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03-09: Linking tenure to planning in forest land
Best-bet options for ensuring tropical forest conservation and livelihoods development: Evidence from the community forest concessions in Petén, Guatemala
1Bioversity International, France; 2World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), France; 3Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Guatemala; 4Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) in Petén, Guatemala, is a prominent example for the devolution of forest rights to local communities. Community forest concessions have been established on about 400,000 ha, reducing deforestation to a minimum. While the conservation benefits of the concessions are well documented, there is little insight into their socio-economic performance. This in-depth study of currently nine active and three inactive concessions focuses on the community forest enterprises (CFE) operating them, with emphasis on: 1) the benefits accruing to CFE members, local communities, and society at large; 2) the degree to which forest-based income allows member households to move out of poverty; and 3) how such income is reinvested in livelihood and business assets. We show the critical importance of the findings in support of the communities' claim for renewal of the concessions, which is due over the next years, and broader implications for natural resource governance.
Forest restoration and afforestation in India
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2University of Toronto, Canada
India’s regreening ambitions are second only to China’s, with vast investments having been made in afforestation and restoration of degraded forests and lands. It is estimated that India has planted over 19 million ha. of forestry plantations between 2003-2014, even though the forest cover has barely increased. Its forest policy aims to increase forest cover from 23% to 33% of the country’s land area. The regreening thrust is also captured in its INDC, wherein India seeks to sequester an additional 2.5-3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent and plans to take up at least 5 million ha. of afforestation. A $7 billion fund called the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF), derived from statutory offsets for diversion of legal forest lands, is targeted to be spent for afforestation and forest restoration. Additional funds are allocated by the government for afforestation through Green India Mission, Rural Employment Generation schemes etc.
Integrating forest recovery and low-carbon agriculture in priority watersheds of Brazilian savannah: The FIP-Landscape Project
1Brazilian Forest Service (SFB), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 2Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4World Bank, Brazil
The article shows the methodology of prioritization of watersheds in Brazilian Savannah Biome ("Cerrado") for the activities of the new project of the World Bank's Forest Investment Program (FIP) in Brazil - Integrated Landscape Management in the Cerrado Biome Project or "FIP-Landscape". This project integrates, in a innovative approach, practices of Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Recovery for landscape management. It is coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service-SFB and the Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply-MAPA with technical cooperation of GIZ.
Tenure security and forest landscape restoration: Results from exploratory research in Boeny, Madagascar
1Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America; 2Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques (ESSA); Université d'Antananarivo – Madagascar; 3Independent consultant
Madagascar aims to restore 4 million ha of degraded forests by 2030 under the Bonn Challenge. Chief among the constraints identified to forest landscape restoration (FLR) are a lack of tenure security for smallholders and weak forest law enforcement. We present preliminary results from research in Boeny Region, Madagascar to improve understanding of local tenure systems and how they might affect FLR investment. We identified two land tenure models: an endogenous model rooted in the local customary system with weak state intervention, and an exogenous model heavily influenced by external actors and where customary systems have limited legitimacy. These differences will affect FLR investment choices and success of tenure securitization. We recommend that FLR actors be trained to use tenure diagnostic tools that distinguish between different hybrid systems. Such training will provide FLR actors with the conceptual tools needed to design and implement FLR programs appropriate for complex tenure systems.