Conference Agenda

Session Overview
Location: MC 4-100
Date: Tuesday, 26/Mar/2019
8:30am - 10:00am01-04: Land administration and changing gender norms
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
MC 4-100 

A tripartite normative interaction in land registration: inheritance and land information updating

Zaid Abubakari, Christine Richter, Jaap A. Zevenbergen

University of Twente, Netherlands

In trying to identify the underlying factors that account for the low incidence of land registration in the global south, commentators tend to focus on administrative limitations inside of land registration organizations. Whereas lack of efficiency, complex procedures, bureaucracy, high transaction cost and long transaction times have been mentioned as problematic internal administrative features, little is known about how external socio-cultural practices factor into the reasons for the registration and non-registration of real property. We studied the socio-cultural practices of real property inheritance and registration in Ghana and found that the eventual decision/ability/willingness of a successor of real property to report transfers for registration is influenced by the social norms of society, the formal rules of land registration and the practicalities of registration. However, the second and third influences only happen when the social norms allow room for personal appropriation of property.

Women and customary land tenure: emerging developments and ways forward in Savelugu, Ghana

Prince Donkor Ameyaw1, Uchendu Eugene Chigbu1, Walter Timo de Vries1, Simon Peter Mwesigye2, Eric Yeboah3

1Techninical University of Munich, Germany; 2UN-Habitat / Global Land Tool Network, Uganda; 3Kwame Nkrumah Univerisy of Science and Technonology, Ghana

Patriarchal norms on land operate along kinship lines. Male children have higher inheritance rights in the family. The girl child is considered not to be a permanent member of the family as she is expected to be married into another family or remarry upon the death of her husband. These are fundamentals for the discrimination against females in the patriarchal community. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches (Savelugu in northern Ghana), this study analyzed land challenges that women face in their efforts to access land in rural communities. Findings from the study show that land acquisition modes available to women appear to operate in ways that exclude them from being owning lands with high tenure security. Suggestions include intense education on land rights and land registration, the formation of women cooperative groups and economic empowerment (through responsible government and NGOs interventions).

Securing property rights for Women and children through Distributed Ledger Technology in Judiciary

Manohar Velpuri

Absolutum Consultancy Private Limited, India

UN Women, in partnership with the UN Office of Information and Communications Technology (UN OICT) and with the support of Innovation Norway organised four-day simulation lab to explore cutting-edge solutions based on distributed ledger technologies that address challenges faced by women and girls. UN Women has prioritized innovation technology as one of the drivers for change, strategically leveraging innovation and partnership to accelerate progress towards gender equality and women's empowerment.UN Women has identified cash transfer and identity as areas to leverage DLT to assist women and girls. Having a safe place to save and store humanitarian cash transfers and remittances is a key strategy for coping with shocks and building resilience.In Vietnam, a world bank pilot is testing the ways in which distributed ledger technologies could help women entrepreneurs to prove ownership of business assets, verify production values, and establish a digital identity

Women and land: A conflict of culture and law

Beverly Mumbo, Miriam Wachira, Caroline Oduor, Teresa Omondi

Federation of Women Layers, Kenya

Kenya is a diverse country with about 42 tribes, each bearing it's own cultural laws. According to the Constitution 2010 cultural practices and customs are a source of law, in so far as they are not repugnant to justice and morality. it is paramount that a balance be struck between the two to avoid either offending the other. This paper seeks to; synchronize the existing land laws with the customary laws relating to land so as to create a convergence of the two and to help strike a balance between culture and women land rights. It also seeks to recommend reforms and policy change such as codification of the current customary laws so as to ensure that the retrogressive laws are done away with and only those that are progressive and accommodate women land rights are maintained. This will all be with an aim of realization of Kenya’s vision 2030.

10:30am - 12:00pm02-04: Can land administration foster gender equality?
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Rumyana Tonchovska, UNFAO, Italy
MC 4-100 

Improving gender equality in land tenure in the Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia

Vasilija Zivanovic1, Borko Draskovic1, Rumyana Tonchovska2, Sasa Rikanovic1

1Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia; 2UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Serbia is one of the countries participating in the Western Balkans regional initiative, aiming to address the challenges to increase female land ownership. Gender disaggregated data have been produced from the administrative systems in the region, indicating a low percentage of female land ownership across the region. After the adoption of the Global Agenda, the work is focused on developing capacities to collect data and report progress on the SDGs land indicator under target 5.a: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Serbia is one of the first countries in the world, which produced the baseline data for SDGs indicator 5.a.2. and is taking serious actions to achieve the indicator. The paper will present the results from applying the methodology for monitoring and reporting on SDGs indicator 5a.2 and good practices from Serbia in improving gender equality in land ownership and its impact in the next coming years.

From laws to action: Achieving SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans

Naomi Kenney1, Adela Llatja2, Margreet Goelema2, Rumyana Tonchovska1, Lovro Tomasic3, Margret Vidar1, Bianca Wengenmayer3

1FAO, Italy; 2GIZ, Germany; 3UINL, Italy

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, gender equality has become more and more present in the agendas of the governments and the international community. This paper will present how the countries of the Western Balkans, assisted by the German Government, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Union of Notaries (UINL) have moved forward in strengthening women’s access to land. The Session will focus on the implementation gap between the law (de jure) and the practice (de facto) in the region and introduce a set of practical guidelines that invite notaries and registration officers to use their unique position to protect and strengthen the rights of spouses, partners and daughters. It will also explore how the experience from the Western Balkans could be applied in other regions of the world.

Using open data to analyze participation in the labor market and property registration of women in Kosovo

Brikene Meha, Barlet Meha

Marin Sh.P.K., Kosovo

In this study two analyses are conducted on the participation rate in the labor market and the registration of immovable property of women in Kosovo. This analysis is conducted using two main open data sources such as the Labor Force Time Use Survey and the Kosovo Geoportal. Estimations from the adjusted sample size show that the labor participation rate for women in Kosovo is 22% and for men is 52%, while the employment rate for women is 14% and 47% for men. The analysis is extended by using real time cadastral data on the registration of immovable property by all men and women in Kosovo from 2014-2018. Large gender discrepancies are found among the data in regards to the registration of immovable property, particularly, in 2018, women's registration of immovable property was 17.05% and 80.96% for men, and the remaining percentage belongs to the legal entities registered as property owners.

Women, Financial Inclusion and the Law: Why Property Rights matter for Women's access to and use of financial services

Tazeen Hasan, Nayda Almodovar

World Bank Group, United States of America

Property (including land and housing) rights are a focus of the project analyzing linkages with underlying legislation such as family, inheritance laws and land laws, and its impacts on areas such as women’s ability to access credit. Owning and being able to leverage their property, especially land, is essential for women when pursuing economic opportunities, particularly as entrepreneurs. Women, Business and the Law sheds light on specific areas of the law that are relevant for women’s access to financial services.

For example, our new research shows that women's account ownership is lower in places where their legal rights to work or own property are restricted. Women, Business and the Law 2018 finds that unequal legal rights can affect women’s financial inclusion both directly and indirectly.

12:00pm - 2:00pmWomen's caucus
Location: MC 4-100
MC 4-100 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-04: Recognizing women's rights over common resources
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource Equity, United States of America
MC 4-100 

Securing women’s property rights in utilization of commons: Lessons from the Kadenge community of Yala Swamp

Hope Otieno

National Legal Aid Service, Kenya

Women in Kenya, as in the rest of the world, continue to suffer from both structural and systemic gender based discrimination. Indigenous women and women living in the rural areas have since time immemorial been particularly vulnerable to marginalization in the management and utilization of commons resources. Despite progressive laws in Kenya which attempt to stem out gender based discrimination, this paper establishes that the gender neutral approach to the management of and access to the commons, leaves room for perpetuating discriminatory practices thus promoting marginalization. The study takes case study of the effect of land reclamation, adjudication and sale of part of Yala Swamp to Dominion Farms ltd on the women of Kadenge community who depended on the Swamp for their livelihoods. This paper proposes a framework to ensure inclusive and participatory governance of the commons to guarantee the property rights of the women who depend on the commons.

Customary land tenure systems and gendered land rights in Ghana’s northern region: Results from phase II gender equity and land tenure focus groups

Gina Rico Mendez, Kathleen Ragsdale, Kelly Lower, Mary Read-Wahidi

Mississippi State University, United States of America

We present results from Phase II of the Gendered Equity and Land Tenure (GELT) focus groups, conducted in Ghana’s Northern Region in 2018 to further investigate gender equity and customary land tenure systems among men and women smallholder soybean farmers in Ghana’s Northern Region. Preliminary GELT Phase II results reconfirmed that the primary way a woman farmer can acquire agricultural land is with the permission and assistance of an adult male. The primary way that women acquire land is through their husbands upon marriage. However, it is important to note that in some communities custom dictates that if a husband wishes, he can ‘reclaim’ his wife’s land and allocate her a different plot of land. In a feedback loop, this lack of tenure security made some women reluctant to make improvements to their farm plots, for fear their improved plots would be taken away from them.

Women’s tenure security on collective lands: Implications for measurement and policy

Ruth Meinzen-Dick1, Rachael Knight2, Cheryl Doss3

1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Namati; 3University of Oxford

Most of the growing attention to women’s tenure security has focused on individual or household-level land rights, with relatively little attention to women’s rights under collective tenure and common property systems, such as forests and rangelands. This paper presents a framework for assessing women’s tenure security on collective lands. Key dimensions include the bundles of rights held, duration, robustness, and how rights are shared. Women’s security of land rights under collective tenure depends on the extent to which the collective has secure tenure, and the extent to which women’s rights are recognized and exercised within the collective. The paper recommends indicators for in-depth research and for monitoring and reporting women’s tenure security, and identifies implications for policies and programs to protect or strengthen women’s rights to collective resources.

Exploring the role of gender equity in customary land administration to boost production

Pamela Bella Nyamutoka Katooro1, Simon Peter Mwesigye2, Rose Mugabe1, Alex Muhumuza1

1International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Uganda; 2UN Habitat/GLTN, Uganda

Land security contributes greatly to the realization of basic human rights and the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In Uganda, registered land is still at 20% with registered women owners constituting a meagre 20%. Gender equity in rights to land can thus increase women’s social and political power. The most significant challenge has been the problem of insecurity of tenure which has affected ability to invest in production.

Against this backdrop, the current initiative supported by UN Habitat GLTN and Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands, IIRR is supporting 1000 indigenous households who are rural small holder farmers through promoting pro-poor, fit-for purpose and gender responsive strategies to secure land tenure rights. Considering that 70% of land is owned under customary tenure, the issuance of certificates of customary ownership is also an important element of the initiative in order to contribute to the right to food and poverty reduction.

3:45pm - 5:15pm04-04: Legal and normative aspects of making law gender sensitive
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Tetratech, United States of America
MC 4-100 

Land and womanhood- ethnography on propertied women in Bengal

Amrita Mondal

Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Germany

This paper argues the tentativeness rather than the inevitability of the established knowledge that possessing land titles empowers women by placing them in a stronger position of better bargaining power within the home and community that is characterized by discrimination and intra-household inequalities. Based on ethnographic data in rural west Bengal this paper captures the nuances of women’s subjecthood as shaped by their socio-cultural existence as well as their ‘purposive actions’ shaping their life situations. I address the particularity of women’s experience of poverty and their specific locations as subjects in relation to property and livelihood. A gendered analysis of land in a certain social context, therefore, requires critical consideration of diverse social relations of women in distinctive subject positions, tracing the historical trajectory of her subjectivities along life courses, the kinship and familial relations they involve and ideological and juridical pattern of inheritance in which land has particular significations.

"Innovations to protect women’s customary land rights: Practical experiences from Sierra Leone."

Samuel Mabikke1, Rexford Ahene2, MariaPaola Rizzo3, Francesca Romano3

1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Sierra Leone; 2Lafayette University, USA; 3Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Italy

Since the end of the conflict in 2002, Sierra Leone has made significant progress in rebuilding its economy. However, these gains have not sufficiently translated into an equal distribution of development dividends for the population, and particularly women. As the government considers feasible NLP implementation strategies, priorities have been set to ensure rural women and men in the provinces are able to negotiate women’s rights and access in order to overcome prejudicial cultural practices.

Within the framework of implementing the VGGT, Sierra Leone is piloting Solutions for Open Land Administration (SOLA) geospatial tools for recording and mapping women’s land rights to ensure that rural women are able to negotiate their rights of access, use, and ownership of land. This paper presents the findings from nine villages in three chiefdoms in Sierra Leone. The findings are significant in influencing the call for innovative fit-for-purpose solutions for land administration in Sierra Leone.

The farmer and her husband: legal innovations for women in contract farming

Sarah Brewin, Carin Smaller, Francine Picard, Sophia Murphy

IISD, Switzerland

Contract farming is increasingly seen as a promising alternative business model to the negative impacts associated with large scale land-based investments. This is because contract farming leaves the farmer in control of their own land while potentially providing them with a steady, predictable income, and helping them access higher quality inputs such as seed, fertilizer and technical assistance. However, contract farming schemes tend to be dominated by better-off male farmers and have very poor gender outcomes. The research points to two key disadvantages for women farmers; doing most of the work but not being included in the contract, and having their subsistence farming activities displaced by contracted crops.

This paper proposes innovative legislative and contractual solutions to be applied to contract farming relationships in order to address these disadvantages and better protect women, and provides model legal drafting that can be adopted and adapted by policy-makers and contracting parties.


Date: Wednesday, 27/Mar/2019
8:30am - 10:00am05-04: Land tenure for sustainable rangeland management
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Liz Alden Wily, independent, Kenya
MC 4-100 

Strengthening traditional institutions of nomadic herders for sustainable management of public rangelands in Mongolia

Enkhamgalan Tseelei1, Gankhuyag Nyam-ochir1, Erdenechuluun Tumur2

1National Federation of Pasture user groups of herders, Mongolia; 2National University of Agriculture, Mongolia

According to National rangeland health assessment report released in September 2018, 56% of Mongolian rangelands are degraded. However, about 85% of these degraded rangelands still maintains the natural capacity to regenerate itself provided that animal grazing pressure us reduced. Absence of responsibility mechanism between owner of the land which is the State, and users-herders has been identified as a major cause of rangeland degradation. This paper explores the outcome of combined approach strengthening customary institutions of nomadic herders governing the use of their shared seasonal rangelands and regulatory tools embodied in the Rangeland use agreement between pasture user groups of herders and local government. According to survey carried out among herders adopted Rangeland use agreement, conflicts with access to shared rangelands have declined, planning and enforcement of improved grazing management is in place and investment from local government and herders on sustainable rangeland management practices has increased.

Landscape approach for addressing land use conflicts in pastoral areas: the case of Tanzania

Stephen Nindi1, Victor Mwita2, Deus Kalenzi3, Isaack Luambano3, Fiona Flintan3

1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries; 3International Livestock Research Institute

Conflicts between farmers and livestock herders are increasingly becoming common place in Tanzania due to a number of different factors. For decades conventional village spatial planning has further restricted pastoral movement within village jurisdiction boundaries. Recently, spatial planners have embarked on developing Joint Village Land Use Plans and Agreements to enable more space and diversity for pastoral mobility, protecting shared grazing areas across village boundaries as part of this. As a starting point for identifying future intervention areas a pastoral landscape stretching from central Tanzania to the northern coastal area was mapped. This paper will provide details on how the landscape approach and mapping was developed and the results of this. It will highlight how such an approach is important for planning development and land-related interventions, as well as providing opportunity for improving local ownership of the process and as and advocacy/lobbying tool.

Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya

Linet Rutoh1, David Jakinda Otieno1, Willis-Oluoch Kosura1, Stephen Mureithi1, Gert Nyberg2

1The University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Sweden

This study aimed to characterize the forms of emerging land market participation and how they impact on pastoralists' livelihoods in Kenya. A sample of 336 agro-pastoralists was used to obtain information on the forms of land market participation and the transactions in place occurring in the counties of West Pokot and Laikipia. From the findings, land sales, and land rentals were the common emerging forms. However, land rental markets were more prevalent since its timeline was only one year and the agreements were mostly oral, based on friendship and trust. Moreover, it equalized land access between the land-rich and those with less land holdings. In addition, they acted as an avenue of income diversification for the households who rented out land for pasture and cultivation. To increase land markets vibrancy, which will stimulate the local economy growth and hence sustainable livelihoods, policies like tenure security should be made a priority.

Securing land rights for marginalized communities - Experience from working with Pastoralist, hunter and gathers in Tanzania

Naomi Shadrack Mwaiponya, Amina Ndiko

OXFAM, Tanzania

Oxfam projects in the Northern part of Tanzania targets marginalized tribes of maasai found in Arusha region and Barbaigs found in Manyara region. Project aim at reinforcing people’s capacity on livelihood restoration, environmental protection and land tenure security for both short term and long term basis.

Customs of majority of tribes in Tanzania, do not allow women to own, manage and control productive assets like land and natural resources. For women living in marginalized community their lives are affected twice, first as communities and second because of being women

Oxfam has been exploring approaches to help communities to secure land rights ensure those rights are protected under the law. This has been done through rough creation of awareness on legal frameworks, facilitation of land registration and linking Citizen with duty bearers.

This paper gives describe the project and give recommendation to different stakeholders working in the land targeting marginalized communities

10:30am - 12:00pm06-04: Gender and land policy
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Renee Giovarelli, Resource Equity, United States of America
MC 4-100 

Evaluation results of a program aimed at reducing property grabbing among widows in Uganda

Andee Parks, Shawn Kohl, Jessica Kyle, Claire Wilkinson

International Justice Mission

This paper discusses the research results and evaluation findings of a program aimed at combatting property (land) grabbing from widows in Mukono County, Uganda. Unlike many other ongoing efforts, this program focused on capacity building of local government actors, particularly within the criminal justice system, as the primary approach to ending this overlooked form of violence against women. In 2012, baseline prevalence and justice system performance data were collected. Endline data collected in 2017 provided impact and outcome-level data for a summative evaluation of the program conducted in late 2017/early 2018. The program contributed to approximately a 50% reduction in the prevalence of property grabbing. While challenges remain in the formal justice system’s response and sustainability of program gains, government actors substantially improved in their performance addressing property grabbing. Learning outcomes for attendees include applications for local, national, and international actors implementing similar programs affected by culturally-embedded gender norms.

Women's tenure rights across the rural urban continuum: implications for a gender responsive urban land reform in Namibia.

Prisca Mandimika1, Thomas Haenert2

1Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia; 2GIZ Office Namibia

Namibia is considered as one of the unequal societies where poverty is prevalent. The land question and its role in development remains a pivotal source of livelihood to get people out of poverty. The country is also fast urbanizing with issues of urban informality and security of tenure becoming a concern as one million people are residing in informal settlements. In the absence of concrete interventions the informal settlements could become the dominant form of housing by 2025. Consequently, at the recent Land Conference the President declared the housing needs a “national emergency”. The Flexible Land Tenure Act is targeted to provide security of tenure in informal settlements. This paper will provide an overview of the land reform agenda, the purposive policy and legal framework adopted by the Government to promote gender equality. An investigation of the impact of urbanization on gender issues in urban areas is undertaken.

Community land titling: a contextual analysis of women’s land rights in Kenya

Erin Kitchell, Rachael Knight, Jaron Vogelsang

Namati, United States of America

Over the past decade, several African countries have introduced new legislative protections for community land rights. Ensuring that group title sufficiently protects the rights of women and minorities presents significant challenges. Based on a case study analysis of women’s land and resource rights in pastoral communities, we identify the opportunities and potential threats that registering land under Kenya’s 2016 Community Land Act creates for women’s tenure security. This includes considering challenges associated with customary norms around women’s land use, participation in collective decision-making, and inheritance rights. Data collection included 30 focus groups and nearly 70 individual interviews with women and key informants in six communities across three counties in Kenya (Kajiado, Laikipia, and Isiolo). The study sites fall into two categories: (1) communal grazing land held in “trusts” by county governments and (2) former group ranches that must be converted into community land.

Innovations to secure women's land rights and build resilience

Mino Harivelo Ramaroson1, Gaynor Paradza1, Birte Scholz1, Frances Birungi2

1Huairou Commission, United States of America; 2UCOBAC, Uganda

Although the precise magnitude of climate change is subject of debate, there is growing consensus of its impact on access to resources and livelihoods. Globally, its grassroots women who face the worst effects of climate change on agriculture, with socioeconomic impacts due to lack of coping mechanisms. Tools and processes have been developed to support grassroots women resilience work through securing their access to and control over land, such as the Community Resilience Fund which is a mechanism through which grassroots women invest in collective actions to reduce disaster and climate related risks and vulnerabilities highlighting the importance of local adaptations. Drawing from the country experiences, this paper will provide insights into how these tools could be applied more globally to help mitigate the effects of climate change and foster local adaptation through improving grassroots’ women access to and control over land which is considered as perquisite for building resilience.

12:00pm - 2:00pmWomen's caucus
Location: MC 4-100
MC 4-100 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-04: Beyond joint titling: Making land institutions gender-sensitive
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Bina Agarwal, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
MC 4-100 

Implementing Uganda's gender strategy on land through issuance of certificates of customary ownership : A case of Kabale and Adjumani districts in Uganda

Naome Justine Kabanda1, Henry Harrison Irumba1, Sylla Oumar2, Simon Peter Mwesigye2, Danilo Antonio2

1Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Uganda; 2UN-Habitat/Global Land Tool Network, Kenya

Land is a critical resource for both women and men in Uganda. It has multiple values and functions, thus making it more critical for people’s livelihoods.Land is not only a material and productive resource that enables survival,production but is also a symbolic resource that heavily influences status and identity.

Across Uganda, many women tell a similar tale: they use the land to produce food, yet lack secure rights to land,and largely remain mere laborers on land. With secure rights to land,women can improve food security, and economic development for their families. Improving women’s access to and control over land has a positive effect on poverty reduction and economic growth. Ensuring the security of tenure for women on Customary tenure in Uganda by including the woman's name on the certificate of customary ownership has yielded such results issued to over 2000 households in the districts of Kabale and Adjumani in Uganda.

When joint ownership is not sufficient to ensure joint registration: Lessons from Cabo Verde

Elisa Scalise1, Michelle Adato2, Naomi Cassirer2

1Resource Equity, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America

This paper identifies and summarizes lessons learned regarding gender and social integration for the MCC Compact in Cabo Verde’s Land Management Investment Project (LMIP). It is especially relevant to the question of what is required to ensure that legal rights – such as marital property rights that are established in the Family Code - are fully realized in the context of land administration reforms. In this example, the law provides clear property rights to people in relationships (marriage, de facto unions, etc.) but the law alone was not sufficient to ensure that the implementation of the project could address entrenched social and cultural norms that tend to favor men’s interests in property over those of women.

Inclusive and gender-aware participatory land registration in Indonesia

Simon Ulvund1, Eva Maria Unger2, Chrit Lemmen2, Christelle van den Berg2, Tjeerd Wits1, Resti Diah Utami1, Hanhan Lukman3

1Meridia, The Netherlands; 2Kadaster International, The Netherlands; 3ATR / BPN, Indonesia

Utilising a participatory land registration approach, this paper argues how inclusive and gender aware land titling, involving local community teams, can lead to faster, affordable and more socially anchored land registration.

Coupled with building support across authorities such as village chiefs, district heads and government agencies, allows for a both bottom up and top down approach, capturing interest and concerns of all key stakeholders in the process. The paper also demonstrates, that if not taken seriously, these stakeholders can pose serious risks to the success of the project.

By using a local village community land rights committee that with strong representation of women, the land registration process had a high acceptance rate and support in the communities worked in.

We also show that developing a software application that guides such a process, being easy to use for village members, while compliant with government regulations and requirements, is essential.

Promoting women’s right to land inheritance through agriculture incentivization

Rene Claude Niyonkuru1, Louis Marie Nindorera2

1Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2Independent Consultant

This paper offers an economic development-driven and empirically-grounded approach to the acquisition and strengthening of land rights for women in Burundi. This involves valuing their contribution to the agricultural sector seen as a cornerstone for the overall development of the country. Based on existing data and realistic projections, we will explore some functional relationships between improving women's access to land and their potential to boost agricultural production and hence open a new perspective on how the Burundian Government and its partners can use current and future incentives in the agriculture sector to improve women’s access to land.

There is an increasing need for activists and policy makers to move beyond legal formalism and articulate the current policy debate and actions aimed at alleviating poverty and development at country level with strategies that promote and secure women’s land rights.

Storytelling: a powerful strategy to increase women’s access to land/property rights in Uganda and beyond

Judith Hermanson1, Natalie R Gill1, Sylvia Luchini1, Jessica A Kaahwa2

1IHC Global, United States of America; 2Makerere University

World Bank data from 2013 shows that 142 countries have laws granting equal property ownership rights to women and men, and 116 countries have laws providing equal inheritance rights to daughters and sons. Unfortunately, laws are insufficient. In Uganda, data from a recent study of property ownership (IHC Global, 2017) highlighted discrepancies between the intent of the laws and exercise of women’s property rights. These discrepancies are largely rooted in conflicts between customary traditions and the laws, coupled with lack of awareness of women’s rights they enshrine. In September 2018, IHC Global piloted a “theater for development” approach that raised issues about women’s ability to exercise their property rights in an accessible, relatable, and non-confrontational way. A community forum followed the production which allowed audience members to discuss the issues raised. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the pilot through an evaluation of event survey data and key informant interviews.

3:45pm - 5:15pm08-04: Ways to secure women's tenure in practice
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Janet Edeme, African Union Commission, Ethiopia
MC 4-100 

The impact of land regularization in rural Tanzania; gender, rights and anti- poverty case: the civil society organization’s parallel support to the land tenure support programme

Nasieku Kisambu1, Jonathan Kioko1, Mary Richard2

1We Effect, Tanzania; 2Tanzania Women Lawyers Association, Tanzania

Land Tenure Regularization is a priority for both rural and urban Land Tenure Regularization is a priority for both rural and urban Tanzania. The main drive is security of tenure and subsequent economic benefits including access to financial services. Rural Tanzania (approximated at 80%) is categorized as village land. While the government of Tanzania prioritize land formalization to promote and guarantee security of tenure, and ultimately economic benefits to citizens, several other factors must be considered in order to cement on the real security of tenure and thus contribute effectively to poverty reduction. This paper discusses Gender, land formalization as a human right issue, and a tool for poverty reduction. Specific lessons are drawn from the parallel CSO support project which focuses on fostering equitable engagement, consultation and representation in the land regularization process being undertaken by the government of Tanzania under the Land Tenure Support programme (2014-2018).

A multi-stakeholder approach to advancing women’s land rights using the SDGs framework: experience from Tanzania

Godfrey Massay

Landesa, Tanzania

The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 has inspired actors to use the SDGs to advance specific agendas of interest at the national and global level. The actors who are working on the land sector have, in the spirit of leaving no one behind, organized themselves in advocating for data collection on tenure security, land law reforms, re-classifications of indicators, as well as localization of the indictors in national development plans. In Tanzania, Landesa in collaboration with the Ministry responsible for Gender established a Multi-stakeholder Platform on Women’s Land Rights in order to generate discussions and exchanges that encourage and support the government to take responsibility and to act more effectively and quickly to support women’s land rights. This paper highlights the milestones and lessons one year on since the platform was created.

Women’s tenure rights and land reform in Angola

Allan Cain

Development Workshop, Angola

Current Angolan municipalisation reforms present a unique opportunity to affect local practice on how community and individual land-holder tenure is administered and to protect women's equitable rights to land. Angola is a post-war country, with weak land tenure legislation and limited local government management capacity. Customary traditions are practiced in the various regions a of the country do not respect women’s rights of ownership and inheritance. More than 62 percent of the population live in informal settlements with insecure land tenure under the threat of forced evictions. Families living in poor communities affected by the expansion of cities and towns are particularly vulnerable. Of these, families lead by women are the most at risk. Securing rights to land and housing assets are important to livelihoods of women headed households by permitting access to financing that they require to grow their enterprises as well as for incrementally upgrading their housing.

Using institutional cooperation, focusing on Capacity Building, to secure Gender Equality

Kent Johan Ronny Nilsson1, Grace Nishimwe2

1Lantmäteriet, Sweden; 2Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda

Rwanda has a unique position in the world of land administration, achieving extraordinary results in limited time with limited resources and limited land available. We might be able to find other successful examples, such as Botswana, but how do you continue to develop and take the next step?

Land data is best served fresh and together with other data it can provide a basis for development of any country but without reliable data any country’s economy could collapse.

Sweden is supporting Rwanda via Sida and an institutional cooperation between Lantmäteriet and RLMUA, focusing on capacity building “Capacity Development in Land Administration”.

Women’s rights are vital to reach the SDG's, including No Poverty, Gender Equality and Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. How can innovation help making actual progress for the poor and vulnerable women living on and from the land?


Date: Thursday, 28/Mar/2019
8:30am - 10:00am09-04: Harnessing benefits from urban planning
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
MC 4-100 

Contribution of urban green infrastructure to achieve sustainable development goals: an innovative mechanism to bring different actors together

Sisay Nune Hailemariam

World Bank, Ethiopia

Cities around the world are responsible for 70% of CO2 emission globally. Hence, the Paris Agreement cannot be achieved without action by mega-cities to limit GHG emissions. Similarly, achieving the 17 SDGs will be difficult since SDG-13 is all about climate action. Many Sub-Saharan African cities are not yet taking decisions likely to set stage for the adoption of a model of urban development that can support economic prosperity and manage the rate of growth of carbon emissions. Green Infrastructure (GI) is an innovative concept which refers to interconnected networks of multifunctional features of different land uses having environmental, social and economic benefits. The objective of the review was to assess current state of Green Infrastructure in Ethiopia and make recommendations for policy makers regarding the benefits if fully implemented. The concept is recommended to be captured at the national policy levels. Actions to Catalyze the innovation are recommended.

Inclusive development? Paradox of state-led land development in India

Urmi Sengupta1, Sujeet Sharma2

1Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom; 2Architecture, Planning and Environment LTD, United Kingdom

Urban land development in India is changing under the auspices of economic liberalisation. India has been in the forefront of this transformation through distinctive state-led land development model. The paper uses New Town, Kolkata (also known as Rajarhat) to articulate the ways in which the state is implementing its neoliberal agenda in land development. There are inherent contradictions within the state-led model due to aiming to foster capitalist interest while fulfilling welfarist principles. Interesting insights have emerged that point to a policy paradox. On one hand, the process follows market principles of efficacy and efficiency; on the other hand, state's keenness to extend control persists, thereby creating a highly uneven terrain for state—market interaction. It reflects a typical quasi-market condition shaped by the monopolistic state, the poorly structured role of the private sector, an absence of civic bodies, and minimal land and housing provision for the poor.

Assessment of urban upgrading interventions in mekong delta region in Vietnam

Mansha Chen1, Van Thang Nguyen2

1World Bank, United States of America; 2National Economics University, Vietnam

To improve living conditions of the urban poor, the World Bank has supported two urban upgrading projects in Vietnam, including Vietnam Urban Upgrading Project (VUUP) (2004 – 2014) and Mekong Delta Region Urban Upgrading Project (MDR-UUP) (2012 – 2018). The two projects covered nine cities, including 6 in Mekong Delta areas, with a total budget of $926 million. In order to learn from the accumulated experiences in the implementation of VUUP and MDR-UUP, we conducted a study to assess key dimensions of living conditions and dynamics of land and property values within upgraded and resettlement sites from these urban upgrading projects in two cities Can Tho and Tra Vinh, identify achievements as well as limitations in the projects’ designs and implementation, and offer recommendations for future projects. This paper presents the methodology, key findings and lessons learnt from the study.

10:30am - 12:00pm10-04: Harnessing the scope for incremental tenure upgrading
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Abdu Muwonge, World Bank, Kenya
MC 4-100 

Formalizing the informal through incremental tenure strengthening in urban Battambang: Experience on tenure transformation in Cambodia

Rebecca Ochong1, Bells Regino-Borja2, Bernadette Bolo-Duthy2, Keo Kanika2

1Habitat for Humanity International, Philippines; 2Habitat for Humanity, Cambodia

Equitable access to land continues to remain a growing problem in the global urban South. In Cambodia for example, demographic pressure, the enduring effects of decades of conflict, increasing urbanization and persistent rural and urban poverty have intensified insecure tenure and unequal access to land for many poor families. As a way of dealing with the problem of access to land, in March 2003, the Cambodian government unveiled the Social Land Concessions, a mechanism for enabling transfer of state private land to private individuals or groups for social purposes. In an effort to test different approaches for providing the poor with access to land, the Cambodian government prepared a Civic Engagement Framework and created several pilot projects. This paper will discuss outcomes and lessons learned in one such pilot project in urban Battambang, Cambodia which, provided avenues for poor households to incrementally move informal settlers towards greater tenure security.

The Odisha Liveable Habitat Mission: The process and tools behind the world’s largest slum titling project

Frank Pichel1, Shishir Ranjan Dash2, G. Mathivathanan3, Shikha Srivastava2

1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Tata Trusts, India; 3Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Odisha State, India

In the eastern Indian state of Odisha, the state with the second highest number of slum households nationally, the need for formal land rights is acute as without documented rights, citizens are unable to open bank accounts, get credit from financial institutions, enroll children in schools, and access government benefits. Furthermore, without data on land use and holdings, and limited property tax collection, urban living standards fall as local governments struggle to meet demand for services.

Recognizing the need to clarify the rights of informal settlements, the Odisha state government enacted a landmark legislation, the Land Rights to Slum Dwellers Act 2017. As per this Act, slum dwellers across the state will get heritable and mortgageable land rights for residential use free of cost.

This paper details activities over the past year to implement the Act, resulting in 2,227 households being formalized, and another 250,000 households in process.

Urban landholding registration in Ethiopia: law and practice

Abdu Hussein

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

This paper presents the current status of urban landholding registration system in Ethiopia, the different problems faced with the system and the practical solutions to the problems. Land is the basic element of development and more especially on developing countries such as Ethiopia. A good land administration system is a prerequisite for proper land registration and information about parcels of land is the basis on which is good land administration and land information system can be built. In this review, issues and problems pertaining to urban land registration in Ethiopia are examined. The roles of various stallholders, the nature and format of the urban landholding registration are discussed and how handling of this information has affected land registration in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the various efforts being taken by the government of Ethiopia in addressing urban landholding registration problems are highlighted. Finally, possible solutions to urban landholding registration problems in Ethiopia are proposed.

12:00pm - 2:00pmWomen's caucus
Location: MC 4-100
MC 4-100 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-04: Demand for and impacts of land tenure regularization
Location: MC 4-100
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC 4-100 

The socio-economic impact of implementing land registration and land information systems in Saudi Arabia

Philip Auerswald1, Muhamad Alrajhi2

1George Mason University, United States of America; 2Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Crop prices and the demand for titled land: evidence from Uganda

Viviana Maria Eugenia Perego

The World Bank, United States of America

The effects of land title registration on tenure security, investment and production: evidence from Ghana

Andrew Agyei-Holmes2, Niklas Buehren1, Markus Goldstein1, Robert Osei2, Isaac Osei-Akoto2, Christopher Udry3

1World Bank, United States of America; 2Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, Ghana; 3Northwestern University, Department of Economicsm, United States of America

Early lessons from the evaluation of land management reforms in Cabo Verde

Audrey Moore, Evan Borkum, Irina Cheban

Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America