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08-08: Land tenure insecurity and land-related investment
Customary tenure and agricultural investment in Uganda
University of California Davis, United States of America
In customary tenure systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, multiple actors hold different rights over a given parcel. Distributing rights influences (perceived) tenure security: anticipating another's actions can cause insecurity. I incorporate this strategic interaction in a model of agricultural investment, predicting how farmers under different tenure regimes respond to an intervention in different land value environments. Rising land values may lead local elites to assert their historic sales rights to outsiders. The farmer, anticipating this, makes fewer investments on customary land as land values rise.
I bring qualitative insights to an economic framework, modeling how farmers respond to incentives, and quantitatively documenting effects of elite capture. I propose an empirical test, in the context of an RCT in Uganda. I use household fixed effects, as many Ugandan farmers operate under multiple tenure regimes. Rather than using tenure type as a (poor) proxy for tenure security, I consider tenure type throughout.
Rural land in Mauritania facing the challenge of development
Université de Nouakchott, Mauritania
In all countries of the world, the redistribution of wealth poses serious problems. Natural resources and especially land are a major issue in most underdeveloped countries. In Mauritania, for example, "after the Diama anti-salt dam" has triggered a wave of claims of all kinds. The old farmers, strong in the theory of autochthony, consider themselves the most legitimate; other citizens want, as taxpayers, to participate in the development of newly developed land through public investment. Both are encouraged by the state, which wants to develop an important potential for food self-sufficiency. Public funds are injected for the benefit of the operators, which further exacerbates the competition.
We will report specific facts where investor intervention is considered grabbing. The public argument will be explained thus the forms of claims of the former owners or so-called owners.
Going for hybrid maize: the importance of land for the success of maize crop insurance in Tanzania
Erasmus university Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Increased drought contribute to farmers' problems in Tanzania, but the core problem is low agricultural productivity. Local extension services are not functioning properly, while farmers need to move from traditional to hybrid seeds to assure food security. A non-commercial private sector initiative is helping them by providing crop insurance. The Swiss Capacity Building Facility, a non-governmental organization (NGO) financed by ten Swiss insurance companies, funded four projects in Tanzania aiming to introduce crop insurances for maize farmers in the Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions. Land is an important asset for these farmers and our study analyzes the role of land, owned or leased and the prices paid for land. The impact of the size of the holdings was analyzed, showing that there is something like a land market in Tanzania and that the bigger farmers benefit relatively more of the opportunity to get inputs and insure themselves for crop failure.
Land rights and livelihoods in rural South Africa – a gendered perspective
University of Johannesburg, South Africa
The global food price and financial challenges that emerged towards the end of the third quarter of the decade beginning 2000 witnessed a wave of studies located in the land grabbing phenomenon. The analytic gaze of academics and civil society in Africa subsequently shifted towards conceptualisations of land grabs somewhat pushing micro-level analyses to the peripheries of mainstream agrarian research. To ensure that ‘the micro’ retains a meaningful spot in mainstream debates, this article goes beyond land grabbing discourses to explore gendered and classed institutions – marriage and kinship among others – that shape and legitimise longstanding labour structures and hierarchised agrarian and social relations in rural South Africa. Through a contextual and gendered analysis, this article concludes that women from Mtubatuba – a local Municipality north-east of South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province – challenge intersecting socially produced institutions and structures that regulate access to (non-)agricultural resources key to rural livelihoods.