|Location: MC 6-100|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Using data systems to increase accountability|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Michael Taylor, International Land Coalition, Italy
Democratizing the data revolution: bringing local perspectives to the surface
Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The
With the inclusion of land indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals, the data revolution has very noticeably reached the land sector. New technologies to capture, monitor or analyze land data are increasingly being developed, for improved public service provision and beyond. These innovations could very well be the catalyzing factor that is necessary to bring this data where it can be put to good use to achieve land tenure security for all, at a speed and scale that would otherwise not be possible. However, one critical element of this data revolution is at risk to be overlooked: a multi-stakeholder, inclusive approach. The available data that is interoperable is largely from stakeholders from the global North. This paper highlights research into the interoperability-compliance of key land datasets in Africa and calls for a more democratized approach to the data revolution - ensuring local perspectives are not left behind.
Capturing data gaps: comparative study on availability of land data in Africa
1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The; 2People, Land and Rural Development, Kenya
It is an often-repeated rhetoric that there is a lack of land data - whether it is lack of reliable or up-to-date data or a lack in the existence of any data. Collecting data is a time-consuming and costly process and one can only imagine the enormous impact new data capture technologies can have on the speed and volume of new data collection. With digitization of information, increased use of internet, and growing demand for more data, the risk is that we get swept up by the potential of the latest technology and only add to the wealth of data, without having analyzed or digested any existing data. This paper presents a scoping study in five countries in Africa to uncover the information landscape. We hope to trigger thoughts on use of the data ecosystem, rather than ‘simply’ adding to its continued growth.
The role of people-centered data in land governance monitoring: preliminary results from the Dashboard Initiative
1International Land Coalition; 2International Land Coalition, CIRAD
Increased focus on global development frameworks such as the SDGs and the VGGTs has highlighted a demand for reliable land governance data while exposing the limits of existing data. The recognition of such limits has led to a growing consensus on the role that a data ecosystem – with evolving, diverse data sources – can play in the provision of disaggregated, grounded and people-centered data. The Dashboard tool for land governance monitoring is among several initiatives that have emerged in recent years to provide a people-centered perspective to the growing data ecosystem. Developed in consultation with members of the ILC in 2017, the Dashboard is built on standardized indicators and methodologies adaptable to local context. Pilot studies in Colombia, Nepal and Senegal in 2018 have yielded preliminary results that demonstrate how the tool allows members to directly contribute to the monitoring of global frameworks while providing people-centered data recognized as legitimate in broader policy circles.
Developing a country stakeholder strategy for the global property right perception survey (Prindex)
International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
This goal of Prindex Country consultation and stakeholder engagement strategy is to enable the team to engage with selected countries and other stakeholders on the Prindex process a timely, transparent and meaningful way in order to disclose and disseminate information about the PRIndex Initiative. The engagement process will ensure that stakeholders are fully aware of opportunities and benefit of Prindex as a data sources to measure perceptions of individual property rights and self-reported status of property documentation in support of the global effort to monitor land rights. Through consultations of these types, each selected country can establish constructive relationships with a variety of external stakeholders and maintain those relationships over time. The active engagement of stakeholders increases their sense of ownership and commitment to key decisions and outcomes leading up to the agreement and implementation of a compact program.
Rwanda land registration is complete – now what? the view of an NGO.
1Rwanda Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), Rwanda; 2Department for International Development (DFID), Rwanda
Comprehensive land registration in Rwanda was completed in three phases between 2005-2018: a development phase between 2005-2008, registration between 2009-2014, and completion between 2015-2018. Writing from the perspective of the Rwandan Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), a leading Rwandan NGO that has been active in the field of land rights during the period, this paper offers insights into the Land Tenure Regularization Process (LTRP) with an eye to understanding the process of land dispute mediation from a participatory angle. Focusing on the institution of community mediation through abunzi mediators, It further offers lessons on how NGOs in other countries can work with similar land registration processes in different contexts. Findings from the paper are divided into three sections (a) trends of land disputes in land reform (b) ICT and land dispute monitoring and (c) land dispute monitoring in relation to gender.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: Indonesia's 'one map' policy: Does it live up to its potential?|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Jill Pike, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Governance effectiveness evaluation and cost benefit analysis of one map policy delivery institutions at the sub-national level in Indonesia
1World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia; 2Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) of the Government of Republic of Indonesia
Indonesian national and sub-national government agencies produce their own maps, resulting in overlapping claims, land conflicts and hindering sustainable development. To address this, the government aims to compile, integrate and synchronize 85 thematic maps, involving 19 national agencies and 34 provincial governments through One Map Policy acceleration by 2019. Geospatial Information Agency is responsible to develop spatial data infrastructure, mandating national and sub-national government agencies to establish data management institution. The agency has commissioned research to evaluate governance effectiveness and conduct cost-benefit analysis on institutional arrangement alternatives at provincial level. Using a mix of qualitative criteria evaluation with quantitative weighting method, the analysis founded 15-year net present value of Governor’s Secretary (USD 137 Million) and separate Implementing Unit (USD 178 Million) as institutions with highest performance ratings. Investment and coordination factors show that the former could serve as short-term (quick win) alternative while preparing the latter as long-term (ideal) solution.
Mapping indigenous land: lesson learned from One Map Initiative in Indonesia
World Resources Institute Indonesia, Indonesia
The idea of One Map comes from the lack of integrated and synchronized geospatial data on land ownership and land use sector across Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to extract lessons learned of the process in an indigenous village in Riau, Sumatra where their settlements are declared as part of a Wildlife Reserve. The study suggests implementing an ideal inclusive, sustainable, and accountable One-Map in village level would require a greater emphasis on (1) a different community engagement approach to make all social class and gender within the community equally participate, (2) an incorporation of environmental impact assessment for land use planning, and, in context of One Map in forest area, (3) a mutual understanding among institutions about One Map and their support on sustainable practices.
Towards prosperity and sustainability: The progress of social forestry implementation in Indonesia
1WRI Indonesia, Indonesia; 2Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Sweden; 3Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Indonesia
Social Forestry (SF) in Indonesia had embarked on a new, exciting phase under the Jokowi administration. Despite the government’s ambitious social forestry goal, there has been no robust evaluation framework to assess whether the SF initiative is progressing toward achieving the program’s intended objectives, i.e. 1) tenurial conflict resolution, 2) welfare improvement, and 3) forest protection. After an extensive desktop review, we developed fifteen evaluation indicators covering the environmental, socio-economic, and institutional aspects of SF management. We then tested out the evaluation framework in two SF locations in Sumatra, where we conducted random household surveys, interviews, and focused group discussions. SF implementation in both locations is generally able to protect the forest from threats while also improving communities’ welfare through forest-based income and environmental services. Yet, overlapping boundaries between the proposed and approved maps also remained, suggesting the complexities of SF implementation in Indonesia.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-06: Land policy to improve agricultural land use|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Wordsworth Odame Larbi, FAO, Ethiopia
Can group farms outperform individual family farms? empirical insights from India
School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, UK
Can group farms, wherein farmers voluntarily pool land, labour and capital and farm collectively, outperform individual family farms? This paper tests this, using the author’s primary survey of two experiments begun in the 2000s in Kerala and Telangana, India. Constituted only of women, the groups collectively farm leased-in land and share labour, costs and returns.
Kerala’s groups perform strikingly better than the largely male-managed individual farms in the state, both in annual value of output per hectare and annual net returns per farm, while Telangana’s group farms perform much worse than individual farms in annual output, but are equivalent in net returns. In both states, groups do better in commercial crops than foodgrains. The factors underlying the differential performances of Kerala and Telangana, and lessons for replication, are discussed. Overall, the paper demonstrates that group farming can provide an effective alternative under specified conditions and local adaptation of the model.
The effect of land sizes and land holdings on “transitions” in and out of income poverty in Uganda.
1Ford Foundation, United States of America; 2Associates Research Trust, Uganda
This paper explores transition out of “income poverty” for land-owning and land-secure agricultural households using national data (UNHS 2016/17). Given Uganda’s strong performance on income poverty reduction, we show the contribution of land holdings and impact of land sizes to this drastic drop from 54.3% to19.7%. We establish which households are; asset-richer; more food secure; less vulnerable to shocks and with access to varying proportions of productive agricultural land. We find that escape from income poverty, is driven in part by the size of land holdings not falling below the average of one acre per household and peaking at four acres for smallholder market-oriented producers. At this acreage incomes from enterprises rise, the ability of households to mitigate shocks improve, while simultaneously keeping in the food secure zone. This pathway to reducing income poverty, it is better recognized by economic growth and investment policies than by land sector policies.
Land as the enabling asset on a value chain for rural development in Colombia's rural reform
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
Colombia’s rural policy for the next four-year period aims to create a value chain process in which four elements are mainly taken into account to develop rural territories. The policy seeks to achieve equity in rural territories by providing equal opportunities to population and by closing the gap between urban and rural environments. Therefore, the public policy must add up the elements that together contribute for rural development and productive development. These elements take into account land access, productivity, public goods’ provision and rural population as a transversal element through all the process.
Land tenure regularisation for sustainable urban and agriculture development in Rwanda
The need to improve land governance is often informed by issues like increasing demand for land tenure insecurity. Land registration has often been embraced as the panacea to the problem of land tenure insecurity (LTI) and based on this, it is further posited that land registration guarantees access to formal capital. However, there is an ambivalent literature on whether or not it guarantees land tenure security and access to formal credit in improving. Rwanda embarked on an ambitious land tenure reform (LTR) with a national-wide systematic registration of all land that was primarily aimed at among other things, establishing LTS. This culminated in the registration of over 11 million land parcels, a feat considered unprecedented in Africa. The aim of this paper is to examine whether or not land registration assures LTS as well as to holistically assess how the results of the LTR are contributing to urban and agriculture development in Rwanda.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-06: Kenya's land policy reforms: Did they deliver?|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: John Bugri, KNUST, Ghana
Land policy implementation in Kenya: achievements, challenges and lessons ten years later
Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya
Having enacted its national land policy ten years ago, Kenya has had experiences with implementation whose progress, challenges and lessons need to be shared. This will be helpful for the review of the policy which will be done in the year 2019, and will also inform scholars and other regional jurisdictions with similar circumstances and levels of development as Kenya’s.
The paper discusses the institutional framework established under the land policy and the constitution and how this has played out in practice, including the conflicts and solutions engaged. It also brings out the laws and regulations enacted, the roles and programmes driven by the land commission, the national and devolved governments. The paper also analyzes how some of the contentious issues in the land policy have played out at implementation. Recommendations to inform the 2019 policy review are made.
Smallholder settlement schemes in Kenya: A retrospective and prospective analysis of Trans-Nzoia county
National Land Commission, Kenya
Smallholder settlement schemes have played a central role in the economic and development strategies in postcolonial Kenya. Adhering to the ‘land re-distribution’ agenda, these schemes marked a critical turn in the land question. Hence, in the transition to independence, settlement schemes helped de-racialize land ownership, and offered land to landless Africans who had been displaced in the struggle against British colonial rule. These land transfers were varied and became instrumental linchpins in the agrarian land re-distribution and economic development strategies. In the context of increased land fragmentation, astronomical rural-urban migration and changing rural population demographics the transformations occurring in these schemes especially in high potential agriculture Trans-Nzoia County call for considerable evaluation of the settlement scheme program. Research was conducted in Trans-Nzoia County with the aim of offering insights into the history and development of settlement schemes as pillars of rural development and agrarian reform.
By the communities for the communities: A holistic approach to community-based natural resource governance:
Kenya is in the midst of land reform that has far-reaching implications for securing the land rights of rural people, and promoting political stability and economic development. The reform is based on a National Land Policy (NLP), adopted in 2009. Since then the country has also adopted various laws and policies including the Constitution 2010, The Land Act, The Land Registration Act, the Community Land Act etc .
This paper aims at demonstrating how Kenya’s land reforms have led to the improvement of tenure security and increased participation investments at the community through Constitutional categorization of land into Community, Public and Private. will highlight how the reforms done at national level have opened opportunity for the securing tenure rights for communities. It is anticipated that the actualization and implementation will scale up of this enhanced of tenure security will result in the positive transformation of the livelihoods of more communities.
The political economy of Kenya land policy review
KENYA LAND ALLIANCE, Kenya
The political quest to review the Kenya National Land Policy has been on the cards since it was formulated and endorsed by Parliament on December 3, 2009. This is despite the fact that the policy document was developed in tandem with the African Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy (F&G), which spelled out a comprehensive process of restructuring three major components of the land system, namely its structure of land ownership (property system), land use and production structures, and the support services infrastructure for land delivery. Important to note is that the Kenya National Land Policy was endorsed after the Heads of States and Governments had declared their commitment to the shared vision, objectives and principles on land policy matters in July 2009. The blueprint was to govern ownership, access, use and management of land resources to enhance productivity and contribution to social, economic, political, environmental development and inclusive development.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Institutionalizing bottom-up monitoring|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Rueben Lifuka, Transparency International, Germany
Prindex: putting global tenure insecurity into perspective with results from 33 country surveys in 2018
1Global Land Alliance, United States of America; 2ODI, United Kingdom
This paper reviews findings from the initial 33 countries in which data is being collected during 2018 of Prindex (The Global Property Rights Index), a survey designed to measure tenure insecurity on both a global and national basis. With this initial installment of what is planned as a 140-country baseline study by the end of 2019, Prindex will begin providing national policymakers, researchers, entrepreneurs, and non-governmental organizations in the land rights community with a new dataset to assess the scope and nature of tenure insecurity. Based on nationally-representative samples of individuals 18 and older, Prindex measures tenure insecurity in terms of respondents’ perceived likelihood of losing use rights to their home or other property against their will within the next five years. It does so both on an aggregate level, and disaggregated by gender, location, income, age, household size, tenure type, and length of tenure.
Perceived tenure insecurity among renters and its implications for ongoing urbanisation
1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2Global Land Alliance, United States of America
As urbanisation increases, especially in African cities, so too does the number of people living in rented housing. Initial findings from the Prindex survey show that people in rented housing feel 21% more insecure about losing their property than those who own theirs. There are many reasons as to why renters feel so insecure – primarily, they are worried about being evicted by the owner of the property, but lack of money, family disagreements and government seizures also play a part. A lack of land tenure security has large negative impacts on the poor and vulnerable. If managed poorly, settlement of incoming urban migrants can heighten tension and destabilisation, meaning cities are not able to realise all the benefits of urbanisation. To address the situation renters find themselves in, city governments should improve urban land management to ensure that formal sector housing and land markets can respond with adequate supply.
Indigenous data sovereignty
EWMI-Open Development Initiative, Myanmar
The Mekong region is home to over 100 indigenous and ethnically distinct communities who have struggled to retain their autonomy. While each group of indigenous and ethnic minorities (IEM) have unique struggles, a general theme emerges: access to land and natural resources. Despite global recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN General Assembly, 2007), IEM rights have in some cases been rendered meaningless because of the colonization and repatriation of IEM. IEM claims to land and livelihoods based on the related natural resources have suffered, in part because IEM-produced data and knowledge have usually been delegitimized by governing powers.
This paper discusses how open data policies focused on Indigenous Data Sovereignty, applied to create a coordinated network, has contributed to the public provision of data and its use in land claims in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
National land observatories: a tool for transparency, accountability, and informed decision making over land for all
1International Land Coalition, Senegal; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy; 3CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier à Madagascar; 4CIRAD / ISRA-BAME; 5Centre for Development and Environment; 6International Land Coalition, Italy; 7IPAR, Senegal
Data regarding land governance is often considered "inaccurate", "incomplete", "biased". In order to overcome these shortcomings, national land observatories are being developed, as structures, on one hand, of data collection, storage and management, and on the other hand, of production, analysis and reporting of information and knowledge. As such, as they are nationally managed and promoting an eco-system of data, land observatories are privileged instruments for reducing information asymmetries, promoting data transparency and accountability, supporting informed decision-making, strengthening debates on land tenure issues and promoting citizen participation in land governance. This paper presents in detail the results of a study on land observatories in Africa. It identifies four types of land observatories in Africa with different structures, roles and mandates, for which it assesses the factors of success and failure in order to better equip them in view of informed decision-making over land for all.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: National Land Policy Documents: Potential & Challenges|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa
Zambia’s Land Policy formulation pitfalls-points of divergence
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia
Zambia’s attempts to land policy formulation after the return to multi-party politics started in 1993 with a National Conference on Land Policy Reform in the Third Republic which led to the enactment of the Lands Act of 1995. Ever since then attempts to formulate an overarching and consistent Land Policy for the country have proved futile. This has largely been because of divergent views from traditional authorities and other stakeholders who have perceived government intention in the policy to be one of usurping all powers over land to itself.
This paper will discuss the points of divergence especially from the chiefs and the current state of play in the draft land policy with the view to see how these can be harmonized in order to reach consensus.
Demarcation of traditional land management areas in Malawi
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
The Government of the Republic of Malawi, through MLHUD, enacted 10 land related Laws in 2016 and were assented to by the State President in January 2017. One of the new laws is the Customary Land Act 2016.The Act provides for the creation of customary estates through adjudication, demarcation and registration of Traditional Land Management Area (TLMAs) followed by adjudication, demarcation and registration of Group Village Areas GVAs and individual land parcels belonging to the local communities. The Ministry undertook the TLMA demarcation and created a Geodatabase of captured geo-spatial information for TLMAs for 280 out of 293 TLMAs. The work is to be completed soon
The Namibian 2nd National Land Conference has passed, how the resolutions taken will influence the politics and reluctance to register tenure rights in the Kavango West and Kavango East regions.
Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia
Lack of tenure security has negative effects of land grabbing by elites, eviction of the poor and vulnerable communities. This paper researched and analyzed the resolutions taken at the just ended Namibia’s 2nd National Land Conference that took place from 01-05 October 2018 to determine if such resolutions will influence the registration of tenure rights for the rural communities of both Kavango West and Kavango East regions.
The current impasse between the government of the Republic of Namibia and the Traditional Authorities affects the communities. It is estimated that a total of 12032 households are without tenure security.
Such communities are exposed to eviction, while the rights of women and vulnerable communities are affected.
The study suggests, interventions to entice demand for the registration of tenure rights, the establishment of Registration Committees, recruitment of Agents of Change etc.
Tenure security promotes sustainable development, reduces land grabbing and avoid evictions.
Land rights as an imperative for sustainable land and resources management in Kenya.
National Land Commission, Kenya
Key land reforms in Kenya were postulated in the land policy of 2009, and subsequently in the Kenya Constitution 2010. However, failure to fully implement the intentions of the policy and the Constitution has put the goals of sustainable land and land resources management in jeopardy. A major contributor of this phenomenon has been the political economy in the country. Vested political and economic interests have ensured that radical reforms in the land sector do not see the light of the day. without these reforms land rights of the minorities a nd other weaker sections of the community may not be realized.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-06: Challenges of redistributive land reform|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Arno Schaefer, European Commission, Belgium
Valuer general of South Africa; rights, responsibilities, and land reform
Greenfield Advisors, Inc., United States of America
The South African Property Valuation Act, 17 of 2014 provides for the establishment, functions and powers of the Office of the Valuer-General. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides for the protection of property, expropriation of property for public purposes or in the public interest where said expropriation of property is subject to equitable compensation by the government. The government will also take reasonable legislative measures in order to facilitate land reform and restitution of land by which a person or community was dispossessed as a result of past discriminatory laws or practices. This paper will outline how the newly formed office of the Valuer-General is designed to help the government manage its assets. This includes both land reform valuations as well as government property targeted for acquisition or disposal.
The implications of incomplete restorative justice in South African land restitution: lessons from the Moletele case.
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Since 2005, South Africa’s post-apartheid state has opted to impose inclusive business model arrangements between land claimant communities and private sector partners to ensure the ‘successful’ resolution of land restitution claims in the country. The inclusive business model approach was therefore deemed compatible in achieving both, social justice imperatives and capacitation or entrepreneurial objectives framed by the country’s Black economic empowerment (BEE) objectives. In this context however, I argue that the role of the state and private agribusiness partners are substantial but also recalibrated, with private partners and communal land holding institutions increasingly being tasked with functions that have historically been linked to the public sector. Findings from the analyses to date, raises questions regarding the potential of these types of partnerships arrangements to achieve acceptable levels of restorative justice imperatives whilst the entrepreneurial/capacitation potential of these types of partnership arrangements seems equally questionable.
Towards addressing the new land reform policy paradigm in South Africa
University of Venda, South Africa
The study was conducted in South Africa to assess challengers confronting the land restitution programme using qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. The general study findings were that when introduced, there was a general lack of knowledge of the claim process and also that land occupiers have developed strategies to retain the land to themselves. The study recommended for either reopening the land claim window that will be proceeded by a thorough engagement with potential claimants around the claim process and the ultimate intention of the land claim.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-06: The political economy of land tenure reform|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Caleb Stevens, USAID, United States of America
State of land in the Mekong region
1University of Bern, Lao PDR; 2Mekong Region Land Governance Project, Lao PDR; 3McGill University, Canada; 4Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development, Thailand; 5Independent; 6Hanoi University, Vietnam; 7World Bank, Vietnam; 8Institute for Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam; 9Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao PDR; 10Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Lao PDR; 11UN Habitat, The Netherlands
The Mekong region—comprised of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam—is exceptional for its social and ecological richness. Over the last decade, the region has undergone rapid transformation in land and its agricultural sector. Key data and information to inform effective decision-making necessary to understand and navigate this transformation are limited. The State of Land in the Mekong Region seeks address this gap by presenting key data and information with regard to status and change in socioeconomic conditions of agriculture and the rural population, the land resource base upon which this population depends, and the ways in which land resources are distributed across society. We evaluate tenure security and governance conditions that shape rural land relations, and assess the ways in which large-scale land acquisitions, the trade in land-intensive commodities, and regional and global investment flows articular with sustainable development in the Mekong region.
New innovations-old problems: the case of the flexible land tenure system and communal land registration in Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
The development of new institutional innovations in Namibia to improve tenure security for informal settlement residents as well as communal land residents has been fraught with problems and has not had the expected impact. It is argued that this is due to the fact that these innovations are not sufficiently embedded in the registration functions, or society, but are driven from the top. Instead the FLTS and the NCLAS have created an innovation architecture that is parralel to the existing systems, rather than building on the current parcel registration system. The research concludes that innovations that are incremental in nature, and that is embedded on the functions it serves to improve upon, is more likely to succeed. Such an approach is more likely to gain support with the private sector to help establish a land market and leverage investment in land and agriculture.
"A limited contribution to a complex development problem"? Land titling and land tenure in the Mekong region
1Forest Trends, United States of America; 2University of Colorado, United States of America; 3Australian National University, Australia; 4Centre for Policy Studies, Cambodia; 5National University of Laos, Lao PDR; 6Mekong Regional Land Governance Project, Lao PDR
Using a comparative analysis of agribusiness models and associated land tenure in the Mekong region, this paper speaks to current debates about land titling in the Mekong region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam) and elsewhere. Over the past three years, we examined cases in these four countries in which titling and other property formalization intersected with land-based investments. We found that while formalization fundamentally changes how smallholders fare in the face of agricultural expansion, the details depend heavily on a range of other contextual factors. Specifically, we argue that that: 1) titling can enhance security, but can just as easily undermine it; 2) titling should prioritize rural livelihoods and the needs of marginalized groups; 3) titling is a “modular” process that should be tailored to design socially optimal forms of recognition; and, 4) better regulation of land investment is badly needed to complement existing and future titling initiatives.
What policy lessons can we learn from stalled land reforms? Insights from Senegal
1University of Toronto, Canada; 2Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale (IPAR), Senegal
In the last 20 years, the Senegalese government started a land reform process on three occasions but interrupted it each time. What does this pattern of stalled land reforms reveal about state-society relations in Senegal? What policy lessons can we draw from these inconclusive efforts? In this paper, we identify the constellations of actors and interests that have led the Senegalese government to shelve land reform proposals, with a focus on the latest attempt started in 2012. We argue that the reasons explaining the reluctance of the Senegalese state to bring successive land reforms to completion oscillate between avoidance in the face of a strong civil society and strategic accommodation to the status quo through piecemeal, incremental changes to the current legal system. Our findings are based on a careful analysis of institutional documents, interviews with experts, and participant observations in meetings of the 2012 National Commission on Land Reform.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-06: Monitoring global commitments on land tenure|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Astrid Jakobs de Padua, World Bank, United States of America
The Global Land Rights Index: a new methodology to measure human rights frameworks for land
Abt Associates, United States of America
Despite the inclusion of land-related indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is still no comprehensive, legal or human rights framework that can guide countries to reform laws to strengthen land tenure security. The Global Land Rights Index (GLRI) was created to address this gap. It analyzes six elements of land and resource rights frameworks and then scores countries based on adherence of their laws and regulations. It helps fill the gap in the monitoring of land-related SDGs 1.4, 2.3 and 5.a, by providing measurable clarity to indicator terms such as: “equal rights”, “secure”, and “equal access”. The authors present the GLRI methodology in detail and examine the findings and rankings from the initial analysis of 12 countries, including scores for each field and category. We then discuss the policy implications and particular laws that would need to be reformed to improve the scores.
Land Governance Indexes: Opportunities to assess progress of adoption of VGGT principles in policy, legal and institutional framework of land governance
1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya; 2Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (HQ)
As the globally accepted principles guiding improvements in tenure security, the VGGT (FAO, 2012) have commonly been adopted at national level through ensuring that policy and legislative reform are in conformity with the guidelines. Despite adoption of VGGT principles in law, other factors such as political goodwill, civic education for awareness of rights to land and financial support (or lack thereof) remain key components that may catalyze (or stall) the progress in improving tenure governance. To track the progress different countries are making towards realizing responsible governance of land and land-based resources, there is need for developing a set of quantifiable global ideals that each nation can work towards achieving. Having a set of globally accepted quantifiable standards could be the key to making tenure security a priority in a way that will be easily understandable for governments and political leaders who may not fully understand the tenure security issues.
Guidelines for effective and impactful SDG reporting of progress on land rights
Landesa, United States of America
To fully leverage the extraordinary opportunity provided by the SDGs, it is critical that a wide range of stakeholders report the progress (or lack thereof) towards countries’ commitments on land rights. This paper seeks to encourage widespread and effective reporting that holds governments accountable to their land rights commitments, celebrates the progress made and encourages action, and promotes widespread learning that empowers others to follow effectively.
Creating effective data and information tools for monitoring the VGGT
1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands; 2Global Donor Platform for Rural Development, Germany
Numerous efforts to track and monitor progress on the implementation of the VGGT. Significant efforts to make to monitor and track the VGGT and make this information widely available to stakeholders are underway from a multiplicity of actors. This paper will describe the diversity of initiatives currently underway to monitor and amplify efforts focused on the VGGT. It will describe the relevance of institutional efforts, such as the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), for monitoring the VGGT, for ensuring the implementation of country-level action plans. It will also look at related civil society initiatives established evaluate VGGT implementation. It will describe how these efforts are complemented by the Global Donor Platform’s Land Governance Programme Map, which monitors donor investments in implementing the VGGT. Finally, this paper will feature the work of the Land Portal Foundation to consolidate all of these efforts in a global hub.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-06: Data to determine compensation for land acquisition|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: James Kavanagh, RICS, United Kingdom
Utilizing UAV images for large-scale land development compensation: A case of prevention for compensation speculation in South Korea
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The compensation issue is considered as the biggest matter when land development operator implements a large-scale land development. South Korea has is unusual behavior that landowners install new facilities to raise compensation on their lands, just before the project takes place, called as 'Compensation Speculation'. To prevent that behavior, LX, the Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, attempted to analyze the ‘ortho-image’ taken by UAV. A day before the land development implement notice date, LX took the image for the project site. This ortho-image was completed as basic data for compensation by superimposing with cadastral map. Using this image, operator able to obtain objective data that could accurately identify the target of compensation at the time of the project was noticed and allowed to calculate compensation to be determined without survey it directly in the field.
Improve the land acquisition system with a technology based processes approach
Transparency International-Secretariat, Germany
The land acquisition process could be described as a series of interconnected steps where the output of one step is the input to another, resulting in the acquisition of a piece of land. As the leading organisation in the fight against corruption, Transparency International (TI) has innovated various approaches to addressing corruption. The process-based approach, described in this paper, improves case management by reducing the time spent on addressing issues such as transparency (or lack thereof) while maximizing efforts to address corruption. TI conceived and developed this approach to improving the land acquisition process, in order to contribute to building a transparent, effective and accountable land management system. This method is called the ‘process approach’ and it incorporates both business process management and reporting technologies. This experimental technology is currently being implemented in Zambia and Sierra Leone.
Analysing governance in the informal land compensation approaches in customary areas of Ghana
1Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana
In peri-urban areas, increasing urbanisation and land development leave indigenous farmers forcibly evicted from their farmlands. Farmers who lose their land to these land development activities are mostly not compensated. Over the past decade, many customary areas of Ghana have developed and adopted different compensation packages based on different sharing formulae to address the problem. This paper analyses the governance issues in the compensation approaches in stool land areas of Ghana and highlights the conditions for scaling up the process in other customary areas. The paper shows that though the compensation approaches have been developed on local customary norms and structures, they have the potential to be scaled both horizontally and vertically across different customary areas. Addressing issues on participation, equity and transparency in the development in the sharing formulae can improve governance in the implementation of the compensation approaches.
Valuation and compensation under Zimbabwe post 2000 land reform program
Independent Consultant, Zimbabwe
Between 2000 and 2005 the Zimbabwe Government embarked on compulsory acquisition of commercial farms which were predominantly owned by white commercial farmers. This attracted a lot of negative international headlines and condemnation.To this day, compensation of the acquired farms is still a major outstanding and topical issue. Until this is resolved this shall remain a major stumbling block in efforts to rebuild Zimbabwe’s agriculture. Land acquired under this program shall remain contested and this has domino effect in terms of security of tenure, decisions on long term investments, value of the land and use of such land as collateral.
The compensation quantum is estimated to run into billions of dollars and is probably one of the world largest compensation programs today.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-06: Improving resilience via better land data|
Location: MC 6-100
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
Leveraging national land and geospatial systems for improved disaster resilience
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2The World Bank, United States of America
Integrating land and geospatial systems for disaster resilience – the need for technical and institutional innovation
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2Land Equity International, Australia; 3World Bank, United States of America
Comprehensive disaster risk management – best practice example of Monastir, Tunisia
IABG mbH, Germany
The earth observation for sustainable development initiative to support states affected by fragility, conflict and violence
1SIRS, France; 2CLS, France; 3Hatfield Group, Canada; 4UNITAR, Switzerland
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-03: Scaling up municipal spatial data infrastructure: regulatory innovations and technology solutions|
Location: MC 6-100
Scaling up municipal spatial data infrastructure: regulatory innovations and technology solutions
World Bank, Indonesia
Cities internationally are leveraging the power of data to harness the potential of urbanization and tackle challenges like urban sprawl, traffic congestion and environmental risks. Towards this endeavor, CPL helps cities by developing scalable and replicable tools that turn data into information, while supporting the establishment of data governance systems to mainstream evidence-driven spatial planning. It does so through the operationalization of a comprehensive Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructure (MSDI) framework. MSDI Roadmap developed collaboratively among the city agencies are operationalized using CPL’s four-pillar IPDS framework. IPDS pillars correspond to on Institutions (regulations, data governance protocols), People (competency, skill development), Data (quality, management) and Systems (geoportal). This master class demonstrates why a robust data governance framework is key to dismantling institutional silos and how innovations incubated within MSDI are aimed at equipping cities to adapt a nimble IPDS framework that meets their strengths and fosters integrated spatial planning and service delivery.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-03: Urban Planning Tools: Suitability and Urban Performance. How spatial data is helping cities in making evidence-driven decisions|
Location: MC 6-100
Urban Planning Tools: Suitability and Urban Performance. How spatial data is helping cities in making evidence-driven decisions
1World Bank, Indonesia; 2CAPSUS, Mexico
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-03: MODELLING intensity of land use for three-dimensional urban activity space|
Location: MC 6-100
Modelling intensity of land use for three-dimensional urban activity space
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States of America
The dominant characteristic of urban areas that differentiates from the rural areas is the intensive use of land. Proper analysis of the three-dimensionality of urban activities are not only critical for desired land use planning, but also crucial for prescribing such policies as zoning, building codes, set back requirements, sky exposure lines, floor-to area ratio. Conventional models treat urban activities as if they engage in only on surface of land. Thus the three-dimensionality of urban activities and the intensity of urban land uses are not explicitly reflected and represented in their results. I will present how three-dimensional urban land use activities can be modeled, logically and analytically. Use of land is intensified as building becomes taller with increased capital input but decreased land input. Analytically, three-dimensional input-output table will be presented to help with identifying intensive use of urban land, employing data obtained from US cities.