07-08: Improving housing delivery
Social mix and social cohesion using housing mix: a review of the Chilean and British experience
1University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
This paper explores the evolution of housing policies in the UK and Chile, and takes into consideration the political and cultural context in which policies were developed. In both states and over time governments using conservative and more neo-liberal political discourses have prevailed. The blueprint of the policies set on the early 1980’s have changed little since favouring home-ownership over any other form of tenure via the ABC approach in Chile and the RTB and HTB in the UK. While Chile pursued a strategy of segregation by creating socially homogeneous neighbourhoods, the UK has always aimed to achieve social mix via tenure mix. However, with decreasing tenure types and wide criticism to ‘forced’ social mix, the UK approach is facing challenging times. The Chilean system in particular is reviewed here with the aim of furthering the debate on homogeneous vs socially mixed neighbourhoods in property-ownership democracies.
Affordable housing: a land suitability perspective
1World Bank, Indonesia; 2CAPSUS, Mexico
Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization rates, which have caused an increased demand for housing, especially in central urban areas. There, the supply of land and housing is becoming increasingly limited, causing prices to rise. While centric urban regions become more expensive, low-income families seek for accommodation in the outskirts of the cities, where land is cheaper, but access to services, infrastructure, and economic opportunities decreases, causing a great disadvantage. In this work, the locations of existing social housing projects Semarang city, Indonesia were analyzed according to their implications on: human well-being, distance to central urban areas, and cost of land. Considering these indicators and with the help of the urban planning tool -Suitability- areas to develop future housing projects were proposed. The results of this analysis show that a significant improvement in service accessibility and well-being for urban dwellers does not necessarily implicate high investment costs regarding land acquisition.
Harnessing the real estate market for equitable affordable housing provision through land value capture: Insights from San Francisco City, California
University of Salford, United Kingdom
Affordable housing remains a serious problem in many countries. Even as the housing affordability crisis deepens, most cities continue to exhibit robust real estate markets with high property prices. The low-income and poor households are unable to access affordable housing and remain excluded. This paper draws from empirical research conducted in the city of San Francisco and focusses on the application of Land Value Capture (LVC) through increased Inclusionary Housing (IH) requirements after rezoning San Francisco’s Eastern Neighbourhoods to evaluate its effects on the goals of increasing both affordable housing and social inclusion. Findings reveal that the increased inclusionary requirements used as LVC mechanism enabled 76.2% of all the affordable housing units produced in the eastern neighbourhoods to be financed through the market. The study demonstrates that upzoning underutilized land coupled with a well-planned LVC mechanism can help harness the strength of the real estate market and increase affordable housing