05-02: Implementing land readjustment
Using land readjustment and FAR bonuses to create high-density development in fringe areas of fast growing cities
Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States of America
Using a unique application of the self-financing land readjustment technique, planners in Ahmadabad, India created an outer ring road to address transportation challenges and to supply developable lands in fringe areas of the city with much-needed infrastructure and developable real estate. This idea is diffusing to other growing cities. This paper presents a case study of an outer ring road project in Surat, India. Surat in addition to the techniques of land pooling (LP) and land readjustment (LR) to create space for the outer ring road’s right-of-way (ROW) and other infrastructure, will also incorporate FAR bonuses -- additional incentive to create greater urban density along the ring road and thus enhance the financing of road. This case study presents opportunities for planning professionals who face the challenge of supplying infrastructure and addressing transportation deficiencies in financially constrained, and rapidly growing cities, especially those in developing countries.
Surrender and re-alienation of land in Johor, Malaysia: a planning tool and mechanism for sustainable property development
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
In Malaysia, land laws are governed by the National Land Code (NLC) 1965. There are rules and restrictions imposed by the NLC 1965 which control and guide the property development. Uniquely, the implementation of the NLC 1965 is different in each state and state has govern on land matters, such as the application of conversion, sub-division, partition or amalgamation. In Johor, the state authority was implementing surrender and re-alienation mechanisms, as part of property development approval. This paper discusses on process and procedures, practices and some key challenges of the mechanism. The unique process has contributes fruitful significance for sustainable property development industry.
Land Assembly through Land Pooling Scheme in Amaravati, Challenges and land value capture for greenfield city development
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA), India
Amaravati, the greenfield capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India undertook one of the largest land pooling schemes in the world, wherein 28,000 farmers voluntarily pooled over 34,000 acres of land to develop a city designed to host a population of 3.5 million by 2050. The land owners received a benefit sharing package comprising of a reconstituted urban plot, social and economic benefits. While in peri-urban areas and redevelopment projects, the land value appreciation is rather directly discernible due to the presence of economic activity in the adjoining urban agglomerations, land value capture in a large land pooling exercise for a greenfield development remains unprecedented. This paper attempts to critically examine the challenges in land value capture and innovative measures adopted by the Authority in aspects of market speculation, density, infrastructure spread, affordability, connectivity and peripheral development.
Community-based feedback to improve land pooling for planned urbanization: a case study of Thimphu, Bhutan
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Land pooling can be an effective strategy for public infrastructure projects, especially in small but growing cities where rural-to-urban transition gives rise to greenfield development. This paper outlines a model comparing outcomes of land acquisition and land pooling; reviews the literature on the negative effects of land acquisition on displaced households; and evaluates land pooling using original data from 1200 households in four Local Area Plans (LAPs) in southern Thimphu, Bhutan. Land prices in the LAPs increased, due in part to additional public services but in large part to a rise in urbanization over time. Land pooling participants benefited from increased land prices but not all were satisfied with the quality of works, particularly in terms of a lack of maintenance, nor with the consultation, planning and building phases. The case study has implications for government and multilateral development bank policy for land pooling and similar mechanisms for planned urbanization.