02-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions
Land conservation for open space: spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors
University of Maryland at College Park, United States of America
Land conservation has been widely used as a policy tool to contain urban sprawl, protect habitat, and provide ecosystem services through conservation easements. This paper investigates spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors on private landowners’ conservation decision for open space. A spatially-explicit panel dataset is constructed to illustrate the patterns of private land parcels on conservation easements over time. In the empirical analysis, this paper identifies endogenous spatial interactions and employs a correlated random-effects model to correct for the endogeneity of time-varying covariates. The results show that there exist positive impacts of neighbors on the likelihood of private landowners’ conservation decision. This paper extends the literature by showing that such spatial spillovers diminish with distance and present a non-linear pattern as the number of neighbors increases. Land parcel characteristics such as parcel size and local land price are also found to influence landowners’ decision to place a conservation easement.
Smallholder crop market participation in Tanzania: The influence of transaction cost, asset endowment and producer cooperatives
Chr.Michelsen Institute, Norway
This paper assess the determinants of crop market participation among smallholder farmers in Tanzania, with a focus on the role of transaction cost, asset endowment and cooperatives. The study is based on household survey data from Southern Tanzania where cooperatives play a significant role in the cash crop market. We analyse market participation using Cragg’s double-hurdle model and control for potential endogeneity of cooperative membership using control function approach. We find that distance to market negatively influences cash crop sales while better access to information and communication encourages both food and cash crop marketing. Among asset endowments, only agriculture-specific resources have significant impact. The study shows that while cooperatives improve market participation among members, they also appear to stunt local food markets. Having a marketing cooperatives branch in the village reduces both the likelihood of selling food crops and the amount sold. It does not affect cash crop market participation.
Land access and household implementation of agroecosystems in rural Guatemala
Iowa State University, United States of America
Agroecology is increasingly promoted as a rural development and livelihood strategy that can reduce poverty and increase food security. However, this assumption is made without understanding how peasant households can access land on which they can implement agroecological practices. This research asks: How does differential access to land influence a household’s decision to implement agroecological practices? What types of land tenure statuses are conducive to adapting agroecosystems? Using a political ecology lens, I analyze the implementation of agroecological practices among households in San Martín Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango, Guatemala through qualitative research conducted in early 2016. I find that differences in land ownership and the size of the plots farmed or used for grazing are key factors to household implementation or use of agroecological practices. Agroecological practices can only be implemented and yield a sustainable livelihood if households have access to enough land on which they can implement the practices.
Land markets and transaction costs following institutional strengthening: A pre-post evaluation in Mongolia
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
High level interventions that focus on institutional and technology improvements at a national level or in a limited number of urban/provincial areas do not lend themselves to rigorous impact evaluations, as there is often no feasible counterfactual. Correspondingly, most quantitative research on land tenure has focused on measuring indicators and outcomes at the household or community level. The analysis of land administration and bank loan data is notably absent from empirical studies to-date. This paper seeks to fill this evidence gap and build the knowledge base on the effectiveness of national level land administration and capacity building interventions by presenting the endline performance evaluation findings of a Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Mongolia land registry strengthening project. Our paper utilizes a variety of data sources to test whether the project achieved expected outcomes, primarily increased efficiency of land transactions.