|Location: MC 5-100|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Land and human rights, gender and indigenous people of Kaduna state, Nigeria
Kaduna Geographic Information Service, Nigeria
In Nigeria, like most African countries today, customary systems of land regulation are being undermined and weakened, and more formal regulative mechanisms being developed. In most part of Nigeria, Kaduna State inclusive access to land, use and control especially by the women and the indigenous people continue to be a challenge.
Thus, the introduction of land Use Decree was an attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to solve these problems.
Despite all this effort the land ownership continues to be a serious challenge to indigenous people of Kaduna State.
The study on this topic a case study of Kaduna state, shows that Land rights for the indigenous are insecure and unclear.
This paper wishes to examine Kaduna State amongst the few states in Nigeria to make laws, official regulations and policies to address these problems of land and human rights, gender equity for the benefits of its indigenous people.
World Bank-funded land titling in Piauí, Brazil: a pillar of growth or a regularization of land grabs?
1ActionAid USA, United States of America; 2Rede Social de Justiça e Direitos Humanos, Brasil; 3ActionAid Brasil, Brasil; 4Comissão Pastoral da Terra, Brasil
In 2015 the World Bank approved loans of $320 million to support “Pillars of Growth and Social Inclusion" in the state of Piauí, where the Brazilian government announced its MATOPIBA project to expand large-scale soybean production. A key part of the loans includes support for land titling. However, the project needs to address unrecognized conflicts, namely the grabbing of community commons, public lands and water by large scale farmers and ranchers. This paper analyzes the human rights, land rights, and environmental issues at stake, and will report on the status of community concerns and progress toward recognizing, protecting and recovering the land rights of marginalized communities. Finally, the paper will distill key recommendations for institutions and governments to meet their human rights obligations and protect community land rights in line with the United Nations Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs).
Land tenure, gender, and productivity in Ethiopia and Tanzania
The World Bank (USA), UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands) and Jimma University (Ethiopia)
Agricultural land use and tenure system in many African countries are characterized by subsistence production and communal land tenure system. Reforming the tenure system in a way that ensures tenure security could promote sustainable agriculture in the region. In addition, women’s right to land is an essential recipe for rural development. This chapter, therefore, analyzes the gender differential effects of land tenure security on productivity in East Africa using LSMS data from Ethiopia and Tanzania. The chapter uses plot and household level data to investigate the effect of land title and other determinants of crop productivity. The main results show that tenure security positively and significantly affects households’ productivity in general and female-headed households in particular. Potential indicators that positively correlate with crop productivity are total land and plot sizes, inorganic fertilizer use, input credit access, herbicide use, soil and plots type. Policy implications are drawn from the results.
The Impacts of land tenure regularisation programme in Rwanda
1UK Department for International Development, Rwanda; 2Mokoro ltd
The Land Tenure Regularisation programme started as a pilot project in 2005, has been running at scale since 2009, and is expected to end March 2019.The aim of the LTR programme was to issue a registered title to every landholder in Rwanda through a one-off, low-cost community-based process and thereby contribute to poverty reduction, increase investment, optimize land use, and promotes gender equality in access to land and reduce conflicts related to access and ownership of land.
In recent years, the LTR Programme has consistently been sighted as a landmark example of systematic land tenure reform in Africa and textbook case for wider replication. This synthesis paper summarize the findings from an impact evaluation commissioned by DFID between September 2018 and January 2019.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Malcolm Childress, Global Land Alliance, United States of America
Land conservation for open space: spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors
University of Maryland at College Park, United States of America
Land conservation has been widely used as a policy tool to contain urban sprawl, protect habitat, and provide ecosystem services through conservation easements. This paper investigates spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors on private landowners’ conservation decision for open space. A spatially-explicit panel dataset is constructed to illustrate the patterns of private land parcels on conservation easements over time. In the empirical analysis, this paper identifies endogenous spatial interactions and employs a correlated random-effects model to correct for the endogeneity of time-varying covariates. The results show that there exist positive impacts of neighbors on the likelihood of private landowners’ conservation decision. This paper extends the literature by showing that such spatial spillovers diminish with distance and present a non-linear pattern as the number of neighbors increases. Land parcel characteristics such as parcel size and local land price are also found to influence landowners’ decision to place a conservation easement.
Smallholder crop market participation in Tanzania: The influence of transaction cost, asset endowment and producer cooperatives
Chr.Michelsen Institute, Norway
This paper assess the determinants of crop market participation among smallholder farmers in Tanzania, with a focus on the role of transaction cost, asset endowment and cooperatives. The study is based on household survey data from Southern Tanzania where cooperatives play a significant role in the cash crop market. We analyse market participation using Cragg’s double-hurdle model and control for potential endogeneity of cooperative membership using control function approach. We find that distance to market negatively influences cash crop sales while better access to information and communication encourages both food and cash crop marketing. Among asset endowments, only agriculture-specific resources have significant impact. The study shows that while cooperatives improve market participation among members, they also appear to stunt local food markets. Having a marketing cooperatives branch in the village reduces both the likelihood of selling food crops and the amount sold. It does not affect cash crop market participation.
Land access and household implementation of agroecosystems in rural Guatemala
Iowa State University, United States of America
Agroecology is increasingly promoted as a rural development and livelihood strategy that can reduce poverty and increase food security. However, this assumption is made without understanding how peasant households can access land on which they can implement agroecological practices. This research asks: How does differential access to land influence a household’s decision to implement agroecological practices? What types of land tenure statuses are conducive to adapting agroecosystems? Using a political ecology lens, I analyze the implementation of agroecological practices among households in San Martín Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango, Guatemala through qualitative research conducted in early 2016. I find that differences in land ownership and the size of the plots farmed or used for grazing are key factors to household implementation or use of agroecological practices. Agroecological practices can only be implemented and yield a sustainable livelihood if households have access to enough land on which they can implement the practices.
Land markets and transaction costs following institutional strengthening: A pre-post evaluation in Mongolia
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
High level interventions that focus on institutional and technology improvements at a national level or in a limited number of urban/provincial areas do not lend themselves to rigorous impact evaluations, as there is often no feasible counterfactual. Correspondingly, most quantitative research on land tenure has focused on measuring indicators and outcomes at the household or community level. The analysis of land administration and bank loan data is notably absent from empirical studies to-date. This paper seeks to fill this evidence gap and build the knowledge base on the effectiveness of national level land administration and capacity building interventions by presenting the endline performance evaluation findings of a Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Mongolia land registry strengthening project. Our paper utilizes a variety of data sources to test whether the project achieved expected outcomes, primarily increased efficiency of land transactions.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-05: Land price determinants|
Session Chair: Dieter von Fintel, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Does the Real Estate Trading Management System (RTMS) affect housing price and tax base?: Evidence from Korea
Korea Development Institute, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Spatial distributions of job accessibility, housing rents, and poverty in Nairobi, Kenya
World Bank, United States of America
Monopolist land supply, housing cycle and entrepreneurship in urban China
The Economist, China, People's Republic of
Growth of cities and urban influence on agricultural land prices in Malawi
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-05: Assessing impact of Infrastructure investments|
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
How do mass transit investments affect land values? evidence from MRT-3
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Ecological footprint of transportation infrastructure
1University of California, San Diego, United States of America; 2World Bank; 3Dartmouth College
How large are the contributions of cities to the development of rural communities?
1London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom; 2Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP); 3Food and Agricutural Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 4The National Statistics Institute of Chile (INE)
From municipal investments to functional subregions: new territorial planning units in Colombia
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-05: Impact of informal tenure upgrading|
Session Chair: Remi Jedwab, George Washington University, United States of America
High delinquency rates in Brazil’s Minha Casa Minha Vida housing program: Possible causes and necessary reforms
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2University of Pennsylvania, United States of America; 3Independent, Brazil
Backyarding: theory and evidence for South Africa
1University of California, Irvine, United States of America; 2Independent consultant, South Africa; 3World Bank, United States of America
Impact Evaluations of Informal Settlements Upgrading Interventions: Evidence assessment and new topics for research.
1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina; 2Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina
Measuring housing deprivations in India: an alternative approach to slum enumeration
1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2The World Bank Group, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-05: Land markets at the rural-urban fringe|
Session Chair: Songqing Jin, Michigan State Univ./Zhejiang Univ., China, People's Republic of
Land transactions in the rural-urban fringes of Dar es Salaam and Nairobi: driving forces, stakeholders and challenges for land governance
Sciences Po Bordeaux, France
Land market determinants and outcomes in Rwanda: an econometric analysis
1University of Rwanda, Rwanda; 2iLand Consulting; 3RLMUA; 4DFID
How horizontal integration affects transaction costs of rural collective construction land market? An empirical analysis in Nanhai District, Guangdong Province, China
Huazhong Agricultural University, China, People's Republic of
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-05: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy|
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The
The importance and nature of (land administration) data when using emerging technologies
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Reflections on the possible privatization of Land Registries by making use of emerging technologies
Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
Embracing emerging technologies; preconditions, threshold, possibilities and guarantees
International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
East-African perspectives and experiences, using modern technology while building up Land Administration systems in the region.
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
A brief introduction about the experiences in Brazil, Peru and other countries in South America
Global Land Alliance, Peru
The experience in Australia with privatising land registries
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-05: Urban land research, land assembly and land markets in China|
Session Chair: Fang Xia, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Land-constrain-induced poverty and land-capitalization-supported poverty alleviation strategy in China: A case study of Shaanxi Province
Xi'an Jiaotong University, United States of America
Impact of land certification on land and labor allocation in China
1Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of; 2Australia National University, Australia; 3Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Science, China, People's Republic of
Reduction of industrial land beyond Urban Development Boundary in Shanghai
Renmin University of China, China, People's Republic of China
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-05: SDGs on land: Methodology and reporting|
Session Chair: Sydney Gourlay, World Bank, United States of America
Reporting on SDG indicator 1.4.2 for high income countries: the case of the U.S.
1Landesa, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America; 3USAID, United States of America
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include a process of identifying globally comparable targets, indicators and harmonized data to measure progress towards each goal. One of these, SDG indicator 1.4.2, measures the percentage of the population with secure tenure rights to land, where security of tenure rights is proxied by whether people (a) have documented rights to land and (b) perceived their rights as secure.
While much attention has been devoted to data collection efforts for the SDGs in developing countries, it is also vital for European, North American, and other high income countries to report. These higher income countries can still face considerable challenges in establishing and institutionalizing data collection efforts sufficient to fully report on the indicator. This paper presents some of the challenges and potential options for the U.S. Government to report on indicator 1.4.2, which may have important lessons for other high income countries.
Considering the multidimensional nature of tenure security in land policies
University of East Anglia, UK
This paper considers tenure security through the politics and policies of land tenure. The key argument is that seeing tenure security solely through one lens, for instance that of securing tenure through land registration, hides some of its more dynamic aspects related to political, social and cultural relations defining tenure, and to interaction between actors located at different levels. This omission can be detrimental for the success of land policies which instead of enhancing tenure security can reinforce existing and/or create new sources of tenure insecurity. The paper hence invites to consider tenure security from a multidimensional perspective and throughout a policy process. To build the argument, the paper builds on literature on the politics of land and examines the land policy process in Madagascar.
Measuring perceived tenure insecurity: issues, challenges, and recommendations
Landesa, United States of America
An important outcome in land tenure programming and research that has been receiving increasing attention is perceived tenure security- that is, the extent to which individuals perceive their tenure to be protected against threats and risks. Perceived tenure security is a component of SDG indicator 1.4.2., while impact evaluations of land tenure interventions increasingly seek to incorporate perceived tenure insecurity as an outcome.
However, measuring perceived tenure security presents some important conceptual and methodological challenges. To date, a systematic assessment of these challenges and recommendations on addressing them has been lacking. The purpose of this paper is to help address this gap. The paper discusses conceptual and methodological issues in defining and measuring perceived tenure security, reviews existing attempts at measurement, and provides recommendations and sample modules. The paper aims to promote the use of more analytically and conceptually rigorous perceived tenure security measures in future data collection and research.
Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy
Discussant based on experience with SDG data collection
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-05: The role of land in structural transformation|
Session Chair: Jonathan Conning, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, United States of America
Poverty, Inequality, and Agriculture in the EU
The World Bank, United States of America
Small farms, large farms and international productivity differences
1The Graduate Center, City University of New York, United States of America; 2Hunter College, City University of New York, United States of America
The misallocation of land and other factors of production in India
World Bank, United States of America
At what price? Price supports, agricultural productivity, and misallocation
University of Southern California, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-05: Land and water governance|
Session Chair: Marie-Laure Lajaunie, World Bank, United States of America
Linking irrigated land and water scarcity: a global view
World Bank, United States of America
Based on an innovative analysis of country-level data reported from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization—in particular on area equipped for irrigation (a proxy for irrigated land), agricultural water withdrawals, and total renewable water resources—, the paper explores the link between irrigated land and water scarcity at the global level. Trends in agricultural water withdrawals show large increases, though with declining rates of growth since about 1980. Countries’ agricultural withdrawals are closely linked to total water withdrawals, and also to the area equipped for irrigation. At the global level, agricultural water withdrawals are closely linked to water scarcity levels. With increasing scarcity, interventions related to irrigated land should therefore be moving to the center of water management concerns. In many countries, however, even high levels of water scarcity seem to have had little effect so far on trends in agricultural withdrawals and area equipped for irrigation.
Land and water: the rights divergence
SPRL KH & Associates, Belgium
Ensuring secure access to both land and water is key to the eradication of rural poverty and increased agricultural production. Yet, the legal and policy mechanisms for the allocation and use of land and water are increasingly divergent: water was actually omitted from the VGGT. Building on, and updating, an earlier FAO study, the aim of this paper is to trace this divergence in terms of rights to land and water resources and to seek to identify possible new approaches and areas for intervention. The obsolescence of traditional land tenure-based water rights in the face of increased pressure on water resources has led many countries to introduce ‘modern’ permit based water rights that sever the link to the land. The land-water divergence is further exacerbated by the SDG mandated introduction of integrated water resources management (IWRM) with its own specific methodologies and approaches.
Intensification of irrigated agriculture: the case of the Boudnib plain in Morocco
1Independent consultant, Morocco; 2Agroconcept, Romania; 3INRA SAD, ISARA Lyon, France; 4IAV Hassan II, Morocco
Agricultural development in the Sahara is relatively recent in Morocco as compared to North African countries. The plain of Boudnib, located in the South East of Morocco, is interesting for it differs in terms of rythm, actors, land rights and political setup. A “visible revolution” involves the national capitalist groups consolidated by liberal policies. The anticipated high rent created by the exploitation of natural resources - unlimited rangeland and abundant groundwater- to produce high value Medjool date palm and the high mobility of production factors contribute to the emergence of a specific model. It creates a visible agricultural boom and at the same time it induces local communities to request the access to land and groundwater for small scale extensions on the basis of their historical land rights. However, individual allocation of land may not be the best way to share the hydraulic rent and alternative pathways are needed.
Irrigation Modernization in Spain: what influences the Effects on Water?
1ICATALIST, Spain; 2Valladolid City Council, Spain; 3Duero River basin agency, Spain
This paper presents the results of a proof of concept study undertaken for the FAO/UNU on the concept of water tenure and its application to an irrigation modernisation project in the Duero basin in Spain, and a follow up study funded by the Duero River basin agency on the effectiveness of subsidies for irrigation modernization to comply with the European Union Water Framework Directive.
The study analyses the impacts of a switch in irrigation technology on changes in land and water use that are often ignored or underestimated. These land-water relationships, if not well understood and monitored, could mean that decisions in either agricultural policy or water policy have unintended consequences, including potential negative impacts on resource use. Aligning water and land use planning ex-ante to account for these interactions is key for a deeper and more nuanced understanding on the close connections between land and water use.