|Location: MC C1-200|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-12: Planning land use to attract investment|
Session Chair: Kaitlin Cordes, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
Challenges of making land available for large-scale investment in commercial agriculture in Tanzania: the case of Missenyi district
Ardhi university, Tanzania
There is a belief that for a country like Tanzania, there is a lot of unutilized or underutilized land that can be made available for large-scale agricultural investment. Based on a study of the Missenyi District to the north-west of the country, it was established that given the growing population and the existence of a sugarcane estate, a state ranch and a nature reserve there is a land scarcity which is forcing serious encroachment on the traditional communal resources land (rweya), and on wetlands (bishanga) with serious consequences on land for livestock grazing, the environment and water sources. It is recommended that rather than think in terms of creating a land bank for large external investors, efforts should be made to enable land markets including land rentals, and turn the local populations into high productivity investors, reducing the pressure for lateral expansion onto communal and environmentally sensitive land.
Insights from participatory land use planning in Liberia: the dos and don’ts of bottom-up land use planning as part of tenure reform
1Liberia Land Authority; 2IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative
In September 2018, after years of advocacy, negotiation, and research, the Government of Liberia passed the Land Rights Act (LRA). This act formally recognizes customary land and calls for land use planning in every community. The Liberia Land Authority, the agency tasked with implementing the LRA, and IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative, are piloting bottom-up land use planning in Foya District of Lofa County, in Northwest Liberia, to understand the opportunities and challenges of such a process. Through this initiative, communities identify land for farming, other livelihood activities, future use or conservation, infrastructural development, and sustainable agro-production supported through external investments. The first of its kind in Liberia, this project tests methodologies for land negotiation, community mapping, and conflict resolution in the land sector at the district level. By analyzing the successes and challenges of this process, we offer insights that can inform land use planning processes occurring elsewhere.
Building harmonized private and state land data and information systems in Ethiopia
1Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Ethiopia; 2NIRAS
Different government institutions in Ethiopia working on land related issues manage data and information independently, while their activities and mandates are often related or even overlapping. In Ethiopia different institutions deal with small holder rural land and commercial agricultural land. Until now responsible institutions were not able to share information and view each others data to make informed decisions. The lack of shared data has in some cases led to investment allocations that overlap with small holder farmers’ areas. This challenge is currently addressed through joint initiatives involving the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Resources and Ethiopian Horticultural and Agriculture Investment Authority supported by the Finnish Government funded REILA project and by the EU/German co-funded GIZ implemented S2RAI project. The paper will provide examples and arguments for linking data and IT-systems of different governmental institutions and focus on the link between investment land allocation and monitoring and rural cadaster.
Making Myanmar's National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work: opportunities and challenges for harnessing technology, innovation and investment in people for Myanmar's inclusive development
1The PLAN: Public Legal Aid Network, Myanmar; 2Emerald Sea Group; 3River Mekong Group
"There is no compensation for inaction and lack of policies", warned a panelist in "Leveraging Policies for Sustainable Development Goals", one of the seminars in the 2018 Annual Meetings of the World Bank and IMF in Bali, urging governments' immediate actions to address global issues highlighting the only alternative be devastating crises. In light of #AM2018Bali agendas, the paper explores the context of Myanmar's challenges and opportunities: how Myanmar could ensure its National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work for all its populations, including the vulnerable/marginalized by fostering inclusion, equality, rule of law and ensuring leveled playing field for free and fair competition. By honestly looking into the realities of the illicit and unaccounted-for economies, their thriving financing models, could the country capture and incorporate correct data to accommodate comprehensive policy and regulatory frameworks. Harnessing technology, innovation and investing in the future will help Myanmar achieve its full potential.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-12: Can large investment catalyze agricultural transformation?|
Session Chair: Thomas Jayne, Michigan State University, United States of America
The Resource Impact Dashboard (RID) An innovative global framework to measure the local impact of landed resources exploitation by industries
1Institute for Social Research in Africa, Burkina Faso; 2Universidade de Lurio, Mozambique; 3Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
Within the larger goal of improving our understanding of the development impact of landed resource extraction on territorial management, the main focus of the RID research project lies on developing a methodological and technical framework that allows gathering field-based evidence across the diverse dimensions of outcomes, in a way that is readily available and understandable to both policymakers and local stakeholders. The RID framework is informed by a relational theory approach and integrating insights from research into the emergence of civil conflict and into the role of institutions in creating social capital. Mixed qualitative and quantitative data are collected through survey on wellbeing and perceptions; complementary data are collected from extractive companies and government bodies. The survey is currently being tested in two mining areas in Burkina Faso and Mozambique each, administering surveys to a total of 2'000 households.
Agricultural growth corridors in Sub-Saharan Africa - New hope for territorial rural development or another non-starter?
German Development Institute (DIE), Germany
Agricultural growth corridors - geographically bounded areas along a central transport line that receive intensive agricultural investments - are a recent approach to economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. They figure prominently in several national development strategies in the region. Agricultural growth corridors combine agricultural policies with agrobusiness and infrastructure investments. Since they are usually planned and managed as strategic private-public-partnerships, they promise to bring together expertise, funding and coordination that are usually dispersed and aim to benefit from multiple synergies that arise. There are, however, huge pitfalls to be overcome from agricultural corridor approaches, including social exclusion, land grabbing and ecological stress. The paper brings together literature on geographical approaches to rural development as well as empirical evidence from the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT).
A framework for the development of responsible agropoles in Africa
International Institute for Sustainable Development, Mali
Agropoles are simultaneous, coordinated investments in agriculture to support self-sustaining industrialization in a country. Ensuring that the new wave of agropoles in Africa is effective requires robust policies, laws and practices to ensure that a possible new trend of investment helps Africa achieve its sustainable development goals. There’s therefore a need for a clear framework outlining the key stages and steps, including the practices they entail, to follow in order to make sure they are developed in a responsible and a sustainable manner, i.e. in such a way that the risks associated with their development are minimized and the benefits maximized.
The present paper is a reflection on such a Framework for the development of responsible Agricultural growth zones. It identifies eight key steps spread across three main phases for a responsible agropole development framework: planning (1), Design (2) and implementation (3).
Changing farm structure and rural transformation in Africa
Michigan State University, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-12: Can large farms attract local growth?|
Session Chair: Derick Bowen, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
How and why large-scale agricultural investments induce diverse trajectories of regional development in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique
1Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition; 3University of Pretoria; 4CIRAD / University of Pretoria; 5CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier Madagascar; 6CIRAD, France; 7CETRAD, Kenya
If a consensus emerges regarding the necessity of additional investment into agriculture, it is less evident whether large-scale agricultural investments (LAI) are a vector for broader agrarian and socio-economic transformations in a sustainable manner.
Against this backdrop, this paper presents the results of a study aiming, on one hand, at assessing the changes and impacts of LAIs at various (individual, household, regional) levels within target regions, and on the other hand, at a nuanced account of how and why LAIs subsequently induce diverse regional development trajectories in these regions. We focus on LAIs in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. Specifically, this study provides a cross-national comparative analysis of business models, land-use changes, governance dynamics of LAIs and their socio-economic, food security, and environmental impacts in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique.
Investing in land versus land use: analyzing investment decisions by transnational forestry and agriculture companies
1Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2F.R.S.- FNRS, Brussels, Belgium
Our work in Southern and Eastern Africa aims at understanding investor decisions in shaping the emergence of new commodity frontiers and the different trajectories of land use change that may result from these decisions. Based on our findings, we derived two key approaches to choosing land for agricultural investments. One approach (‘crop-to-land’) was to choose a land that suited a specific crop or an agricultural “project” that had been identified already. The other approach (‘land-to-crop’) was to choose a land that was suitable for agriculture in general, and then identify a crop or a set of crops that would suit the land. The two approaches show noticeable differences in the types of investors involved, decision rationales, types of crops grown and land area acquired and developed. These differences are also reflected in the broader land use patterns and its implications for the land and its people, and warrants further investigation.
Large-scale land aggregation for transforming and scaling up African agriculture
African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire
Untapped agricultural potential in Africa has contributed to persistent poverty and deteriorating food security, resulting in a projected increase in the number of undernourished people. Population growth and urbanization increase food demand and changing consumption habits that lead to rapidly rising net food imports. Access to land and land rights in both rural and urban areas remain major challenges that hinders agriculture productivity across the continent. The main question is whether large scale land acquisition by public and private sector facilitates access to land and fast-track agriculture productivity. The implementation of the AfDB’s Feed Africa Strategy for Agricultural Transformation that ensures productivity and alleviates poverty requires land that is accessed and secured equitably. The paper argues that large scale land acquisition can immediately resolve food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, appropriate land policies and regulation for large scale acquisition are necessary to ensure access to land and Land rights are provided.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-12: Gender impacts of large-scale investment|
Session Chair: Kerstin Nolte, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
Winners or losers: a gender analysis of the economic and social impact of corporate large-scale land acquisition on rural women in Cameroon
1University of Buea, Cameroon; 2University of Yaounde I, Cameroon; 3Islamic Relief Worldwide, Kenya
Cameroon like most sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed increase in large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) by local and foreign investors requesting huge hectares of land for investments. The underlying assumption is that LSLA is a win-win undertaking for investors and host countries/communities. Foreign investors are seen as catalysts of development whose capital will put ‘unused land’ into production and modernize agriculture, leading to growth and prosperity. This paper interrogates the situation of rural women in Cameroon based on primary investigations. It argues that, rural women are generally worse-off in the process of LSLA and even when they seems to benefit (jobs, social welfare, and amenities), these benefits are short-lived and replaced by far-reaching negative effects (exclusion, landless, poverty) on their reproductive and productive roles. These effects are obvious since LSLA is presently conceived from investors’ rather than investors/host countries’ perspectives. The current architecture of LSLA thus needs to be inclusive and engendered.
New research about gender, land and mining in Mongolia: deepening understanding of coping strategies in pastoral communities
1Mokoro Ltd, United Kingdom; 2People Centered Conservation (PCC), Mongolia
This paper shares findings from new research on gender and land in a pastoralist community in central-western Mongolia, with a complex structure of investment and operations in gold mining. The paper examines what has been learned from the research about people's coping strategies in the face of social and environmental change, specifically in the context of the development of mining since the transition from socialism and in a relatively isolated area. Comparisons are made with similar studies in other communities in Mongolia, where it is found that in some ways female-headed households are less vulnerable in this new research community, while many men are in fact the vulnerable members of the community.
Strengthening women's voices in land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land
1IIED, United Kingdom; 2IED Afrique, Senegal
Over the past two years, IIED has been working with local partners in selected communities in Senegal, Tanzania and Ghana to develop, test and when possible upscale tools and approaches to strengthen rural women’s voices in local land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land.This paper will distil insights from this work, documenting the tools and approaches developed and implemented in each country and presenting key challenges and lessons learned.The paper will explain the rationale behind each approach and provide a step by step description of the implementation process. It will also explore the challenges met during implementation and the mitigation strategies developed to overcome them. It will draw specific lessons for each geography, compare and contrast the approaches and identify broader lessons exploring their potential for replication.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-12: Protecting land rights in the course of land acquisition|
Session Chair: Joan Kagwanja, UNECA, Ethiopia
Land rights protection in the pulp and paper production system
University of São Paulo, Brazil
This article explores how the quality of institutions influence the strategic choice of agents in the pulp and paper production system based on planted forests sector.
In order to proceed with the study, we employ the Economic Analysis of Property Rights (Barzel, 1982, 1989, 2002) as foundation and test the proposition: in federative states where the institutional environment is fragile and therefore the State has a high cost to enforcement property rights, private mechanisms stand out in the protection of property rights
The analysis of three business cases of companies with plantations in more than one federative units revealed the broad range of private mechanism in place to cope with insecure land rights in Brazil. In the federative units where government fails to be a good ruler, we found a multi stakeholder platform under use to define and enforce land rights.
Land acquisition in Malaysia: Policy context and praxis for oil and gas hub project in Eastern Johor.
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 3Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Land acquisition involves the compulsory taking of land. In Malaysia, land acquisition can be a complex and time-sensitive process. The land acquisition process in Peninsular Malaysia is governed by the Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 1960 (Act 486). Even though all states in the Peninsular Malaysia are adopting the law, however the way of how it is implemented would be different according to each state. The Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) is one big project in creating value to the downstream oil and gas value chain in Johor, Malaysia. Sited in Pengerang, it is involves largest scales of investments and compulsorily acquire villagers land. The acquisition process for the PIPC project is in compliance with the LAA 1960 (Act 486). This paper discusses the action taken, best approach and success story associated with or derived from land acquisition of the project.
LSLA in Mozambique: impact on rural and urban communities
Centro Terra Viva, Mozambique
Since 2010, the Mozambican economy has experienced significant increase in investment projects that require large tracts of land for extraction of minerals, large agriculture projects, and development of physical infrastructure. The increase in demand for land acquisition was significant enough that in 2012, the laws and procedures governing ‘resettlement caused by economic activities’ were revised and made more stringent, with clear guidelines on how to compensate and resettle affected communities. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences in the resettlement process in the rural and urban communities, and in the infrastructure and extractive projects, how the affected communities were consulted, the extent to which legal procedures and guidelines were carried out and the impact of the processes of large scale land acquisition on rural ( Afungi Penninsula of Palma in Cabo Delgado Province) and urban (Malanga neighborhood, Maputo City, resettled as a result of the construction of the Maputo-Katembe bridge) communities.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-12: Dealing with the impacts of failed land acquisition|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
Doomed to fail? Why some land-based investment projects fail and others succeed
Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
In recent years, an increased interest in farmland globally has led to the emergence of many land-based investment projects. Although most projects enter the production stage, a significant number also end in failure. This paper asks why land-based investment projects fail or succeed. This is a crucial question, as failed investment projects are unlikely to have any positive impacts on the host regions. I find that failure occurs globally but is concentrated on the African continent, with some countries exhibiting a particularly high risk of project failure. In addition, larger projects, projects growing agrofuels, and projects targeting land formerly used by smallholders or pastoralists are more likely to fail. In contrast, projects that involve domestic investors or take place in countries with better infrastructure are less likely to fail. The findings on the impact of host-country institutions on project failure are ambiguous.
Why we need a human right to land – empirical evidence from large-scale land investment deals in Sierra Leone and the Philippines
University of Tuebingen, Germany
A human right to land has now been codified in the ‘United Nations declaration on the rights of peasants and other people working in rural areas’, which has been adopted by the UN Human Rights Council in September 2018. This paper welcomes this development and argues that a human right to land can potentially close gaps in the regulation of large-scale land deals – if interpreted through the lens of the principle of free, prior and informed consent. Simultaneously, I do not deny that international public and private initiatives to regulate foreign land based investments can have positive effects for locally affected people. Through discussing under which conditions these instruments can help local actors in achieving their goals vis-à-vis investors, I show the potential as well as the gaps of the current global governance regime. My considerations are supported by empirical findings from Sierra Leone and the Philippines.
When good innovations go bad
Stratigos Consulting, United Arab Emirates
In the last decade, impact investing is a concept that has spurred innovative financing mechanisms in emerging economies. Many believe that impact investing is one sure way pool private sector funds to help solve some of the most pressing challenges facing our world today.
In many economies that are land reliant, this is good news and we have seen impressive private sector dollars in sectors like agriculture and renewable energy. But it is not all good news.
This paper discusses potential negative effects that land-reliant impact investments could have on host communities. Regardless of good intentions of innovations, sometimes these investments have the unintended consequence of exacerbating conflict, insecurity and poverty. This paper therefore advocates for a triple-bottom line approach where people, planet and profit are given equal stakes in transactions, so as to produce more responsible land-based investments.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-12: Enforcing adherence to standards for large land-based investment|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Emerging Practice from the Field: Private sector action on land rights in the upstream
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2International Finance Corporation
The Interlaken Group is the leading multi-stakeholder effort to coordinate action between private sector, CSO, government, and community stakeholders towards transforming the supply chains of companies and investors in land-based sectors to support secure community land tenure. This presentation will describe some of the emerging lessons from Interlaken Group engagement with local companies, governments, CSOs, and IP organizations in Kenya, Malawi, Cameroon, and Indonesia to facilitate implementation of corporate commitments to support community land tenure and reform processes.
Etranger et accès a la terre en afrique de l'ouest
Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal
Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous allons, à partir d’une analyse des politiques et législations foncières des pays situés dans les espaces intégrés comme la Communauté Economique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) et l’Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA), aborder la problématique du traitement de l’étranger en termes d’accès et de contrôle des ressources foncières, surtout dans un contexte d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle ou d’accaparement des terres en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle mettra en évidence le dilemme des Etats qui, d’un côté, tiennent à la consolidation des espaces intégrés en promouvant des principes de libre circulation des biens et des personnes et en misant sur le foncier comme un facteur d’intégration et de l’autre côté, à cause de l’ampleur du phénomène de la prédation foncière, certains Etats en sont revenus à limiter leurs engagements en restreignant les droits des étrangers à accéder ou à contrôler les ressources foncières.
Due diligence in land acquisition - Lawyers and their responsibilities
1FAO, Italy; 2Matrix Chambers, UK
Lawyers have responsibilities both to respect human rights and to advise their clients on respecting human rights under the UN Guiding Principles on Human Rights, IBA human rights guidance. The human rights implications of tenure mean that human rights due diligence should also include tenure due diligence and take full account of the standards set out in the VGGT, CFS-RAI and the OECD FAO Agricultural Supply Chains Guidance. Among key issues to consider in due diligence processes is the identification of holders of legitimate tenure rights and other persons potentially affected by an investment, the establishment of a thorough and ongoing process of consultation and engagement, to avoid adverse impacts on the right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food and housing.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-12: Improving decision-making on common lands|
Session Chair: Steven Lawry, Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America
Responding to the global agenda: valuation of undocumented lands to promote responsible land governance and human rights recognition
1UN-Habitat/GLTN, Kenya; 2Independent Consultant, Kenya
The paper highlights the challenges associated with valuation of unregistered lands given their complexities and magnitude. It highlights the guiding principles for the valuation of unregistered land supporting the SDGs and global commitments including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Likewise, it features the critical importance on the implementation of these and other human rights approaches to achieve fair and accountable methodologies in implementing valuations of unregistered lands, ensure responsible land governance and the domestication of these principles at country level is emphasized.
It further recommends adoption of fit for purpose principles to decrease cost of valuation and helping countries to identify the key principles and practices needed to incrementally build their valuation policies, industries and systems and to manage capacity development challenges.
Securing forest tenure for rural development: an integrated assessment tool
1The Equator Group, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Alliance, United States of America; 4Independent, United States of America
This Integrated Assessment Tool is the second product of the Securing Forest Tenure Program for Rural Development Program implemented by the World Bank under the Program on Forests (PROFOR). It is a companion piece of an Analytical Framework previously developed to highlight the relevance of secure tenure to sustainable development goals and to identify key elements from evidence and best practice for ensuring that community-based tenure is secured. This new contribution integrates a set of methodologies for assessing both why it is important to secure community-based forest tenure in a specific national or sub-national context, and what needs to be done to strengthen forest tenure in that context. This work includes an overview of the two-part assessment methodology for understanding the different dimensions of community-based forest tenure, reflecting on points of entry for conducting assessments; and step-by-step process guidelines for conducting assessments.
Whose land is it anyway? Exploring new ways for consensus building in policy making
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Navigating the politics of land policy making presents a challenge many countries are yet to surmount. This paper uses evidence from interviews and archival research to trace the land policy making process in Zambia. Using the analogy of a game, actors are scrutinized in relation to their position in the game and their influence on the process. The paper finds that the dominant playmaker, the government, influences the pace and direction of policy making. However, a key player, the traditional leader and defender, is not accorded the necessary game time and space, thus tension is rife in negotiations. The paper concludes with a call for referees, international observers, to play a more pivotal role in directing the pace of the game. Other key players such as civil society and non-governmental organizations are called to co-coordinate the game in the interest of the poor and marginalized.
Land rights progress a participatory land governance tool for Cameroon
1Centre pour l'Environment et Development, Cameroon; 2International Institute for Environment and Development, Cameroon; 3Network to Fight Against Hunger
Cameroon faces several land governance issues, which can be explained by the weaknesses of the land laws, adopted in the mid-70s, demographic growth and the increase of land related investments, creating a growing land scarcity on the territory. The European Union-funded project LandCam aims to generate lessons for the land law reform, through a combination of tools and approach, including field and national level dialogue and using a land governance tracking tool designed specifically for Cameroon, but easily replicable in other African countries. The tool focuses on four points and results will be publish in an annual flagship report: (1) Action research in pilot sites; (2) Yearly in-depth research on a specific land-related theme; (3) National level tracking of land policy changes based on a set of criteria extracted from the international commitments of the State; (4) Remote sensing, used to complement field data, especially participatory maps
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-12: How can large investors be held accountable?|
Session Chair: Samuel Kimeu, Transparency International Kenya, Kenya
Open EIA reporting and contracting for sustainable land and natural resource development in Cambodia
Open Development Cambodia (ODC), Cambodia
Undisclosed: Practical examples of financial sector disclosure and why it’s critical for communities to know who is financing activities on their land
Oxfam International, Australia
Estimating industrial concession area in the developing world: Results and conclusions
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-12: Large investments: Protecting human rights & environment|
Session Chair: Ward Anseeuw, International Land Coalition, Italy
The ASEAN guidelines on promoting responsible investment in food, agriculture and forestry
International Institute for Sustainable Development, Switzerland
Private law and agricultural development – Improving agricultural land investment contracts and making them consistent with the VGGT and CFS-RAI Principles
1UNIDROIT, Italy; 2FAO, Italy
Agricultural investments under international investment law
1Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America; 2International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada; 3International Institute for Environment and Development, United Kingdom
Undermining justice: The investment treaty regime and affected third parties
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-12: Gathering the data needed to assess large farm productivity|
Session Chair: Daniel Ayalew Ali, World Bank, United States of America
Root for the tubers: extended-harvest crop production and productivity measurement in surveys
1The World Bank, Italy; 2University of Malawi; 3Consultant
To document the relative accuracy of survey methods for cassava production measurement a field experiment was implemented in Malawi over a 12-month period, randomly assigning households to one of four approaches: daily diary-keeping, with semi-weekly supervision visits (D1); daily diary-keeping, with semi-weekly supervisory phone calls (D2); two 6-month recall interviews, with six months in between (R1); and a single 12-month recall interview (R2). The analysis reveals that compared to D1, the average household-level annual cassava production is 295 kilograms higher (and assumed to be closer to the truth) under D2. While the difference between R1- and D1-based estimates is statistically insignificant, R2 underestimates annual production, on average, by 221 and 516 kilograms, compared to D1 and D2, respectively. For improved microdata on root and tuber crop production, the findings support the use of (i) D2, if deployed in a broader mobile-phone based survey, or (ii) R1, as a second-best alternative.
How much can we trust farmer self-reported data on crop varieties? Experimental evidence using DNA fingerprinting of cassava varieties in Malawi
1The Living Standards Measurement Study, Development Data Group, the World Bank, Italy; 2CGIAR Independent Science and Partnership Council’s Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, Italy; 3University of Canberra, Australia; 4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Malawi; 5Chitedze National Agricultural Research Institute, Malawi; 6CAVA2, Malawi
This paper empirically estimates the extent of measurement error associated with alternative approaches for collecting data on the adoption of improved varieties. A range of non-rival data collection protocols were implemented for the same sample of 1260 cassava producers in Malawi, and the accuracy and relative cost-effectiveness of these protocols are compared to a benchmark of DNA fingerprinting using the DArTSeq platform. The results show that only 35% of the farmers could correctly identify their varieties. Identification achieved through using a photo-based survey protocol of morphological attributes achieved correct identification in only 5% of cases. Farmer self-reported data overestimates adoption of improved varieties by a factor of 19. Based on these findings, we recommend that any empirical study in which crop varietal status is an important variable should make the marginal investment of approximately $25 per sample per household for including DNA fingerprinting.
Land measurement bias: comparisons from GPS, self-reports and satellite data
1Northwestern University, USA; 2Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Nonclassical measurement error from farmer self-reports for plot size has been well documented primarily in comparison to using Global Positioning System (GPS). Our study investigates the reliability of Google Earth (GE) for plot size measurement and its impact on the inverse land size–productivity (IR) relationship and input demand functions. Comparing across four Asian countries, we find significant differences between GPS and GE only in Vietnam, where plot sizes are small. The magnitude of farmers’ self-reporting bias relative to GPS measures is nonlinear and varies across countries, with the largest magnitude in Lao PDR relative to Vietnam. Except Vietnam, the IR relationship is upwardly biased for lower land area self-reported measures relative to GPS measures. In Vietnam, the intensive margin of organic fertilizer use is negatively biased by self-reported measurement error. As remote sensing data becomes publicly available, it may become a less expensive alternative to link to survey data.
Assessing the impact of systematic measurement error in farmer-reported crop production on the scale-productivity relationship: evidence from a survey experiment in Mali
The World Bank, Italy
We contribute to the renewed debate on the inverse scale-productivity relationship (IR) by using primary survey data from a representative cross-section of sorghum-producing households in Koulikoro, Mali, and show that the IR can be explained by (systematic) measurement error in farmer-reported crop production. The analysis compares plot-level sorghum yields based on (1) farmer-reporting, (2) crop cutting, and (3) high-resolution imagery-based remote sensing. We find that with respect to crop cutting, sorghum yields based on farmer-reported crop production are overestimated across the board, ranging from an average overestimation of 270 percent in the first quintile of plot areas to 71 percent in the fifth quintile. By switching from farmer-reported to objective yield measures in production function estimations, we show that IR exists only if yield measurement is based on farmer-reported sorghum production. Further, we profile the measurement error in farmer-reporting, and expand on the implications for policy and household/farm surveys.
From the ground up: integrating survey and geospatial data for improved soil fertility measurement at scale
World Bank, Italy
Key to agricultural production, and often omitted from data collection efforts due to cost and complication, is soil health and quality. This paper sets out to validate the use of Africa SoilGrids 250m geospatial soil data by (i) comparing plot-level soil sampling results for several properties with that extracted from the Africa SoilGrids 250m database, and (ii) analyzing the ability of Africa SoilGrids 250m data to predict plot-level soil properties and indices of soil quality when integrated with household survey data. This is possible using data collected through the Methodological Experiment on Measuring Maize Productivity, Soil Fertility and Variety conducted in Eastern Uganda. Preliminary results highlight statistically significant differences in many soil properties as measured at the plot-level and as extracted through Africa SoilGrids 250m. For key soil properties, such as organic carbon and cation exchange capacity, geospatial data paints a more optimistic picture of the state of soils.
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-02: Analyzing and improving land conflict resolution mechanisms - sharing experiences from the GIZ Global Program Responsble Land Policy|
Analyzing and improving land conflict resolution mechanisms - sharing experiences from the GIZ Global Program Responsible Land Policy
Independent Expert, Germany
This masterclass serves as a platform for interaction of experts, who have dealt with land conflicts, the prevention of conflicts as well as the strengthening of formal and informal mechanisms to solve conflicts about land. It seeks to offer guidance for future land governance projects, create synergies between donors and implementing agencies and jointly develop new practical concepts for researchers, policy makers and practitioners how to analyze and improve existing formal and informal, including traditional, land dispute resolution bodies and mechanisms.
The masterclass combines theory, case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and a joint exercise.
The masterclass is based on the GIZ guide “Understanding, preventing and solving land conflicts” and recent experience of the Global Program Responsible Land Policy (GPRLP), implemented by the German Development Cooperation (GIZ GmbH) on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-02: Using machine learning for property valuation|
Using machine learning for property valuation
1World Bank, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America
The Global Program for Resilient Housing (GPRH) leverages technologies, such as drones, street cameras, machine learning, and pairs them sound policy advice to drive change. Understanding which homes are at high risk, where they are located and how much they are worth are vital components to successfully prioritize investments and distribute subsidies.
During this class The GPRH team will walk you through a 3-step methodology that has been applied successfully in Guatemala, Indonesia, Saint Lucia and Colombia to produce actionable knowledge to inform property tax collection efforts and resilient home improvement policies and programs.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-02: The Land Matrix: An open online tool to collect, visualize and provide information about large-scale land acquisitions and to support decentralized land observatories.|
The Land Matrix: An open online tool to collect, visualize and provide information about large-scale land acquisitions and to support decentralized land observatories.
GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies / Land Matrix Initiative, Germany
The Land Matrix:
An open online tool to collect, visualize and provide information about large-scale land acquisitions and to support decentralized land observatories.