|Location: MC 7-100|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-07: Managing public land for the common good|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Common pool resource access rights and wrongs: Insights from Ghana
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Ghana
Common pool resources (CPRs) are resources that are available to more than one person and subject to degradation as a result of overuse. Over the years many studies on CPRs have emerged. However, there are still unanswered questions on how best to manage CPRs while correcting the wrongs of abuse and free riding. Using the case of urban forests in Ghana, the focus of this inquiry was to understand whether resource managers in developing countries employ appropriate tools for the management of CPRs. This article used the theory of access and institutions to examine the broad range of factors including property rights to land and theft that enable people to benefit from CPRs. Our findings suggest that management of CPRs in Ghana is mediated by complex interrelationships between customary and statutory institutions. Different forms of legal (title, leese, deeds) and illegal rights (theft, coercion, violence, deception) characterized access to CPRs.
Spatial planning for land use and protection as an anti-poverty tool in rural areas: case study of innovative approaches on the USAID-funded agriculture and rural development support project
Chemonics International Inc.
The poverty rate among the rural population in Ukraine reinforces the need to change the rural development model. Land reform, reform of power decentralization, and local self-governance are underway in the country. Land is the main resource, but communities lack experience and tools for land resource management. Approaches and tools developed by the USAID-funded Agriculture and Rural Development Support (ARDS) project are feasible for helping newly-established communities set up a system for spatial planning and efficient land use and protection based on modern GIS-technology; and to resolve community development issues of environmental, social, and investment nature. Public discussion of community plans and decisions adopted later by the local authorities are an important component of this system. The proposed methodology has been tested in pilot communities and enables the mitigation of corruption risks in land relations, as well as improves well-being in rural areas.
The official biological killing of productive land under the silence of a class of citizens and applause of others: when all contribute in destroying living land!!!
1Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret (Algeria); 2Abou-Bekr Blekaid University of Tlemcen (Algeria)
All Economists recognize that land is one of the most important factors of production, and one of the decisive determinants of economic growth and development, in any period and country. And most of them agree that rational economic logic invalidates any sense of talking about sustainable economic, human and social development unless it is linked to a strong protection of limited area of agricultural and pastoral land which every rational person must preserve it and support its crucial role as a sustainable source of human food, incomes and also for the accumulation of wealth. But because there are other alternative uses of land, such as those aimed to satisfy many needs of citizens in terms of housing, working, security, shopping, sports, worship, recreation, etc., so the land with high biological productivity is subject to many policies and practices which make them completely and definitively lost its biological spirit and fertility.
Improving governance of tenure: Technology as the enabler
1FAO, Ethiopia; 2FAO, HQ, Italy
Fit-for-purpose enabling technology is an excellent catalyst for improving the governance of tenure in legal pluralistic environments but it requires pragmatic and sustained political will to generate and sustain interests of local communities whose participation is critical for ownership and success. Governments as duty bearers hold responsibility to make the systems sustainable so as to provide secure tenure rights and create the enabling environment for sustained economic development. The paper provides an overview and analysis of the use of technology as the enabler for improving governance of tenure. Four case studies are presented dealing with different tenure contexts. These are clam fisheries tenure in Ghana, Land Administration and community land recording in Angola, Illegal forestry occupation in Tunisia, and tenure administration in private mailo lands in Uganda all within the framework of VGGT. The paper concludes that sustainability is key in using technology as enabler for improved governance of tenure.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-07: Supporting land management by customary authorities|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Stephen Brooks, US Agency for International Development, United States of America
Customary land secretariats in Ghana as change agents in land dispute management
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana
Innovative customary land governance in Zambia: experiences, lessons learned and emerging impacts
1People's Process on Housing & Poverty in Zambia, Zambia; 2Chamuka Royal Establishment; 3UN-Habitat/GLTN
Improving customary land administration in Ghana- CLSs shows the way
Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands, Ghana
Making Customary Land Secretariats financially and operationally sustainable from the ground up in Ghana
1Meridia, Netherlands; 2Innola, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-07: Land policies for smart city development|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Rachelle Alterman, Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
Experiments of urban land supply and development: India
RICS School of Built Environment, India
In India, approximating a business-as-usual scenario, an average of 15 square kilometers of land needs to be planned and serviced for urban use every single day up to the year 2050 (WRI India, 2016). However, compulsory land acquisition and traditional planning instruments/apparatus have continually failed to achieve the entrepreneurial dreams of 'worlding cities' of India. The answer thus is found in increasing private sector participation in land assembly, planning and development, and metamorphosing public development agencies from providers to facilitators. This research throws light on a few of these innovative methods of land supply and development. This research tries to investigate urban sprawl and excessive reliance on real estate business for land development, in the garb of land supply for urbanization, the ever-increasing role of parastatals morphing into pseudo developing authorities by involving private planning consulting firms leading to privatization of development planning with a meager public consultation/participation.
Citizen-centric digital land and asset management in the greenfield city development: case study of Amaravati
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, India
Smart cities across the world are deploying digital systems and infrastructure, that is helping achieve various objectives on efficiency, transparency and in general, improved governance. Amaravati, a greenfield capital city that is being developed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh is taking lead in deployment of various technologies to streamline its efficiency of operations whilst keeping the citizen at the center of such activities. Several initiatives such as a Citizen mobile application, blockchain deployment for land registry, development of a digital twin for the city, implementation of BIM and 3D City modelling all emerge as an array of best practices that cities can learn from. It is important to note how various data sources and applications converge in a manner that positively and systematically drives city outcomes – and it can only be achieved by design and policy.
Egovernance initiatives of slum rehabilitation authority, Mumbai
Government of Maharashtra, India
Slum Rehabilitation Authority, Mumbai has initiated lot of eGovernance initiatives which are beneficial for slum dwellers as well as common citizens. It is SRA’s vision to have a digital workflow for all the citizen services so that there is transparency and efficiency in the functioning of all the Departments.
The aim of this paper is to showcase the GIS based Slum Information Management System (SIMS) solution which consists of four components; Topographical Survey of Slum Clusters & Slum Rehabilitation (SR) Schemes, LiDAR Survey of Slum Huts, Mobile Application for gathering slum dwellers information and Web Application with Web-GIS feature for determining the slum dwellers eligibility for free housing under SR Schemes.
SIMS has facilitated Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) in sector-wise micro-planning of slum cluster, speedy implementation of SR schemes, availability of digital data in real-time, easy dissemination of slum information and bringing transparency, and effectiveness in identification of eligible slum dwellers.
Imagine and design the legal framework for the cities of the future: the example of Mauritian ‘smart cities’
1Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France; 2Conseil Supérieur du Notariat, France
By 2050, the proportion of the world's population living in urban areas is expected to reach 66% (54% in 2014).
Planning efforts will therefore be essential to ensure essential services to populations, such as access to energy, water, waste treatment, housing, health and transport.
In 2015, Mauritius launched the creation of fifteen new intelligent city projects, that are supposed to rely on the capacity of self-organisation of inhabitants. Nevertheless, it is necessary to provide in advance an appropriate legal framework, because these new cities will consist of land or buildings for common use and others for private use.
However, the provisions of the Civil Code have so far proved insufficient to support the construction of such complexes, which include private owners, companies and condominiums.
To meet this urgent need, Mauritius mandated a multidisciplinary team to develop a new regulatory framework for real estate complexes, and co-ownership in particular.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-07: Managing sprawl: From data to policies|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Neeraj Baruah, Vivid Economics, United Kingdom
Anatomy of Density
New York University, United States of America
We have found a novel way to decompose the average urban density of a city--the ratio of the total population of a city and its urban extent--into three, five, or seven factors that, when multiplied together yield urban density. Decomposing density into its factors--crowding, the occupancy rate, floorpan efficiency, building height, plot coverage, residential land use share, and the saturation of the urban extent by the built-up area--allow us to form a set of pragmatic policies that can increase average urban densities and to assess the potential effectiveness of such policies. We have collected data on the seven factors that together constitute average urban population density in a global sample of ten cities--Dhaka, Hong Kong, Kinshasa, Bangkok, Madrid, Baku, Minneapolis, Wuhan, Cairo, and Bogotá. We will present and discuss these data, much of it surprising, and discuss their implication for the potential for densification in cities in the world at large.
Measuring urban economic density
The London School of Economics, United Kingdom
This paper evaluates the use of different measures of economic
density in assessing urban agglomeration effects, by examining how well they explain household income differences across cities and neighborhoods in six African countries. We examine simple scale and density measures and more nuanced ones which capture in second moments the extent of clustering within cities. The evidence suggests that more nuanced measures attempting to capture within-city differences in the extent of clustering do no better than a simple density measure in explaining income differences across cities, at least for the current degree of accuracy in measuring clustering.
Master scheme for the simplification and digital transformation of urban land management
1IGN FI, France; 2Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLAU), Ivory Coast
In April 2017, the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLU) created by decree the Steering Committee for Simplification and Digitization (CP-STD). By setting up this committee, the Ministry is strengthening the coordination and leadership mechanisms for managing the tasks involved in modernizing its administrative functions in line with the vision of reforms recommended by the “Doing Business” program – improving the business environment by simplifying administrative procedures relating to construction, housing, sanitation and urban planning.
In order to implement this transformation within the Administration, the Department has chosen to develop a blueprint of the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of urban land. This study, led by the Permanent Secretariat to the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of the MCLU, and conducted by IGN FI with technical assistance from the BNETD, marks the willingness of the Government to implement reforms.
The National Urban Policy as a Framework for managing Urban expansion and land use change in Malawi
Mnistry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Malawi has experienced rapid urbanization since independence with 15.3% of the national population living in urban areas in 2008. Estimates by the National Statistics Office (NSO) indicate that 30 % of the population in the country will be urban based by 2030, escalating to 50 % in 2050.
Rapid urbanisation coupled with limited technical and financial capacity among urban development institutions has contributed to unregulated urban growth among others. Government has in the past implemented Rural Development programmes in an attempt to manage urbanization by reducing rural urban migration. .
This paper looks at these programmes and the impact they had on managing urbanization and the lessons learnt from their implementation. The paper concludes that sustainable urbanization can only be achieved through the implementation of a proper guiding framework like the National Urban Policy.
National Physical Development Plan; National Urban Policy ,Secondary Centres;
Rural Growth Centres,urban expansion. Urbanisation;
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-07: Improving access to land for urban expansion|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Rebecca Leshinsky, RMIT University, Australia
Urban planning orientation tools implementation in Bamako District
University of Law and Political Science of Bamako, Mali
Growing cities across the globe face a number of changelings and problems which posse threat to their dwellers. In the world today, the fastest growing city in Africa and the sixth in the world, Bamako currently faces huge challenge of implementation urban planning tools which sooner or later might be difficult to be addressed. In attempt to have a holistic view of the challenge, 646 questionnaires were given to its common citizens, 32 questionnaires were given to Neighborhood Development Committee (CDQ) members, and 11 interviews had been conducted in 32 Neighborhoods (quarters) in the 06 Communes of Bamako District. Through the use of simple percentage, this study discovered that planning orientation tools are not implemented and plans are not respected in Bamako District. The city is progressively demolishing and the village is set up for the change of public facilities into dwellings and the residents are not satisfied of that.
Urban planning and land shortcoming in Morocco: Aspects of injustice and perspectives
1National Institute of Urban Planning, Morocco; 2University Qadi ayyad, Morocco; 3Institute of agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Morocco; 4National Council of Licensed Surveyors, Morocco
Urban planning tools in Morocco are a source of land injustice. Urban planning documents continue to reflect a prescriptive and normative urbanism based on a functionalist logic of equipment distribution and zoning, constantly generating spatial divisions and correlative social segregations. Land inequity is a source of social injustice for those who have suffered the consequences of prejudicial planning. The idea discussed by this paper follows three basic frameworks: the first focuses on revealing the scope and limits of the normative and legal framework for urban planning. The second aims to highlight the forms of land injustice arising from urban plans. As for the third axis, it focuses on the principles, rules and prospects for a possible renewal in this area.
Urban planning and land issues in the city of Antananarivo
Ministry of Regional Development, Building, Housing and Public Works - Madagascar
As the Malagasy population is still composed of 75% of farmers and most of them do not yet have their own land, the development of urban areas can not keep pace with the rural exodus which is constantly increasing;
Given this fact, we thought that it would be essential to focus on the study of this phenomenon, in order to know the realities that surround it and in what perspectives they can be improved.
After the ten years of land reform, a new Land Policy Letter has been initiated in 2015.
Land issues involve actors in a perspective of sustainable planning development. The synergy of all stakeholders is therefore essential to resolve the problmes in an urban area, especially local authorities, environmental managers, specialists in urban planning and housing, civil society, land administration and local land offices.
Assessing suitability and acceptability of development plans and town planning schemes in small and medium town: a case of Gujarat
CEPT University, India
The paper focuses on urban plan preparation in Gujarat, which is backed by the robust legislative framework. This two-stage plan preparation process is popularly known as Development Plan (DP) and Town Planning Schemes (TPS). The intention of this plan is to support future growth and develop it in a planned manner. Large cities have comparatively better governance structures and hence are generally able to prepare these plans. However, it has been observed that these urban plans are facing challenges to gain momentum in small and medium towns. Local bodies of these towns are unable to defend urban plans prepared by them. Hence, these plans faced severe resistance and opposition from the community and had to be withdrawn or updated the urban plans. This paper reviews and ascertain the issues faced by urban local bodies and stakeholders during the preparation and implementation of these plans and followed by the recommendations.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-07: Regulations for urban planning|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Peter Mwangi, Walker Kontos, Kenya
Spatial planning, urban expansion and land use conversion: a study on urban form of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnamese-German University, Vietnam
This paper aims to present the transformation of urban form and identify challenges of spatial development and planning in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The paper starts with an overview on the Geographical Information System (GIS) dataset developed from various data provided by technical departments of HCMC such as street network, population time-series, topography, land use, housing and infrastructure. After that, using equidistant concentric annulus analysis and overlaying techniques, the paper attempts to (i) understand urban expansion process and associated risks for sustainable development, (ii) analyze population distribution by direction and by distance to city centre, (iii) identify land use factors influencing population distribution in HCMC, especially the development of industrial parks. The findings point out significant differences between spatial development directions in the city’s Master Plans and actual development directions during 1999-2015 period. In the conclusion, policy implications for sustainable urban development of HCMC will be discussed.
Exploring options for leaseholds in the Mukuru special planning area
1Cardiff University, United Kingdom; 2Akiba Mashinani Trust, Kenya; 3Katiba Institute, Nairobi
The declaration of the informal settlements of Mukuru Kwa Njenga, Kwa Reuben and Viwandani slums as a Special Planning Area (SPA) was momentous given the numerous challenges that have been occasioned by lack of, or poor planning in the area. Extensive discussions have been held with the aim of finding solutions to the longstanding concerns of inadequate access to sanitation and lack of proper housing within these areas. Actualization of proposed solutions in the past have however stalled as a result of the unresolved question of land ownership within the slums. It has been noted with concern that the land question in the slums continues to be a barrier to planning imperatives that may be beneficial to these settlements. This paper explores some possible options available to Nairobi City County Government to deal with the leaseholds in the Mukuru SPA to enable proper planning and upgrading of Mukuru.
Aligning land use policies to community vision in regulating land beyond urban: an initiative in Odisha, India
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, India
The paper brings in the need for a community vision-led landuse policy that governs land beyond urban. As per Census of India 2011, 68.84 percent of India is rural. Except for few states, land in rural areas is not governed through spatial tools and policies. The state of Odisha, located in the south-eastern part of India being 83.32 percent rural (Census 2011), lacks a landuse policy and spatial regulation tool for all rural areas and many of its urban areas. Due to absence or inadequacy of a comprehensive policy for landuse development, investments are not guided to villages and small or medium towns. To make the denied areas thrive as productive and livable territories, it becomes essential to distribute land development benefits equitably over space. The paper examines how formulation of a state specific land use policy for Odisha, can integrate the aspirations of local communities for better decision-making.
Spatial Planning as an instrument for the sustainability of investment and efficient provision of services - Comayagua Case
1Property Institute, Honduras; 2World Bank, United Stated; 3Comayagua, Honduras
Honduras is a country located in Central America and its territorial extension is 112,492 km², with a political division composed of 18 departments and 298 municipalities. The municipality of Comayagua is located in the department of the same name, which is located in the central part of the country.
Comayagua is the municipality with the most complete and up-to-date Cadastre in the country, and several initiatives have been developed for it to become an Associated Center of the property registry of the Property Institute. Therefore, the municipality of Comayagua administers the National Cadastre within its territorial scope, making use of the Unified System of Registries (SURE), which is the official tool of the Government for the subject of Cadastre-Registry.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-07: How to regulate expropriation for large-scale investments?|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Leon Verstappen, University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
Drawing insights from a global comparison of legal safeguards for expropriation
World Bank, United States of America
Arbitrary dispossession or expropriation is often considered one of the greatest threats to land tenure security. We discuss insights gained from a novel cross-country dataset which records legal safeguards on protecting land rights from arbitrary expropriation in 80 countries around the world. Our study provides a comparative assessment on laws and regulations, aiming to spark a constructive debate among policy-makers on how to facilitate legal safeguards and tenure security.
Acquiring land compulsorily at any cost? Policy recommendations for improved resettlement outcomes.
1Ellen De Keyser, Belgium; 2Consultant Surveyors and Planners, Uganda
Large-scale land acquisitions forcefully displace thousands of people to make way for renewable energy projects, mines, agribusinesses, roads and other infrastructure, and changes in land use among other purposes often deemed to be in the public interest or for public use. In order to obtain land for such purposes expropriation is often applied. Research demonstrates that people displaced by such projects often face significant challenges in re-establishing their living standards and livelihood strategies, leading to impoverishment, food insecurity, social disarticulation, among other impacts. Based on a review of resettlement outcomes of projects in Africa this paper argues that, in line with the VGGTs, a comprehensive, transparent and participatory expropriation procedure with checks and balances built in is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of compensation, reforms of the policy and legal frameworks governing land acquisition and resettlement and improved resettlement outcomes. This paper outlines the key elements of such procedure.
Assessment of community involvement and compensation money utilization in Ethiopia: Case studies from Bahir Dar and DebreMarkosPeri-urban areas
1Debre Markos University, Ethiopia; 2University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Austria
This article focuses on the involvement of the community during expropriation and the use of compensation money of expropriated farmers in Ethiopia, based on two case studies outlined in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar and DebreMarkos. The data are collected by using survey research methods and analysed by means of descriptive statistics. The studies gave evidence about the high land tenure transformation in the peri-urban areas during the last decades. Though the majority of the expropriated farmers got compensation payments, most farmers did not use the received money for alternative income generating businesses. The payment of compensation has not to be the end in an expropriation process. Technical and administrative support is detrimental for the proper utilization of the compensation money. Besides, communities affected with expropriation should effectively participate in the processes of expropriation and compensation to mitigate externalities of the process.
The question of compensation in the large-scale land acquisition and redistribution in Southern Africa
Parliament of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
The single most consequential political act of Zimbabwe’s post-independence history was the wholesale re-distribution of land of the late nineties under the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. Though mythically perceived as an exercise that solely dispossessed the settler minority only to enhance the concentration of ownership amongst the indigenous elite, data has proven broad-base benefit. Many smallholders in the post-land reform resettlement areas have thrived and concrete reconfiguration of the agrarian economy has been achieved. The global political fallout that ensued as was predominantly related to the question of compensation for dispossessed farmers. With a new administration determined to reclaim relations with the global community, the question of compensation to close to 4,000 farmer arises again, and in the face of a challenging economic environment. With South Africa and Namibia undertaking similarly problematic, but equally necessary processes, we must ask what lessons can be learnt from the Zimbabwe experience.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-07: Can building regulations be designed properly?|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Richard Grover, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
Process of buildings legalization in Republic of Macedonia from the perspective of the real estate cadastre
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Objects constructed without licenses are generally known as illegal constructions, and are phenomenon that has occurred immediately after the Republic of Macedonia declared its independence. The obstructions pertaining to legal trade of the land under the influence of socialism (state ownership), typical for the period before the declaration of the independence (1991), accompanied by the accelerating migration of the population from rural to urban areas, high expenses associated with the regular construction of buildings, as well as the weak economic power of the population, to name but a few of the reasons contributing to the phenomenon of objects constructed without licenses, i.e. illegal constructions. In accordance with the legal regulations, objects that have been built without construction permission, or objects built contrary to the construction permit and beyond the planning scope, shall be considered as objects constructed without licenses.
Guidelines for formalization of informal constructions
1FIG International Federation of Surveyors, Greece; 2FIG, United States of America; 3UNECE WPLA, The Netherlands
UNECE and FIG recognize the need for guidelines to address informal development and to reduce the phenomenon. This paper deals with the terminology, provides a rational about the impact of no formalization, the concept underlying the need for formalization, explains why we need guidelines and who can benefit from these, as well as how these guidelines should be used. It then describes a global process for formalization that includes the cost-analysis of the problem, the preparation of a strategy, a communication plan, and of the framework for formalization. The framework includes guidelines for the definition of the various categories of informal constructions, the preparation of all legal and regulatory issues, the process to be followed for formalization, registration and monitoring, the penalties and fees, the involved institutions and the administration system. It also deals with the actions that should be taken in parallel and after the formalization and provides conclusions.
Between informal and illegal: comparative analysis of non-compliance with planning and building laws
Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
The degree of illegal / informal/ irregular development varies across counties, and most strikingly between the global north and global south. In the south, the reasons are often basic human needs for food or shelter. Land occupancy is often informal and tenure rights may be customary. Among the advanced economies, illegal construction usually occurs on one’s legally owned land. Why is it so difficult for governments to achieve compliance with planning laws, even where land right are not an issue?
The discussion of noncompliance usually neglects a key player: the structure of the planning laws and institutions. I will argue that planning laws are not “innocent” or neutral regarding degrees of compliance. Their format and contents may be contributing factors in the degree of non-compliance. The paper will provide a cross-national comparative analysis of different types and degrees of non-compliance and the response (or non response) of enforcement measures.
Modernizing planning and development regulations in the Gaza Strip, Palestine
1UN-Habitat, Palestinian Territories; 2Palestinian Housing Council, Palestinian Territories
The current planning and building regulations and by-laws prevailing in the West Bank and Gaza Strip do not fit the existing and the future Urban Development needs, hence reviewing and amending the existing planning by-laws becomes a must to achieve sustainable urban development in Palestine. The current building regulations depends mostly on determining the minimum setbacks and the maximum height limit the ability of architects to shape the urban form. This paper sheds light on new experiences to develop new set of regulations that the municipal councils have the ability to endorse in order to improve resilience of Palestinian communities through sustainable local development, building rights and access to basic services. These new attempts to update building and construction laws in the Palestinian territories will boost the efforts in the future to adopt regulations and standards that will achieve improved housing affordability, housing quality and sustainable human settlements.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-07: Building crowd-sourced data into formal systems|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Achilles Kallergis, New York University, United States of America
Is it possible to collect low-cost household data on slum conditions? Evidence from slum dwellers enumerations
New York University, United States of America
At present, there is little information about the conditions occurring in informal settlements, making it extremely difficult to effectively target resources in efficient ways. This paper investigates whether survey protocols developed by Slum/Shack Dwellers International can credibly provide much-needed local data on the housing and neighborhood conditions occurring in informal settlements. It uses data from Uganda and Ghana, and investigates informal housing demand showing that income, household size, dwelling and infrastructure quality are strong determinants of rent values. The paper further explores the links between household and dwelling characteristics and shows that households with lower incomes and education levels, have an increased likelihood of occupying inferior quality dwellings with no access to services. The empirical results conform to findings produced by more expensive and one-shot surveys. This implies that the survey instrument could serve as an effective low-cost basis for obtaining better information for informal settlements across time and space.
Evidence-based community-driven mapping: Catalyzing city planning and service provision in Muntinlupa and other cities
1Technical Assistance Movement for People and Environment Inc. (TAMPEI), Philippines; 2Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives Inc. (PACSII), Philippines; 3Homeless People's Federation Philippines Inc. (HPFPI), Philippines; 4Global Land Tool Network (GLTN), Kenya
This paper narrates the experiences of the Homeless People’s Federation Philippines Inc. and its partners in facilitating citywide community-driven mapping activities in Muntinlupa and other cities. While these initiatives follow no specific format, it was observed that critical elements define the legitimacy of the approach being promoted. Community participation is essential in all phases as it provides an accurate, up-to-date representation of the needs and aspirations of informal settler families (ISFs). Validation of mapping results at different levels is equally important as it generates ownership of the process among ISFs and ensures delivery of demand-driven services. As a people’s process, the results of mapping can be used in numerous ways—housing, basic services provision and city management. The framework which focuses on the mapping process as a mobilizing platform and an empowerment tool presents a concrete example of a genuine participatory approach in informing an evidence-based, inclusive and sustainable city planning.
“Information is power only if used “-Improving Tenure security in informal settlements using participatory data collection: The case of Informal settlements in Gobabis Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology
The paper looks at understanding the land tenure security of informal settlers, and how socioeconomic and spatial data generated by communities themselves has been used in aiding the implementation of solutions that are pro-poor and Fit for Purpose. Additionally, it provides a description on how enumeration has an influence on the perception of tenure security. Could participatory enumerations be a catalyst for improving services and registering land rights? Can the data that informal settlers produce be suitable for using in planning and land rights registration?
The paper considers the data producers and the data users, to understand how the community’s input through data collection influences planning by the local authority. The paper concludes that, if the data generated by the community is to be used for; land recordation, decision-making or to prove ownership, there is a need for direct involvement of local authority officials in the management of the data.
Count me in: the case of improving tenure security of slum dwellers in peri-urban Lusaka
1Lusaka City Council, Zambia; 2UN Habitat, Kenya; 3UN Habitat, Zambia
The paper highlights experiences and lessons learned on the adoption of affordable geo-spatial solutions and participatory approaches in an urban context (informal settlements), and within a national regulatory framework in which informal tenure is integrated into a system recognized by public authorities. It will also explore the different stakeholders’ interactions and how they relate in slum-upgrading related processes, as well as how the local government authorities attempt to make the different aspirations of the SDGs and other global frameworks, become real to communities, households and individuals, particularly to those who are at risk of falling behind.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-07: New aspects of land reform in Africa|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Michael Becker, GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo
Using remote-sensed data and machine learning to measure the impact of Zimbabwe's Fast Track Land Reform Programme on crop cultivation and vegetation quality
1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn, Germany
Zimbabwe carried out agrarian reform in 2000 to correct colonial land imbalances. Dubbed the Fast Track Land Reform Program (FTLRP), the program is widely considered as the single most important trigger to the country’s economic misfortunes. We estimate the effects of the program on crop cultivation areas and vegetation quality. The unavailability of nationwide survey data confined earlier empirical work to localised studies, limiting the extent to which existing results can contribute to the debate. We use remote sensed data that covers the whole country and estimate the effects on welfare using semi-parametric differences-in-differences with genetic matching. Specifically, we employ Night Lights Data (NLD), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and machine learning-generated land cover changes in crop hectorage. We find a high correlation between these indicators and ward level poverty estimates for the 2012 Population Census. Land reform had large negative impacts on crop production, but not on light luminosity.
Land reform policy-induced access to agricultural land and nutritional outcomes in Zimbabwe
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
One of the major constraints to increased rural agricultural economic activity and better nutrition outcomes is linked to the availability of land. In this paper, we use Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data to examine the impact of increasing access to land (through a reform policy) on nutritional outcomes. The results suggest that resource access policy such as land reform improves child nutrition. In particular, the findings indicate that increasing the production of domesticated birds, goats and pigs directly linked to increased access to land is crucial for improving nutrition. However, Zimbabwe’s current livestock policy thrust emphasizes support to cattle production, although the results show no association between cattle ownership and nutrition. The study, thus, recommends increased access to agricultural land in rural areas for improving child nutrition and suggests a land policy review for support to also be aligned with chicken, goat and pig production for increased nutritional outcomes.
Building a National Spatial Data Infrastructure one step at a time- the case for Zambia
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia
The Government of Zambia has established the National Spatial Data Infrastructure starting in 2014. NSDI has been implemented through a project entitled “Provision of and Processing of Aerial Photography and Satellite Imagery and Development of National Spatial Data Infrastructure”. The main focus of the project was to establish the technological infrastructure of the NSDI. This has involved the capturing of aerial and satellite imagery for the whole country, development of a centralized database and the development of web-portal for citizen access to the spatial data that has been collected and assembled in the centralized database. Apart from the development of the technological foundation of the infrastructure there is a lot more that needs to be done to achieve a semblance of an effective NSDI.
There is now need to establish the framework for an institutionalized NSDI and governance structure for sharing spatial information
Assessing communal land use management related policy /legislative setting and applications in Bir-Temicha watershed, upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
GiZ, Africa Union, Ethiopia
Communal land tenure system has been a controversial and politicized issue in Ethiopian. This study was aiming to assess the communal land administration and use policy setting and applications.The study deploys household survey, key informant interview, focus group discussions & document analysis method. Content analysis technique, load factor ratio and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the findings. Legislative instruments to govern communal land administration were adequately set and placement of stable state structure that goes down to the lowest administration level to implement communal land administration was found encouraging. However, absence of national land use policy, weaker policy and legislative application weak updating of communal land adjudication process, low level community participation & involvement in decision making was found as a gap.This needs further research on socioeconomic and political dimensions. Besides, policy and legislation evaluation and revision has to be considered with correction measure to bring a sustainable communal land use management.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-07: Using data and planning to improve urban resilience|
Location: MC 7-100
Session Chair: Allan Cain, Development Workshop, Angola
Cities and good urban land management practice as a catalyst for climate change adaptation in developing countries: case of Blantyre city, Malawi
Blantyre City Council, Malawi
Cities occupy a unique position as they are crucibles of political and governance innovations that enables them to play major roles in climate change interventions in developing countries. Through better policy responses and practices such as land use planning and building codes, cities can keep their ecological footprints to the minimum and ensure their residents especially the poor are protected as best as possible against climate change disasters which including drought, floods and other calamities. However, cities are challenged in terms of capacity to take full advantage of their unique position as they occupy to address climate change. This paper highlights initiatives in supporting cities to deal with climate change. It looks at the unique position of cities and good urban land management practices in developing countries as a catalyst for climate change adaptation, and further discusses current global and regional initiatives to implement this ‘urban dimension’ to climate change.
Developing voluntary gender responsive relocation policy guidelines to support sustainable urban development
1Habitat for Humanity International, United States of America; 2University of East London
Slum dwellers face a range of challenges– from tenure insecurity to poor quality housing and lack of access to basic amenities and services– threatening their daily existence. Yet, a growing and often understated risk comes from climatic/environmental hazards and natural disasters that threaten both loss of property and life. In high-risk non-viable settlements, physical infrastructure interventions are often hard to justify on the basis of both economic costs measured through cost-benefit analysis or long-term environmental risks, such as rising sea levels or river flooding. Under such circumstances, meeting the commitment of the New Urban Agenda (NUA) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 11), to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” requires the implementation of voluntary relocation schemes where slum upgrading may not create sustainable outcomes.