysis of all data shows that DAL and municipal officials are spending significantly less time creating Annual Programs and Contracts. They are printing, filing, and mailing many fewer documents, all while increasing transparency in a previously opaque system. There are already measurable improvements in the quality of products from the new IT system. There is evidence that customer service will be enhanced and communications among DAL, municipalities, and clients is easier and clearer.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-11: Are PPPs the future of land administration?|
Session Chair: Jacob Zevenbergen, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
The importance of public private partnership in cadastre: Turkish experience
1FIG, Turkey; 2Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü, Turkey
The aim of maintained cadastral works in Turkey is to determine both the legal and geometric position of all the real property. In this way, the modern land registration which is anticipated in Turkish Civil Code will be founded.
There are approximately 57 million cadastral parcels in Turkey. As of the beginning of the 2000’s, Turkey’s cadastre had been completed in 75% as villages and district based by its own staff of the institution. The legal and geometric parts of cadastre were separated and PPP model was created by the institution. Within the scope of the World Bank MEER – MERLIS and ARIP Projects, initial cadastre and cadastre renovation tenders were made according to this new model. As a result, 13 million cadastral parcels in 5 years has been completed by the private sector. The institution has also completed the renewal of the 10 million cadastral parcels by PPP model.
A review of public-private partnerships in land administration
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Equity International, Australia
This paper reports experiences in public-private partnership in land administration and provides lessons learnt from these partnerships. The review results suggest several factors contribute to the success of a PPP in land administration. The factors encompass political will of the public sector and government, support by the community of stakeholders, transparency in the bidding process and documents, a clear set of expectations from the partnership, active engagement of stakeholders during the partnership and strong leadership of the public partner in times of crisis. The review suggests, there is often a need for a legislative reform when adopting PPPs in land administration. The legislative changes are more pronounced in the regulatory framework of land administration than those of PPP. The literature suggests that the technology developed for one jurisdiction can be customised and adapted for other jurisdictions. There was not a notable first registration of land under the PPP schemes.
PPP in land administration - why now and what are the risks and benefits?
Ordnance Survey, UK
Demands and expectations on land administration services change radically as new technologies, environmental challenges, urbanization, requirements for completion of first land registration and other social and political influences now gradually transform our practices and mindset. The authorities need to provide greater choice and control, more transparency, process inclusiveness and equity, on-demand access to information, adequately capture RRRs, better utilize geospatial information as mean to integrate other thematic data for e.g. smart cities, utilities and e-government etc. They also need to be capable to innovate and maintain systems and services that can evolve over time. The ability maintain highly skilled employees is another constraint. In combination with uncertain budget allocation for modernization of land administration an increasing number of nations now consider public-private partnership as an attractive alternative to adequately respond to these needs. This paper discusses benefits and risks associated with this approach for the land administration domain.
Exploring PPP opportunities for improved Land Administration Reforms, emerging lessons from the Ghanaian Case
Office of the President, Ghana
The idea that capital, technology and skill can be leveraged from the private sector to enhance land administration is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries such as Ghana where donor funded land administration reform processes are not achieving the desired transformation after 15 years of implementation.
Among others, inadequate financing, weak technology base, human capacity issues and poor corporate governance practices are some of the underlining factors for the current state of affairs. In order to address these challenges, government of Ghana has resorted to PPP which is a non-convention but promising alternative strategies which can support government to achieve the anticipated transformation in land administration including reducing the turnaround time for first registration to within 30 days.
This paper examines a 11 point evaluation criteria to guide Ghana and others developing countries in order to ensure effective implementation that yields mutual rewarding outcomes for all stakeholders.
From client satisfaction to happiness: the front-office and back-office innovative concession models for fostering land registration in Dubai
Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
SDGs provide a framework for governments, multilateral organisations and donors to drive social investment on sustainable development. Among the 17 SGDs, SDG1(No poverty) SDG2 (Zero hunger) and SDG5 (Gender equality) directly highlight the importance of land tenure systems as a mechanism to achieve sustainable development.
This paper proposes strategies for practitioners to involve the private sector in land administration services while at the same time ensuring there is a contribution to the achievement of the SDGs. These are: (i) to target areas where the private sector can do a better job; (ii) find cross-services approaches within the land administration system (iii) build the participation in a trusted private sector; (iv) revenue should be based on achieving tangible social results aligned with SDGs. Analysis of SDG relation to Dubai registration trustees is presented.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-11: Implementing NSDI: From guidelines to practice|
Session Chair: Kathrine Kelm, World Bank, United States of America
Research on access and use of geographic information in Moldova
1Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova, Moldova; 2Kartverket - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
Norwegian support to the land sector in Moldova has started in 2006. During the last twelve years, Norway has assisted Moldova with production and delivery of geospatial information: Orthophoto, Digital Terrain Model and Base map. The assistance from Norway has significantly contributed to improvement of public services providing open access to geospatial data on the Internet. Norway as a donor was concerned that the geospatial data produced with Norwegian funding used and maintained effectively. In 2017, Norwegian Mapping Authority and Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova have executed a research on the access and use of the geospatial information funded by Norway. This paper describes the findings of the study with emphases on the measures to improve the use of available geodata by a wider range of users in Moldova, as well as to indicate the target areas for potential support from Norway and other donors.
UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework towards achieving the 2030 Agenda – from global to national. Guyana experience.
1UNFAO, Italy; 2Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission, Guyana; 3ConsultingWhere Ltd., United Kingdom
In August 2018, the United Nations endorsed an Integrated Geospatial Information Framework (IGIF), which provides a strategic guidance that enables country specific action plans to be prepared and implemented. The Cooperative Republic of Guyana is one of the first countries in the world, which is taking actions to align its national policy on geospatial information management to the newly endorsed UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework and to develop an Action Plan that can serve as an example to other countries and regions. The Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission in cooperation with the FAO will present how the IGIF coupled with an SDI Analysis methodology developed by the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM), World Bank and FAO is being applied in Guyana to help rapidly accelerate delivery of a fit for purpose infrastructure.
Integration of Crowdsourcing and digital platform of National Spatial Data Infrastructure for efficient decision-making
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Digital transformation of the national economy and public administration are among the key priorities of Serbian Government. Government of Republic of Serbia and Republic geodetic authority works together on the development of framework for the crowdsourcing technology utilization, combined with the National Spatial Data Infrastructure digital platform. Objective is to provide credible, quality and effective data acquisition, to provide both local and national government with a framework for making decisions needed for a more efficient decision making and achieving the objectives of the Sustainable Development Strategy and Agenda 2030. For this purpose, a mobile application has been developed which, using the crowdsourcing technology, provides for creating and updating the official registers. The evaluation of the proposed approach shows the efficiency of the implementation and assuring interoperability between the crowdsourcing system and the NSDI digital platform, thus providing for the authoritative data usage in a completely new context, and new level.
Additional considerations for the successful implementation of a CORS GNSS Network in Developing Countries
Leica Geosystems, France
A Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) GNSS Network is essential to provide a regional positioning service that can provide fit-for-purpose positioning. In developing countries, this represents significant challenges, but offers significant benefits. This paper is mainly dedicated to National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations and focus on some key benefits dependent of specific related tasks for land parcel and utility mapping which are often under-estimated or ignored, hence leading to an incomplete implementation missing a fundamental foundation for a successful use of the CORS GNSS Network.
This paper will present best practice for GNSS surveys within a CORS infrastructure, deliver recommendations to compute and publish new local or national transformations to maximize sustainable development of the system and explain how to implement Quality Controls to evaluate and reject any survey which will not fit to standards defined and published by the beneficiaries like National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-11: Land administration: Cases from Asia|
Session Chair: Suzuka Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
Land registration innovation and decentralised administrative reform: Success stories from the State of Johor, Malaysia
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Land title is the evidence of ownership on land. The purpose of registration is to recognise property rights, which includes information pertaining to land area, location, boundaries, as well as ownership and title of immovable property. However, interestingly in Malaysia,land is exclusively a state matter and there are differences over state land policies implementation on the process of registration. The kind of situation provides further challenges in the forming of uniform land policies to be practiced by the different states. This paper will discuss the innovations and reform of land registration and administrative in Malaysia, lesson learned from the State of Johor. It is include the successful and challenges on law and regulation implementation, accrual practices and reform experiences, decentralised organizational arrangements and harmonization, and new technology and computerisation adoption.
Land registration authority's linkages through the land titling computerization project
Land Registration Authority, Philippines
The Philippines’ Land Registration Authority is the central repository of records on original registration of land titles and the public repository of records affecting registered/unregistered lands and chattel mortgages. It is implementing the Land Titling Computerization Project through a public-private partnership.
With LTCP, following were established: Database of titled/registered land, Database of transactions affecting titled/registered land; Database of transactions affecting lands under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program; Database of transactions affecting Chattel Mortgage and Personal Properties; and Geographic Information System.
Several Government Agencies are connected to LRA Network and LRA continues to talk with other agencies involved in management and disposition of lands to ensure seamless processing of transactions across agencies. Significantly, it is implementing the Title Upgrade Program, where manually-issued titles are converted into System-generated titles for allowing LRA and Titleholders to come up with better and more convenient ways in transacting and verifying land titles.
A step to grow collateral markets through one window
Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab Land Records Management & Information System turned out to be one of the success stories for the Province of Punjab. Project has scanned more than 10 million pages of old records, digitized over 5.5 million landowners’ records, addressed more than 5 million inconsistencies of manual record and more than 23,000 revenue estates of overall 25,600 revenue estates across the province.
Project has now introduced a new one window intervention through this all banks / financial institutions have been linked through a secured link with central database of digital Land records. This has enabled all banks to instantly verify the current / up-to date status of land. Banks can generate copy of record of rights and initiate mutation for loan at their own. This intervention has greatly reduced time for loan processing and improved collateral resulting in enhanced productivity of agriculture markets.
Interoperability and land administration in Nepal
Department of Land Management & Archive, Nepal
Department of Land Management and Archive (DoLMA) is a central level agency in Nepal which is responsible for land administration. It delivers public service related to land through its 131 field-level offices. The department has successfully developed and implemented centralized web based software called Land Records Information Management System (LRIMS) on 54 Land Revenue Offices (LROs) to enhance quality of service delivery. The implementation of the system has shown positive impact on security of land records, revenue collections and e-governance.
Various government agencies are directly related with LROs and its data. The agencies have also their own computer systems but no provision to communicate with LRIMS now. The interoperability between LRIMS and agencies’ systems will reduce service delivery time, enhance the quality of service and reduce the operational cost. Service Oriented Architecture based system of LROs (i.e. LRIMS) can be made interoperable with their systems for data sharing among them.
Registering deeds in Delhi: challenges, innovations and prospects
Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India
This paper examines the institutional process of registering conveyance deeds in Delhi, the capital of India. This is in the context of administering one of the largest urban centres of the world; within a peculiar governance system as well as a very fragmented institutional apparatus. The paper will delineate in precise sequence, eight steps for registration. It will look at the current practices in each of these steps, identify the good practices within them, recent initiatives, as well as persistent gaps. Recent interventions in Delhi include institutional initiatives, interlinked databases and improved infrastructure. Associated agencies have also initiated digitisation of land records and allotment of unique property identification numbers, including the use of geospatial techniques. In such light, the paper will explore ways in which Delhi could create better urban land records, drawing from its own initiatives as well as from other innovations across India.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-11: Land administration: Cases from South America|
Session Chair: Maria Elena Garcia Flores, CINDER, Mexico
CADASTRE and access to land
1Cons Fed del Catastro, Argentine Republic; 2Dirección Provincial de Catastro e Información Territorial; 3Dirección de Catastro Municipio Vista Alegre
Aligned with the motto of the conference on Land and Poverty, the meaning of the word catalyst is assumed as the action of favoring the development of a process. In our case, we will address the way in which an up-to-date, modern cadastre, on a regimen, provides the basic elements to favor the process of access to the land of the most vulnerable sectors, the most vulnerable social actors.
As for the most unprotected sectors, it refers to marginal social sectors that due to the high values of urban land and land policies, are forced to live together with their family group, on land taken under the informal "settlements" mode . Although they access a portion of land in which to develop family life, they are deprived of elementary basic services (water, lighting, sewers, gas, social infrastructure).
It is also proposed analyze two cases visible in the province of residence, Neuquén.
Integrating data for land tenure regularization in the State of Piauí, Brazil
1Piauí State Land Institute; 2The World Bank
In Brazil, the State of Piauí implements a land tenure regularization program through which small-scale farmers can acquire the ownership of state land. Efforts have been made to strengthen the capacity of the Piauí State Land Institute (INTERPI) to implement this program. Yet, progress remains limited with approximately 4,000 requests received, 2,500 titles issued, and 258 titles registered over the last three years. In this paper, the authors explain that these modest achievements are in part due to INTERPI’s limited capacity and difficulties in obtaining the supporting documents from other public entities. The authors explain how Piauí is addressing this issue through additional investments in the modernization of INTERPI, the creation of a Center for Geotechnology, the reengineering land tenure regularization procedures and the strengthening of partnership with public entities such as the Land Tenure Regularization Center and the Special Unit for Land Tenure Regularization and Fight Against Land Grabs.
Types of land tenure in Brazil: the first estimate from available geo-referenced information
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2GeoLab- Esalq – USP; 3Imaflora; 4SEI; 5Oxfam; 6IFSP; 7IPAM
The Brazilian efforts to create a unified land cadaster that can improve its land Governance are quite large. The land Management System – SIGEF, created in 2013, is contributing to the formation of a georeferenced cadaster of rural land, comprising public and private areas, already showing significant quantitative results of rural, public and private property. The CAR, a self-supplied georeferenced mapping for environmental management has a large coverage of the private land ownership and possession around the country.
The main aim of this article is to present a portrait of the Brazilian land tenure, based on the different kinds of ownership, adverse possession and others, but also on public cadasters, integrating its information, mostly to exclude the overlapping. This is to facilitate the understanding of where, what, how much, who and how land is owned or possessed in Brazil.
A new approach for the establishment of a regional multipurpose cadastre in La Mojana, Colombia – how to overcome large-scale cadastral operations challenges through technological and methodological innovations
1GEOFIT, France; 2IGNFI France
In a post conflict recovery program context and as part of a development strategy, Colombia has launched a major national cadastral modernization program. Various pilot projects have been defined. Among these, La Mojana, a vast wetland region affected by economical and post-conflict issues, has been selected as a model of cadastral operations at regional scale.
To establish a multipurpose cadastre, IGNFI–GEOFIT has been tasked by the AFD and the DNP to elaborate a methodology with emphasis on social regularization of rural land rights. For this purpose, we proposed a new model of massive cadastral operation, strongly relying on the use of innovative technologies and methods transferred from large scale industrial manufacturing processes. We will show how the catalysation of these innovative factors into an integrated methodology give acces to a new level of efficiency, quality and user satisfaction at a lower cost of operation than current models.
Standardization and integration of the electronic real estate registry system of Brazil (SREI): the national operator of SREI (ONR).
Brazilian Federal Law 13.465 of the year 2017 created an entity called "ONR – Operador Nacional do Sistema de Registro Eletrônico de Imóveis” (National Operator of the Electronic Property Registry System), a private non-profit legal entity, which was committed to the implementation and operation, in national level, of the Electronic Property Registration System. The model envisaged for the entity is based on the so-called "Consensual Administration", in which public interest activities that do not require the exercise of public law prerogatives are decentralized to the private sector. The ONR will be of great value for the exercise of land governance by the Public Administration, as well as to the proper functioning of the real estate market, approximating registry, financial intermediaries, notaries and the buyer of property. The new entity has not yet been formally constituted; even so, its technical aspects are already in full development.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-11: Land administration: Cases from Eastern Europe|
Session Chair: Mihai Taus, Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
Jointly towards improvement of land administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina
1Republic Authority for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Federal Administration for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 3Capacity Building for Improvement of Land Administration and Procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina - CILAP project
Strengthening of the land administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina is recognized as an important goal that can significantly contribute to the secured tenure rights, an efficient property market, the European Union accession and consequently to overall economic and social development and growth.
Joint efforts of geodetic authorities with the support of various carefully coordinated projects are leading to the fulfillment of ultimate goals, improvement of land administration system and facilitation of public service provision. The dedicated work on the establishment of accurate and up to date property registers, address registers and sales price registers has attracted many stakeholders enabling continuous activities on data integration and interoperability.
Exchange of data via web services with other authorities and local governments raising efficiency of work in land administration for user benefits. This prevents data duplication, issuance of incorrect data from unauthorized sources, helps in clear definition of roles and jurisdictions among public institutions.
Innovative technology combat for still pending privatization, legalization challenges, rooted in the communist regime
1NIRAS OY; 2Independent
Is there a light at the end of the tunnel?
Comparative study on ease Kosovo and Albania burning property rights problems, as a key topic for progress in EU-Albania relations.
Property issues are very complex in the region; the countries still struggle with a mixture of issues such as compensation of former owners, illegal constructions and legalizations. Corruption, organized crime and lack of capacity of the state to protect the rightfulness of legal owners still exist; causing serious social conflicts and unrest in the last two decades. The paper assesses how modern innovative technologies, transparent systems, centralized, harmonized databases are the ultimate tools for fighting old problems, how technology would assist most effectively to solve complex legal situations.
The still unregistered properties, due to the pending dispute cases, the remaining restitution and compensation issues, the slow legalization of unpermitted constructions all rooted in the unharmonized and incorrect property related databases.
Innovative approaches in Georgian land registration reform
National Agency of Public Registry (NAPR), Georgia
The new land reform aimed resolving several overarching challenges to land registration in Georgia. It ultimately ensured centralization of registration process through “one-stop-shop” principle, time and effort saving, use of alternative dispute resolution mechanism, free-of-charge services, regulation of non-standardized surveying activities, avoid “overlapping” of boundaries of land parcels, security of ownership rights and reach full coverage of the country. successful implementation of reform has, follow-on benefits for the country, resulted in a more effective and efficient public administration. For example, the complete inventory of land parcels introduced the opportunity to develop appropriate land administration and land use policies that promotes continual economic growth in the agriculture and agribusiness sectors, the contribution was not only to economic growth but also to the improvement of the livelihoods of the general public The new land reform also added transparency and accountability of Georgian land governance and improved investment attractiveness of the country.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-11: Land as instrument for post-conflict peacebuilding|
Session Chair: David F. Varela, Global Land Alliance, Colombia
Housing, land and property (HLP) rights for Syrian women
Norwegian Refugee Council, Syria
Years of warfare in Syria have resulted in mass destruction and a breakdown in essential infrastructure and service provision in major cities, as well as smaller towns and villages. Housing land and property issues are massive and include loss of property documents, secondary occupation, eviction and expropriation. While such challenges apply to all Syrians, the difficulties for women will be particularly acute, especially those who have lost husbands or other male relatives during the conflict.
Based on extensive research and interviews with over 2000 Syrian internally displaced people, this paper describes the particular obstacles and challenges that women face and that prevent their ability to exercise HLP rights. This includes barriers based in both law and custom, as well as the complicating circumstances created by years of war and displacement. The paper provides recommendations to policymakers and practitioners on how to prepare for the immense challenges that lie ahead.
Developing land tenure risk indicators in FCV contexts
The World Bank, United States of America
Access to land is critically important in FCV settings. Land is an important social and economic asset and is often the most considerable asset a household may hold in post-conflict situations. FCV settings can increase land tenure insecurity further through displacement, insecure land tenure, and fraudulent land transfers, land grabbing and the undermining accountability mechanisms. Yet often there is little data available to assess the channels by which land tenure is undermined.
The proposed paper will examine pilot efforts to develop new forms of data collection through GIS and big data (satellite imagery, traditional media, social media, administrative data) that in turn will be used to design land tenure risk indicators. Pilot indicators will include: housing destruction; secondary occupation; land grabbing; implementation of discriminatory regulatory regimes; and fraudulent land transfers. Indicators will be adjusted to fit the local context in several FCV situations.
Technology, policy, national systems and local civil society: using a mobile application to protect the housing, land and property rights of displaced people in Honduras
1UNHCR, The Netherlands; 2UNHCR, Honduras
In Honduras an innovative partnership with parishes and government plus mobile technology is helping to solve displaced people’s problems of housing and land. Many of the nearly 200,000 Hondurans internally displaced by violence and organized crime had little prospect of regaining their homes and land if they returned, because the country’s legal framework and administrative capacity was not adapted to protect forcibly abandoned housing and land. UNHCR supported the government to form a Housing and Land Working Group and mobilized parishes with equipment and training to identify abandoned housing and land and record the data with a mobile application. This data is being incorporated into the national Property Institute’s registration system—thereby strengthening a national system and enabling the government to handle claims for redress efficiently. This fast-tracks a solution to a key impediment to return and empowers government and civil society to handle this aspect of displacement much better.
Environmental peacebuilding through participatory social cartography: land, property and social data mapping of ground zero or most affected area to assist Marawi city recover from violent conflict
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Republic of the Philippines
The Participatory Social Cartography Project is basically land, property and social data mapping of ground zero of the war in Marawi City, Philippines which was recently the site of violent conflict. The project is framed under the ‘Environmental Peacebuilding’ architecture with the strategy of leveraging on land, land resources and the environment to achieve the broader goals of ‘Sustaining Peace’ and ‘Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.’
Marawi City was recently the site of violent conflict waged by extremists that resulted in deaths and destruction of properties in Marawi City. The result of the research conducted by a Committee headed by this author revealed a defective land titling system resulting in thousands of overlapping and misaligned land titles. Land and property data gathering thru PPK/RTK drone mapping, RTK/Total Station land survey and participatory enumeration can address the root causes of the conflict thus, leading to lasting peace.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-11: Remote sensing and deep learning for agricultural productivity|
Session Chair: Felix Rembold, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
Use of earth observation and land parcel identification in supporting the implementation of the common agricultural policy
Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
Satellite crop monitoring within World Bank project on land management transparency in Ukraine
1Space Research Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Space Agency of Ukraine; 2University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 3National Technical University of Ukraine, Ukraine; 4University of Maryland College Park, United States of America; 5EOS Data Analytics, Ukraine
Remote sensing of agricultural land use is one of the essential objectives of the EBRD project “Supporting Transparent Land Governance in Ukraine”. The main goal of the project is Land Cover/Land Use classification based on free satellite data as well as development of efficient automated technologies of land management utilizing remote sensing data.
Within the project we have investigated the applicability of three information platforms — Sen2Agri (developed under ESA support), Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform and our own approach based on artificial neural networks.
All the results of the pilot project should establish the preconditions for transparent functioning of agricultural land market, improving efficiency of land use and creation the foundations for investments in the agricultural sector and rural development.
Proximate sensing of food types and land uses in Thailand using street-level photography and deep learning
University at Buffalo, United States of America
We present new tools to exploit street-level imagery to inventory crop types and land uses. We describe two classifiers using Google Street View imagery and a deep convolutional neural network. First, a multi-class classifier distinguishes six crops and three land uses. Second, a specialized detector recognizes the presence of a single species. We tested these tools along roadside transects in Thailand.
The overall accuracy of the multi-class classifier was 83.3%. For several classes the producer's accuracy was over 90%. This performance compares favorably to some remote-sensing classifiers. The overall classifier accuracy on the top 40% of images is excellent: 99.0%. The area under the specialized detector’s receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9905, indicating excellent performance.
This approach shows potential for fine-grained analysis over large areas. We are developing it further for places where home gardens provide significant diet supplementation, but are poorly characterized when quantifying macro-economically important crops.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-11: Resolving dispute over land|
Session Chair: Jonathan Lindsay, World Bank, United States of America
The impact of land corruption on human rights. insights from transparency international 's land and corruption in Africa programme
1Transparency International Zimbabwe; 2Transparency International Kenya; 3Ghana Intergrity Intiative; 4Corruption Watch
As the United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner notes, land is not a mere commodity, but an essential element for the realization of human rights. The social, political and economic significance of land makes it susceptible to corruption. It is important to note that the endemic corruption in the land sector poses a huge threat to the realization of human rights that come along with access to, use of and control over land. Through profiling cases of Kenya, Ghana and Zimbabwe, this paper seeks to demonstrate how land corruption violates the human rights of citizens. The paper is also a call to action highlighting why it is important to fight corruption in the land sector. The paper is informed by a review of secondary data some of the data sources includes reports by Global Witness, FAO, TI, Landesa, TI National Chapters and DFID Land Legend.
An analysis of dispute resolution systems as a means to fighting land corruption and promotion of access to justice – the case of Kenya, Ghana and Zimbabwe
1Transparency International, Kenya; 2Ghana Integrity Initiative, Ghana; 3Transparency International, Zimbabwe
Many challenges bedevil the justice system in countries, thus leading to protracted resolution of land cases. These challenges not only fuel land corruption, but lead to immense violation of land rights. This paper seeks to analyse dispute resolution mechanisms as a means to fighting land corruption and promoting access to justice. It asserts the need to examine the legal, institutional reforms and progress made towards making access to justice for all a reality. It further proposes mapping out the existing formal and informal land dispute resolution mechanisms, strengthening their capacity and enhancing transparency and accountability in discharging their mandate.
Through analyzing case studies in Kenya, Ghana and Zimbabwe, the paper is framed within the nuances of Goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals on promoting peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
Redress for land rights violations and the legal empowerment agenda
1International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), United Kingdom; 2Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (TNRF), Tanzania; 3Global Legal Action Network (GLAN)
Pressures on land are growing in many low and middle-income countries. Despite significant international attention to ‘land grabbing’ and efforts to inject greater transparency into land deals, communities still struggle to effectively assert their rights in the face of large land-based investments. While there exists a plethora of redress mechanisms available to communities depending on the type of rights violations and type of investments triggering these violations, many community leaders and civil society organizations still find it daunting to navigate the process of filing a complaint for many of the reasons cited above. Thus, the volume of complaints remains low relative to the harms faced by rural communities in the global south. This paper will elaborate on new socio-legal empowerment strategies organizations are testing to promote achieve legal redress for victims of land rights violations.
Bylaws to improve land value and conflict resolution experience in Tanzania:
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
In Tanzania especially, village areas most of villagers don’t have clear understanding value of their land and natural resources on it. This has led to conflict of land between villagers themselves and between farmers and pastoralists. Lack of enough understanding of Land has also led to Villagers selling their Land in low prices and even providing to investors just by given some promises which most of them are not fulfilled.
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-01: Using drones for land use mapping and risk assessment|
Using drones for land use mapping and risk assessment
World Bank group, Tanzania
Rapid urbanization is driving disaster risk in Africa to change from predominantly rural—with drought and food security challenges—to urban, with floods, cyclone, and earthquakes. Africa’s fast-growing cities are already struggling with natural hazards as climate change intensifies. A key challenge in risk reduction is the timely collection of actionable risk data.
Drones are an agile image collection platform with a significant potential to support land use mapping and risk assessment. In 2018, the Dar es Salaam Multi-Agency Emergency Response Team is requested a local drone company to collect imagery to identify flood damage. The Zanzibar Mapping Initiative over 2500 km² of drone imagery which is used for coastal and environmental monitoring and urban planning.
how exactly can drone data be translated into actionable information? we will illustrate examples from Tanzania which demonstrate how participatory mapping and AI technologies can be leveraged to transform aerial drone imagery into actions.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-01: How land professionals can contribute to making the SDGs a reality|
How land professionals can contribute to making the SDGs a reality
1RICS, United Kingdom; 2FIG, United Kingdom
There is a deep affinity and interconnection between various FIG commissions and none more so than commissions 7 (land administration), 8 (spatial planning), 9 (valuation). Initiatives such as the ‘valuation of unregistered land’ projects as undertaken by RICS, FIG and GLTN and output from RICS on professional sectors and the SDGs a reality, have really started to resonant with many in the global land professionals from both the private and public sectors. FFP, LADM and ILMS along with numerous other standards, benchmarks and indices are only there to achieve the purpose of enabling transparent, effective and efficient land & property markets, the SDGs are a framework for achieving this goal. This workshop and masterclass sets out to open this dialogue on how we can actively interact with the SDG framework to promote awareness, learning and collaboration.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-01: Build a blockchain land record register|
Build a blockchain land record register
Medici Land Governance, United States of America