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07-11: Land administration: Cases from South America
CADASTRE and access to land
1Cons Fed del Catastro, Argentine Republic; 2Dirección Provincial de Catastro e Información Territorial; 3Dirección de Catastro Municipio Vista Alegre
Aligned with the motto of the conference on Land and Poverty, the meaning of the word catalyst is assumed as the action of favoring the development of a process. In our case, we will address the way in which an up-to-date, modern cadastre, on a regimen, provides the basic elements to favor the process of access to the land of the most vulnerable sectors, the most vulnerable social actors.
As for the most unprotected sectors, it refers to marginal social sectors that due to the high values of urban land and land policies, are forced to live together with their family group, on land taken under the informal "settlements" mode . Although they access a portion of land in which to develop family life, they are deprived of elementary basic services (water, lighting, sewers, gas, social infrastructure).
It is also proposed analyze two cases visible in the province of residence, Neuquén.
Integrating data for land tenure regularization in the State of Piauí, Brazil
1Piauí State Land Institute; 2The World Bank
In Brazil, the State of Piauí implements a land tenure regularization program through which small-scale farmers can acquire the ownership of state land. Efforts have been made to strengthen the capacity of the Piauí State Land Institute (INTERPI) to implement this program. Yet, progress remains limited with approximately 4,000 requests received, 2,500 titles issued, and 258 titles registered over the last three years. In this paper, the authors explain that these modest achievements are in part due to INTERPI’s limited capacity and difficulties in obtaining the supporting documents from other public entities. The authors explain how Piauí is addressing this issue through additional investments in the modernization of INTERPI, the creation of a Center for Geotechnology, the reengineering land tenure regularization procedures and the strengthening of partnership with public entities such as the Land Tenure Regularization Center and the Special Unit for Land Tenure Regularization and Fight Against Land Grabs.
Types of land tenure in Brazil: the first estimate from available geo-referenced information
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2GeoLab- Esalq – USP; 3Imaflora; 4SEI; 5Oxfam; 6IFSP; 7IPAM
The Brazilian efforts to create a unified land cadaster that can improve its land Governance are quite large. The land Management System – SIGEF, created in 2013, is contributing to the formation of a georeferenced cadaster of rural land, comprising public and private areas, already showing significant quantitative results of rural, public and private property. The CAR, a self-supplied georeferenced mapping for environmental management has a large coverage of the private land ownership and possession around the country.
The main aim of this article is to present a portrait of the Brazilian land tenure, based on the different kinds of ownership, adverse possession and others, but also on public cadasters, integrating its information, mostly to exclude the overlapping. This is to facilitate the understanding of where, what, how much, who and how land is owned or possessed in Brazil.
A new approach for the establishment of a regional multipurpose cadastre in La Mojana, Colombia – how to overcome large-scale cadastral operations challenges through technological and methodological innovations
1GEOFIT, France; 2IGNFI France
In a post conflict recovery program context and as part of a development strategy, Colombia has launched a major national cadastral modernization program. Various pilot projects have been defined. Among these, La Mojana, a vast wetland region affected by economical and post-conflict issues, has been selected as a model of cadastral operations at regional scale.
To establish a multipurpose cadastre, IGNFI–GEOFIT has been tasked by the AFD and the DNP to elaborate a methodology with emphasis on social regularization of rural land rights. For this purpose, we proposed a new model of massive cadastral operation, strongly relying on the use of innovative technologies and methods transferred from large scale industrial manufacturing processes. We will show how the catalysation of these innovative factors into an integrated methodology give acces to a new level of efficiency, quality and user satisfaction at a lower cost of operation than current models.
Standardization and integration of the electronic real estate registry system of Brazil (SREI): the national operator of SREI (ONR).
Brazilian Federal Law 13.465 of the year 2017 created an entity called "ONR – Operador Nacional do Sistema de Registro Eletrônico de Imóveis” (National Operator of the Electronic Property Registry System), a private non-profit legal entity, which was committed to the implementation and operation, in national level, of the Electronic Property Registration System. The model envisaged for the entity is based on the so-called "Consensual Administration", in which public interest activities that do not require the exercise of public law prerogatives are decentralized to the private sector. The ONR will be of great value for the exercise of land governance by the Public Administration, as well as to the proper functioning of the real estate market, approximating registry, financial intermediaries, notaries and the buyer of property. The new entity has not yet been formally constituted; even so, its technical aspects are already in full development.