The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Tuesday, 26/Mar/2019|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-01: Land for African development: towards stakeholder synergies|
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa
Translation English - French
African Union Commission, Ethiopia
The role of land governance in achieving Agenda 2063 and SDGs
AUDA-NEPAD, South Africa
Consolidating transparent land administration and land revenue generation in Uganda
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
The way forward on land reform in Namibia: lessons from the 2nd National Land Conference
Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia
Strengthening land governance in Mali
Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning, Mali
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-02: Strengthening land governance for sustainable growth in Ukraine|
Session Chair: Anthony A. Gaeta, The World Bank, United States of America
Increasing the transparency and decentralization in Ukrainian land relations
State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine
Roll-out of e-services and e-auctions - progress and challenges ahead
State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine
Towards a methodology for automatic cadastral error identification
World Bank, Ukraine
methodology for cadastral error identification
World Bank support to help improve land governance in Ukraine
World Bank, Ukraine
Incomplete land reform, weak administration & management, and prohibition of land sales restrict agricultural productivity and investment in Ukraine, with some 10 mn. ha the state controlling 25% of land. With EU support. the Bank has been supporting transparency and better land governance. This helped develop broader support to inventory and register state land, develop land use planning, and competitively auction lease or ownership rights to increase local revenues and enhance investments.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-03: Ways to establish cadastral systems at scale|
Session Chair: Claire Galpin, World Bank, United States of America
Increasing cadastral survey productivity to tackle undocumented land rights worldwide: A case study
Trimble Inc, United States of America
This presentation will introduce a vision for transforming cadastral workflows by leveraging a broad spectrum of geospatial technologies in a way that will provide surveyors with greater productivity in both the field and the office. A holistic system approach will be analyzed, with key factors identified to address customer challenges in the context of a real-world case study. Finally, the customer benefits identified in the case study will be extrapolated to identify potential applicability to developing countries in order to enhance productivity to tackle undocumented land rights worldwide.
Leica Geosystem, Denmark
The world's population is increasing fast; people are moving from country to cities, and the environment is changing quickly. For development projects, basic Mapping has for years been a need. A major problem has been the time it took from the start of a mapping project until data were available for the real development project and sometimes the quality of data. This paper is telling how technology from the new continental mapping project there deliver maps to the Internet portals map solutions can be used in development projects in e.g. Africa. By exampels of already done projects and describing the new methodes there are shown examples of how large scale mapping can be done from aircrafts with significant more accurate data there can compete both in price an performance with satellite data.
An innovative affordable and decentralized model for land registration and administration at a national scale in Tanzania
DAI Global LLC, Tanzania
This paper addresses issues related to scaling up a successful, innovative land registration pilot program using digital technology. Following the successful development of a process for a decentralised land administration system—driven by local land administration authorities using digital land data capture and management tools in Tanzania—this paper explores the potential for and challenges of implementing the system nationally. The paper proposes a low-cost, participatory, digital land use planning, registration, and management process. It examines the potential for a self-sustaining, decentralized, digital land management system for large-scale first land registration and ongoing administration of post-registration transactions. It is proposed that contributions by beneficiaries in conjunction with the involvement of the private and nongovernment organization (NGO) sectors can potentially deliver a self-sustaining system. The paper further examines challenges related to secure data storage and limiting opportunities for corruption.
Leveraging location-enabled street photos and machine learning to automate large-scale data collection in support of property valuation
ESRI, United States of America
To address the data divide for property valuation, a proof of concept is proposed that leverages Esri’s Property Condition Survey together with artificial intelligence. The Property Condition Survey is a configuration of Esri’s Photo Survey application that can be used by local governments to publish street-level photo collections, conduct property surveys, and automate the classification of property condition using machine learning.
The Property Condition Survey leverages location-enabled photos produced by many commercially available cameras and simplifies data processing, so street-level photo collections can be gathered on a regular basis. Photo collections can then be used in the Property Condition Survey application and/or be classified using Microsoft's Custom Vision service to identify property conditions and related attributes in support of property valuation.
By applying machine learning (ML) to the classification of street-level property photos, valuation authorities can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with performing property assessments in the field.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-04: Land administration and changing gender norms|
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
A tripartite normative interaction in land registration: inheritance and land information updating
University of Twente, Netherlands
In trying to identify the underlying factors that account for the low incidence of land registration in the global south, commentators tend to focus on administrative limitations inside of land registration organizations. Whereas lack of efficiency, complex procedures, bureaucracy, high transaction cost and long transaction times have been mentioned as problematic internal administrative features, little is known about how external socio-cultural practices factor into the reasons for the registration and non-registration of real property. We studied the socio-cultural practices of real property inheritance and registration in Ghana and found that the eventual decision/ability/willingness of a successor of real property to report transfers for registration is influenced by the social norms of society, the formal rules of land registration and the practicalities of registration. However, the second and third influences only happen when the social norms allow room for personal appropriation of property.
Women and customary land tenure: emerging developments and ways forward in Savelugu, Ghana
1Techninical University of Munich, Germany; 2UN-Habitat / Global Land Tool Network, Uganda; 3Kwame Nkrumah Univerisy of Science and Technonology, Ghana
Patriarchal norms on land operate along kinship lines. Male children have higher inheritance rights in the family. The girl child is considered not to be a permanent member of the family as she is expected to be married into another family or remarry upon the death of her husband. These are fundamentals for the discrimination against females in the patriarchal community. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches (Savelugu in northern Ghana), this study analyzed land challenges that women face in their efforts to access land in rural communities. Findings from the study show that land acquisition modes available to women appear to operate in ways that exclude them from being owning lands with high tenure security. Suggestions include intense education on land rights and land registration, the formation of women cooperative groups and economic empowerment (through responsible government and NGOs interventions).
Securing property rights for Women and children through Distributed Ledger Technology in Judiciary
Absolutum Consultancy Private Limited, India
UN Women, in partnership with the UN Office of Information and Communications Technology (UN OICT) and with the support of Innovation Norway organised four-day simulation lab to explore cutting-edge solutions based on distributed ledger technologies that address challenges faced by women and girls. UN Women has prioritized innovation technology as one of the drivers for change, strategically leveraging innovation and partnership to accelerate progress towards gender equality and women's empowerment.UN Women has identified cash transfer and identity as areas to leverage DLT to assist women and girls. Having a safe place to save and store humanitarian cash transfers and remittances is a key strategy for coping with shocks and building resilience.In Vietnam, a world bank pilot is testing the ways in which distributed ledger technologies could help women entrepreneurs to prove ownership of business assets, verify production values, and establish a digital identity
Women and land: A conflict of culture and law
Federation of Women Layers, Kenya
Kenya is a diverse country with about 42 tribes, each bearing it's own cultural laws. According to the Constitution 2010 cultural practices and customs are a source of law, in so far as they are not repugnant to justice and morality. it is paramount that a balance be struck between the two to avoid either offending the other. This paper seeks to; synchronize the existing land laws with the customary laws relating to land so as to create a convergence of the two and to help strike a balance between culture and women land rights. It also seeks to recommend reforms and policy change such as codification of the current customary laws so as to ensure that the retrogressive laws are done away with and only those that are progressive and accommodate women land rights are maintained. This will all be with an aim of realization of Kenya’s vision 2030.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Land and human rights, gender and indigenous people of Kaduna state, Nigeria
Kaduna Geographic Information Service, Nigeria
In Nigeria, like most African countries today, customary systems of land regulation are being undermined and weakened, and more formal regulative mechanisms being developed. In most part of Nigeria, Kaduna State inclusive access to land, use and control especially by the women and the indigenous people continue to be a challenge.
Thus, the introduction of land Use Decree was an attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to solve these problems.
Despite all this effort the land ownership continues to be a serious challenge to indigenous people of Kaduna State.
The study on this topic a case study of Kaduna state, shows that Land rights for the indigenous are insecure and unclear.
This paper wishes to examine Kaduna State amongst the few states in Nigeria to make laws, official regulations and policies to address these problems of land and human rights, gender equity for the benefits of its indigenous people.
World Bank-funded land titling in Piauí, Brazil: a pillar of growth or a regularization of land grabs?
1ActionAid USA, United States of America; 2Rede Social de Justiça e Direitos Humanos, Brasil; 3ActionAid Brasil, Brasil; 4Comissão Pastoral da Terra, Brasil
In 2015 the World Bank approved loans of $320 million to support “Pillars of Growth and Social Inclusion" in the state of Piauí, where the Brazilian government announced its MATOPIBA project to expand large-scale soybean production. A key part of the loans includes support for land titling. However, the project needs to address unrecognized conflicts, namely the grabbing of community commons, public lands and water by large scale farmers and ranchers. This paper analyzes the human rights, land rights, and environmental issues at stake, and will report on the status of community concerns and progress toward recognizing, protecting and recovering the land rights of marginalized communities. Finally, the paper will distill key recommendations for institutions and governments to meet their human rights obligations and protect community land rights in line with the United Nations Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs).
Land tenure, gender, and productivity in Ethiopia and Tanzania
The World Bank (USA), UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands) and Jimma University (Ethiopia)
Agricultural land use and tenure system in many African countries are characterized by subsistence production and communal land tenure system. Reforming the tenure system in a way that ensures tenure security could promote sustainable agriculture in the region. In addition, women’s right to land is an essential recipe for rural development. This chapter, therefore, analyzes the gender differential effects of land tenure security on productivity in East Africa using LSMS data from Ethiopia and Tanzania. The chapter uses plot and household level data to investigate the effect of land title and other determinants of crop productivity. The main results show that tenure security positively and significantly affects households’ productivity in general and female-headed households in particular. Potential indicators that positively correlate with crop productivity are total land and plot sizes, inorganic fertilizer use, input credit access, herbicide use, soil and plots type. Policy implications are drawn from the results.
The Impacts of land tenure regularisation programme in Rwanda
1UK Department for International Development, Rwanda; 2Mokoro ltd
The Land Tenure Regularisation programme started as a pilot project in 2005, has been running at scale since 2009, and is expected to end March 2019.The aim of the LTR programme was to issue a registered title to every landholder in Rwanda through a one-off, low-cost community-based process and thereby contribute to poverty reduction, increase investment, optimize land use, and promotes gender equality in access to land and reduce conflicts related to access and ownership of land.
In recent years, the LTR Programme has consistently been sighted as a landmark example of systematic land tenure reform in Africa and textbook case for wider replication. This synthesis paper summarize the findings from an impact evaluation commissioned by DFID between September 2018 and January 2019.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Using data systems to increase accountability|
Session Chair: Michael Taylor, International Land Coalition, Italy
Democratizing the data revolution: bringing local perspectives to the surface
Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The
With the inclusion of land indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals, the data revolution has very noticeably reached the land sector. New technologies to capture, monitor or analyze land data are increasingly being developed, for improved public service provision and beyond. These innovations could very well be the catalyzing factor that is necessary to bring this data where it can be put to good use to achieve land tenure security for all, at a speed and scale that would otherwise not be possible. However, one critical element of this data revolution is at risk to be overlooked: a multi-stakeholder, inclusive approach. The available data that is interoperable is largely from stakeholders from the global North. This paper highlights research into the interoperability-compliance of key land datasets in Africa and calls for a more democratized approach to the data revolution - ensuring local perspectives are not left behind.
Capturing data gaps: comparative study on availability of land data in Africa
1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The; 2People, Land and Rural Development, Kenya
It is an often-repeated rhetoric that there is a lack of land data - whether it is lack of reliable or up-to-date data or a lack in the existence of any data. Collecting data is a time-consuming and costly process and one can only imagine the enormous impact new data capture technologies can have on the speed and volume of new data collection. With digitization of information, increased use of internet, and growing demand for more data, the risk is that we get swept up by the potential of the latest technology and only add to the wealth of data, without having analyzed or digested any existing data. This paper presents a scoping study in five countries in Africa to uncover the information landscape. We hope to trigger thoughts on use of the data ecosystem, rather than ‘simply’ adding to its continued growth.
The role of people-centered data in land governance monitoring: preliminary results from the Dashboard Initiative
1International Land Coalition; 2International Land Coalition, CIRAD
Increased focus on global development frameworks such as the SDGs and the VGGTs has highlighted a demand for reliable land governance data while exposing the limits of existing data. The recognition of such limits has led to a growing consensus on the role that a data ecosystem – with evolving, diverse data sources – can play in the provision of disaggregated, grounded and people-centered data. The Dashboard tool for land governance monitoring is among several initiatives that have emerged in recent years to provide a people-centered perspective to the growing data ecosystem. Developed in consultation with members of the ILC in 2017, the Dashboard is built on standardized indicators and methodologies adaptable to local context. Pilot studies in Colombia, Nepal and Senegal in 2018 have yielded preliminary results that demonstrate how the tool allows members to directly contribute to the monitoring of global frameworks while providing people-centered data recognized as legitimate in broader policy circles.
Developing a country stakeholder strategy for the global property right perception survey (Prindex)
International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
This goal of Prindex Country consultation and stakeholder engagement strategy is to enable the team to engage with selected countries and other stakeholders on the Prindex process a timely, transparent and meaningful way in order to disclose and disseminate information about the PRIndex Initiative. The engagement process will ensure that stakeholders are fully aware of opportunities and benefit of Prindex as a data sources to measure perceptions of individual property rights and self-reported status of property documentation in support of the global effort to monitor land rights. Through consultations of these types, each selected country can establish constructive relationships with a variety of external stakeholders and maintain those relationships over time. The active engagement of stakeholders increases their sense of ownership and commitment to key decisions and outcomes leading up to the agreement and implementation of a compact program.
Rwanda land registration is complete – now what? the view of an NGO.
1Rwanda Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), Rwanda; 2Department for International Development (DFID), Rwanda
Comprehensive land registration in Rwanda was completed in three phases between 2005-2018: a development phase between 2005-2008, registration between 2009-2014, and completion between 2015-2018. Writing from the perspective of the Rwandan Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), a leading Rwandan NGO that has been active in the field of land rights during the period, this paper offers insights into the Land Tenure Regularization Process (LTRP) with an eye to understanding the process of land dispute mediation from a participatory angle. Focusing on the institution of community mediation through abunzi mediators, It further offers lessons on how NGOs in other countries can work with similar land registration processes in different contexts. Findings from the paper are divided into three sections (a) trends of land disputes in land reform (b) ICT and land dispute monitoring and (c) land dispute monitoring in relation to gender.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-07: Managing public land for the common good|
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Common pool resource access rights and wrongs: Insights from Ghana
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Ghana
Common pool resources (CPRs) are resources that are available to more than one person and subject to degradation as a result of overuse. Over the years many studies on CPRs have emerged. However, there are still unanswered questions on how best to manage CPRs while correcting the wrongs of abuse and free riding. Using the case of urban forests in Ghana, the focus of this inquiry was to understand whether resource managers in developing countries employ appropriate tools for the management of CPRs. This article used the theory of access and institutions to examine the broad range of factors including property rights to land and theft that enable people to benefit from CPRs. Our findings suggest that management of CPRs in Ghana is mediated by complex interrelationships between customary and statutory institutions. Different forms of legal (title, leese, deeds) and illegal rights (theft, coercion, violence, deception) characterized access to CPRs.
Spatial planning for land use and protection as an anti-poverty tool in rural areas: case study of innovative approaches on the USAID-funded agriculture and rural development support project
Chemonics International Inc.
The poverty rate among the rural population in Ukraine reinforces the need to change the rural development model. Land reform, reform of power decentralization, and local self-governance are underway in the country. Land is the main resource, but communities lack experience and tools for land resource management. Approaches and tools developed by the USAID-funded Agriculture and Rural Development Support (ARDS) project are feasible for helping newly-established communities set up a system for spatial planning and efficient land use and protection based on modern GIS-technology; and to resolve community development issues of environmental, social, and investment nature. Public discussion of community plans and decisions adopted later by the local authorities are an important component of this system. The proposed methodology has been tested in pilot communities and enables the mitigation of corruption risks in land relations, as well as improves well-being in rural areas.
The official biological killing of productive land under the silence of a class of citizens and applause of others: when all contribute in destroying living land!!!
1Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret (Algeria); 2Abou-Bekr Blekaid University of Tlemcen (Algeria)
All Economists recognize that land is one of the most important factors of production, and one of the decisive determinants of economic growth and development, in any period and country. And most of them agree that rational economic logic invalidates any sense of talking about sustainable economic, human and social development unless it is linked to a strong protection of limited area of agricultural and pastoral land which every rational person must preserve it and support its crucial role as a sustainable source of human food, incomes and also for the accumulation of wealth. But because there are other alternative uses of land, such as those aimed to satisfy many needs of citizens in terms of housing, working, security, shopping, sports, worship, recreation, etc., so the land with high biological productivity is subject to many policies and practices which make them completely and definitively lost its biological spirit and fertility.
Improving governance of tenure: Technology as the enabler
1FAO, Ethiopia; 2FAO, HQ, Italy
Fit-for-purpose enabling technology is an excellent catalyst for improving the governance of tenure in legal pluralistic environments but it requires pragmatic and sustained political will to generate and sustain interests of local communities whose participation is critical for ownership and success. Governments as duty bearers hold responsibility to make the systems sustainable so as to provide secure tenure rights and create the enabling environment for sustained economic development. The paper provides an overview and analysis of the use of technology as the enabler for improving governance of tenure. Four case studies are presented dealing with different tenure contexts. These are clam fisheries tenure in Ghana, Land Administration and community land recording in Angola, Illegal forestry occupation in Tunisia, and tenure administration in private mailo lands in Uganda all within the framework of VGGT. The paper concludes that sustainability is key in using technology as enabler for improved governance of tenure.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-08: Methodological approaches to urban property valuation|
Session Chair: Ruud Kathmann, Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Self-declaration of value: an option for the urban property tax
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK
The ad valorem property tax is a presumptive tax based on an estimate of the property’s value. The estimation of value is normally undertaken by the valuation authority. To assist the authority, there is usually a legislative requirement whereby the taxpayer (whether owner or occupier) is obliged to declare certain information regarding the property. The information sought is typically related quantitative characteristics of the property such as age, size, and accommodation. In addition, some value based information such as tenancies, lease details, business/trade turnover and rents can be sought. This is information that the valuation authority use in their estimation of the value of the property.
The focus of this paper is to consider whether the owner should be obliged to submit a declaration of their property’s value. The question is whether these valuations could be used for the property tax.
Valuing property with bad data: utilizing GIS and spatial modeling to achieve equitable property tax valuations in the face of incomplete data
Missing, incomplete, or inaccurate data have the ability to compromise any predictive model (Beaver, 1966; Pifer & Meyer, 1970; Martin, 1977; Altman, 1981; Bansal et al. 1993). For models used for ad valorem property tax purposes, such data inadequacies can result in financial burdens that arise from inaccurate valuations. Recent advances in spatial modeling methodologies and the availability of open data sources have presented governments with ways to “do more with less” – specifically achieving more accurate valuations without incurring additional data collection costs.
This research will present recent findings on how spatial modeling and open data can be harnessed by governments to promote more fair and uniform property valuations with fewer costs incurred. This presentation will bridge the current literature gap by making explicit methodological prescriptions for valuations that will be yield uniform and equitable valuation results for governments faced with technological or financial constraints.
Response surface analysis (RSA): modeling values in geographically sparse markets
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2International Association of Assessing Officers, Kansas, United States; 3School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK
Due to physical, legal, and other barriers, as well as cost-prohibitive reasons associated with data collection and storage, sparse data can be a common hurdle in the effectiveness of governments who depend on or are considering the implementation of a property tax regime. The ability to estimate accurate, equitable property valuations is oftentimes a difficult task, particularly in areas with little or no sales transactions. In developing and transitioning economies with limited, inaccurate, or outdated sales information, the data needed to create reliable estimates of value is often times very difficult, or even impossible, to attain.
Standard price points in spatial interpolation. A case study
National Land Survey, Finland
This paper explores various spatial interpolation techniques and tries to find an optimal mix of automa-tion and manual fine tuning for mass valuation purposes for property taxation. The value of land should be estimated to the tax base of 2 million units, in a system of higher tax rate on land than on buildings. Machine learning techniques such as ordinary kriging, empirical bayesian kriging (EBK), geographically weighted regression (GWR), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and spatially constrained cluster analysis (SCCA) have been tested. The paper offers a comparison between those methods and a compari-son to a more manual approach.
Using remote sensing data and machine learning to value property in Kigali, Rwanda
1German Aerospace Center; 2International Growth Centre, Rwanda; 3University of Tübingen; 4Ministry of Economic and Financial Planning, Rwanda; 5Carnegie Mellon University
This paper develops two property valuation models for Kigali, Rwanda, and tests them on a unique dataset combining remote sensing data for buildings in Kigali, with sales transaction data for 2015. This paper credits and builds on a similar paper by Deininger et al (2018) but also covers both the built up area of Kigali and the whole of Kigali Province, it addresses temporal prediction issues beyond 2015, it employs an expanded set of variables, and it uses machine learning techniques to employ Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy to select the model that best predicts property price data using Ordinary Least Squares. The model in this paper is intended as a prototype of a Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal system for Kigali that could be used to calculate the revenue potential of a new property tax introduced in Rwanda in 2019, and to help detect under-declaration of property values for tax purposes.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-09: Using remote sensing to assess impacts of forest policy|
Session Chair: Joep Crompvoets, KU Leuven, Belgium
Informality in access to land and deforestation in the legal Amazon: an empirical study of the state of Acre
1Federal University of Acre, Brazil; 2University of Campinas; 3State Secretary for the Environment
Last Forests Standing: Deforestation prevention with land-use monitoring and valuation in Côte D’Ivoire
Vivid Economics, United Kingdom
Land use Management in Nigeria: the role of Remote Sensing
1Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria; 2Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria
Comparative evaluation of the registered information in the Rural Environmental Registry base under the Federal Cerrado Project
1Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 2The World Bank, Brazil; 3Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Brazil
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-10: Land consolidation: A tool to improve land use|
Session Chair: Morten Hartvigsen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
New trends in development of agricultural land consolidation in Russia
State University of Land Use Planning, Russian Federation
We can treat Agricultural Land Consolidation as a merging, enlargement, eliminating of mosaic land ownership and improvement of configuration as well as optimization of size of land plots. The present stage of development of Agricultural Land Consolidation in Russia is featured by development of agricultural holdings and increasing size of private farms. The average size of agricultural holding amounted 490 thousand hectares in 2016. It varied from 340 thousand hectares to 790 thousand hectares in 2016. The average size of private farm estimated 71.4 hectares in 2016. It increased by 66.4 % compared to 1995. There is also a trend of development of Agricultural Land Consolidation at the regional level, for example, in Orel Region. In 2017, the average size of the private farm was amounted 160.0 hectares in the region. It increased by more than 3.2 times compared to 1994 due to agricultural land consolidation.
An analysis of long-term experiences with land consolidation projects
1Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The; 2University of Munich Germany; 3National Land Survey Finland; 4Aalto University Finland/National Land Survey of Finland
Land consolidation is a specific land management instrument, which has changed in goals, application, legislation, and context of application over time. How and why these changes took place and what the effects of these changes were can best be learned from experienced land consolidators. This article provides an analysis of these experiences, which were captured through narrative vignettes. From the analysis we infer that land consolidation has adapted itself over time, and experiences from different countries have brought more insights in the bottlenecks, limitations, opportunities and requirements for land consolidation. Despite regional differences in preferences, attitudes and opinions about whether land consolidation is an appropriate instrument, there seems to be consensus that land consolidation projects should currently be highly pragmatically oriented, whereby one has to be very sensitive to the needs and characteristics of local contexts, and whereby one needs to be very clear on both short-term and long-term wins.
Land Consolidation as a multi-purpose Instrument - exploring Opportunities and addressing Challenges in Kosovo
1GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo; 2MAFRD - Kosovo Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development
This paper explores opportunities and addresses the challenges of using the instrument of Land Consolidation in Kosovo, elaborating details of reforming the existing legal framework and its institutional setup. It reflects on former and current experiences made in Kosovo and Eastern Europe, discusses feasible land consolidation models, reviews implications for making implementation feasible and highlights advantages and limitations of different approaches. Furthermore, it emphasizes key principles to be taken into account, which reflect principles of good governance, public participation and key steps in the technical planning process. Last but not least, this paper addresses the need for further learning and frequent exchange of best practices in the region, which helps bringing the agricultural sector of all east European countries forward on their way to EU accession, by stimulating land markets, sustaining economic development in rural areas for both large and smallholder farmers in Eastern Europe.
FAO recommendations on land consolidation legislation
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
Most Western European countries have a long-lasting land consolidation tradition. In most Central and Eastern European countries (CEE), land reforms were at the beginning of transition high on the political agenda. In most CEE countries, land reforms resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which are not competitive in the globalized economy.
FAO has in CEE from 2000 and onwards played a leading role in supporting introduction of land consolidation and in the development of national land consolidation programs. In order to enhance its support to the member countries on land consolidation, FAO has in 2018 conducted a regional legal study to identify best practice on land consolidation legislation involving European countries with ongoing land consolidation programs. The main outcome of the study is a Legal guide on land consolidation in line with VGGT. The paper provides overview and summary of the main recommendations in the guide.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-11: Fit for purpose land administration|
Session Chair: Yerach Doytsher, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Secure Tenure for all starts to emerge: New Experiences of Countries implementing a Fit-For-Purpose Approach to Land Administration
1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2KnowEdge, United Kingdom
This paper initially provides background to the 2030 Global Agenda and the realisation that many of these goals will not be achieved without quickly solving the current insecurity of tenure crisis through the FFP approach to land administration. New technology and emerging trends for land administration identified within the World Bank’s Guide (2017) will then be reviewed within the context of implementing Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) land administration solutions. Finally, the paper will review the lessons learned from implementing FFP land administration solutions in three developing countries, Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda, to identify how their country strategies were evolved, how the FFP land administration guidelines were interpreted and adapted, how politicians and decision makers signed onto the approach, and how the mind-set of key stakeholders, including surveyors, were changed to embrace FFP land administration.
Fit-for-purpose land administration strategy: an innovative approach to implement land policies in Nepal
1Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Government of Nepal; 2Kathmandu University, Nepal; 3UNHABITAT, Nepal; 4Aalborg University, Denmark; 5Land and GLTN Unit, Land and Governance Branch, UN-Habitat, Kenya; 6Community Self Reliance Center, Kathmandu Nepal; 7Land and GLTN Unit, UN-Habitat, Kenya
The current Nepalese Land Administration System only deals with the formal land tenure system. Approximately 10 million land parcels are under informal tenure and outside the formal cadaster. Families, under such informal tenure, are highly vulnerable to eviction due to unsecured land tenure. Informal tenure is causing huge loss to economy and the valuable land asset is dumped as “dead capital”.
Addressing this problem of informality with the existing traditional approach may require huge financial resources, long time span and large number of trained human resources, which could be difficult to manage for a country like Nepal. In this context, this paper presents an innovative approach and fit for purpose strategy of land administration which could be a solution to manage informal land tenure and implement the provisions in the proposed land policies and newly enacted Constitution of Nepal. The results are encouraging and can be implemented throughout the country.
Creating resilience to natural disasters through FFP land administration – an application in Nepal
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2UN-Habitat Nepal; 3UN-Habitat Global Land Tool Network; 4University Twente, ITC Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation; 5Swinburne University of Technology
Information on people to land relationships - documented in a land administration system - is crucial in occurrence of any natural disaster. Fit–For Purpose approaches and interventions have been used in the process of earthquake recovery and to improve the resilience for four affected communities in the Dolakha district in Nepal. Therefore innovative land tools have been used in a post-earthquake context to support the management and recordation of customary and informal land rights for communities. The FFP LA approach in the post-earthquake context brought quick results and benefited not only four communities in Dolakha district but also had impact at national level as it supported the national land policy formulation process and ignited the FFP country implementation strategy.
Fit for Purpose Land Administration: Innovations as a result of country implementations
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Twente University - ITC
There is an urgent need for the administration of property and land use rights worldwide as a basis for inclusive social and economic growth. To continue in the conventional way will not lead to inclusion of the remaining 70% within our lifetime. It is time for new, innovative approaches to land administration. Time to build affordable, inclusive, scalable and sustainable systems that quickly provide complete coverage of the tenure situation in territories.
Based on our experiences in the implementation of FFP methodologies in projects over the last year, we will define lessons learned in e.g. Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, Indonesia. Some lessons are of a more general nature, and other lessons are country and context specific. These lessons are significant for scaling up and ‘scaling forward’ FFP land administration and will result in innovations of methodology, technology and approaches.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-12: Planning land use to attract investment|
Session Chair: Kaitlin Cordes, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
Challenges of making land available for large-scale investment in commercial agriculture in Tanzania: the case of Missenyi district
Ardhi university, Tanzania
There is a belief that for a country like Tanzania, there is a lot of unutilized or underutilized land that can be made available for large-scale agricultural investment. Based on a study of the Missenyi District to the north-west of the country, it was established that given the growing population and the existence of a sugarcane estate, a state ranch and a nature reserve there is a land scarcity which is forcing serious encroachment on the traditional communal resources land (rweya), and on wetlands (bishanga) with serious consequences on land for livestock grazing, the environment and water sources. It is recommended that rather than think in terms of creating a land bank for large external investors, efforts should be made to enable land markets including land rentals, and turn the local populations into high productivity investors, reducing the pressure for lateral expansion onto communal and environmentally sensitive land.
Insights from participatory land use planning in Liberia: the dos and don’ts of bottom-up land use planning as part of tenure reform
1Liberia Land Authority; 2IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative
In September 2018, after years of advocacy, negotiation, and research, the Government of Liberia passed the Land Rights Act (LRA). This act formally recognizes customary land and calls for land use planning in every community. The Liberia Land Authority, the agency tasked with implementing the LRA, and IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative, are piloting bottom-up land use planning in Foya District of Lofa County, in Northwest Liberia, to understand the opportunities and challenges of such a process. Through this initiative, communities identify land for farming, other livelihood activities, future use or conservation, infrastructural development, and sustainable agro-production supported through external investments. The first of its kind in Liberia, this project tests methodologies for land negotiation, community mapping, and conflict resolution in the land sector at the district level. By analyzing the successes and challenges of this process, we offer insights that can inform land use planning processes occurring elsewhere.
Building harmonized private and state land data and information systems in Ethiopia
1Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Ethiopia; 2NIRAS
Different government institutions in Ethiopia working on land related issues manage data and information independently, while their activities and mandates are often related or even overlapping. In Ethiopia different institutions deal with small holder rural land and commercial agricultural land. Until now responsible institutions were not able to share information and view each others data to make informed decisions. The lack of shared data has in some cases led to investment allocations that overlap with small holder farmers’ areas. This challenge is currently addressed through joint initiatives involving the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Resources and Ethiopian Horticultural and Agriculture Investment Authority supported by the Finnish Government funded REILA project and by the EU/German co-funded GIZ implemented S2RAI project. The paper will provide examples and arguments for linking data and IT-systems of different governmental institutions and focus on the link between investment land allocation and monitoring and rural cadaster.
Making Myanmar's National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work: opportunities and challenges for harnessing technology, innovation and investment in people for Myanmar's inclusive development
1The PLAN: Public Legal Aid Network, Myanmar; 2Emerald Sea Group; 3River Mekong Group
"There is no compensation for inaction and lack of policies", warned a panelist in "Leveraging Policies for Sustainable Development Goals", one of the seminars in the 2018 Annual Meetings of the World Bank and IMF in Bali, urging governments' immediate actions to address global issues highlighting the only alternative be devastating crises. In light of #AM2018Bali agendas, the paper explores the context of Myanmar's challenges and opportunities: how Myanmar could ensure its National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work for all its populations, including the vulnerable/marginalized by fostering inclusion, equality, rule of law and ensuring leveled playing field for free and fair competition. By honestly looking into the realities of the illicit and unaccounted-for economies, their thriving financing models, could the country capture and incorporate correct data to accommodate comprehensive policy and regulatory frameworks. Harnessing technology, innovation and investing in the future will help Myanmar achieve its full potential.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-13: Formalizing customary tenure: How to make it work?|
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Uganda
Catalyzing Innovation: Lessons from Uganda: Innovating land governance in predominantly customary settings.
1GIZ, Uganda; 2ZOA, Uganda
This paper provides practical recommendations and lessons learned to build on the achievements of Uganda’s ongoing land tenure reforms. The authors draw on practical experience with implementing land tenure projects in two different regions of northern Uganda. Their findings are based on recent evaluations of these projects, current literature and the results of ongoing engagements with multiple stakeholders. The article highlights key elements for speeding up the current process of developing a comprehensive land governance system while ensuring its sustainability and taking into account opportunities for innovation.
Land governance is high on the political agenda in Uganda and land is ‘a national priority’. At the same time, the tools, processes and structures needed to register land, including customarily held land are at times unclear or even contradictory. Recent research suggests a strong demand for land registration among communities, but also strong insecurity about the best way to facilitate this.
Evaluation of the land inventory approach for securing tenure of lawful and bona fide occupants on private mailo land in Uganda
1Responsible Land Policy in Uganda (RELAPU), GIZ; 2Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Makerere University, Uganda
This paper introduces and evaluates the Land Inventory Approach to improve security of tenure for both landlords and tenants on private mailo Land in Uganda. The approach is a non-authoritative form of adjudication that takes into account the unique features of Mailo tenure and the various arrangements between landlords and tenants on Mailo land. It differs from adjudication because the verification and ascertainment of rights is not authoritative. The approach is based on a realisation that addressing the impasse between registered owners and tenants on Mailo land in a manner that is fair and acceptable to both parties requires appreciation and in-depth understanding of the dynamics on Mailo tenure. To attain such appreciation an inventory of the nature and extent of tenancy rights as well as gathering of other basic information such as opinions of both, landlords and tenants, on preferred long lasting solutions, areas of agreement and areas of conflict, is required.
Land use Policy; implementing the Physical planning Act, in the context of Malawi land reform program implementation
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
The new law regulating land use planning will help in management of physical development national wide. This new law has repealed the old law which in way had specific areas that were subjected to physical planning principles. Since implementation has started through pilots, there is expectation that administration and management of land will improve in the area of land use planning national wide once rolled out.
The role of customary authorities in land administration: Examples from Tanzania and Ethiopia
Often when land policies and land legislation are reformed, the existence of customary authorities is challenged, however, typically in agrarian societies they remain as well although their rules may partly contradict each other. This kind co-existence of customary and statutory authorities can be called legal pluralism. This paper will explore the practices of customary and statutory institutions in land administration in Tanzania and Ethiopia and discuss how customary institutions can to be involved in the formal land administration. The involvement of the customary authorities can as its best make the land administration more transparent, aid in land disputes and conflict situations, bridge the gap between legality and legitimacy and contribute to a practical land administration system but it might challenge the rights of women and vulnerable groups.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-01: Harnessing the IT & data revolution for African land policy|
Session Chair: Clement Adjorlolo, New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), South Africa
Using building footprint data to inform planning & monitor compliance with land use regulations: The case of Kigali & Musanze
Independent consultant, Rwanda
Investments in advanced technologies and building multiple information systems can leverage interoperability and integration to improve analytical processes informing policy and development. Rwanda has developed several systems to implement different obligations for citizen-centred oriented services. The comprehensive Land Administration Information System, Building Permit Management Information System, interactive physical planning and spatial information web applications to access physical development policies and guidelines are examples of systems that can be integrated to develop a land use monitoring system. The interaction of these systems and building foot print data using selected areas in Kigali and Musanze will demonstrate the importance of developing a digital land use monitoring system to conform to policy guidelines and development control. Regulated data structures, provided for in a national ICT policy and strategy, ensure that such innovations are cost effective and avoid replications and redundancies, where each system maintains its unique core function and information source of truth.
Establishing an interoperable land information system in Bamako for urban development
secretariat permanent de la reforme domaniale et fonciere au Mali, Mali
Strategies to ensure sustainability of Rwanda’s registry: Paperless registration of marriage/death, fee reductions, and regulatory change
Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda
Tenure insecurity and demand for land documents in Zambia: Evidence from a nation-wide household survey
1Central Statisticsl Office, Zambia; 2World Bank, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-02: Spatial transformation to achieve green urban growth|
Session Chair: Ede Jorge Ijjasz-Vasquez, The World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
Keynote: Urbanism and climate change – A holistic approach to climate change
Calthorpe Associates, United States of America
Can we solve our housing crisis and increase mobility through infill and next generation technology? As a case study, we evaluate the housing potential along El Camino Real, the 45-mile roadway through the heart of Silicon Valley and examine the potential of next generation transit. We dig deep into the costs and benefits of infill housing, revealing critical energy, water, transportation, and cost challenges. We also looked at how new innovations in transit and mobility such as Autonomous Rapid Transit (ART) technology can support growth along El Camino and countless corridors like it across the country. We discovered that 250,000 new dwellings are possible on the low density commercial land lining the boulevard and that enhancing a typical BRT system with Autonomous Buses can reduce operation costs by 48% and increase average speeds by 27%.
World Bank, United States of America
Centre for Livable Cities of the Ministry of National Development, Singapore
University of Minnesota, United States of America
Development Research Center of the State Council, China, People's Republic of
World Bank, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-03: Innovative technology in the land sector|
Session Chair: Steven Nystrom, FIG Commission 9, United States of America
Innovation through artificial intelligence
Emirates Real Estate Solutions, United Arab Emirates
Artificial intelligence is prime technology that catalyzes innovation. the abstract will highlight on different use cases where innovation is employed and catalyzed using AI, study is fusing the need of AI as technology and enabler for process change to increase innovation within major sector in industry ( real estate).
Beyond blockchain: technology in the land agenda
World Bank, United States of America
Recent discussions on the role of technology in advancing the land agenda have largely centered around blockchain technology. However, blockchain is just one of the many tools available to move forward the ambitious goal of the recording people’s rights and using such a system for other applications like disaster risk management, property valuation and taxation etc. The paper will examine eight technologies that have been launched or are being tested in different countries: blockchain, AI/machine learning, 3D models, drones, VHR satellite imagery etc. Overall, the paper will contribute to the ongoing discourse on the use of technology in the land agenda by presenting a wider scope of technologies along with their uses, challenges, and actionability. To conclude, the paper will present options for institutional innovation and demonstrate ways in which the private sector and donors/financiers can engage with countries to improve the uptake of technology.
Evaluating the hype: the current potential of blockchain for land
Future of Property Rights Program at New America
Last year, the Future of Property Rights Program at New America wrote about the applicability of blockchain for land registries. The report was presented at the 2018 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. We plan to revisit the companies we profiled in 2018, to see how they are doing a year later. Who was able to successfully implement their planned projects, and who was not? Why? Can we learn anything about the broad applicability of blockchain to land?
Digital identity, housing data, and disaster resilience in Puerto Rico
New America, United States of America
This paper -- based on both primary and desk research-- examines the post-hurricane housing crisis in Puerto Rico, the ways in which informal property ownership has contributed to that crisis, and how new technologies for the secure collection and sharing of data can help to the island’s housing sector recover and prepare for future disasters. The first section describes the nature and extent of the housing crisis in Puerto Rico and the government’s recovery plans. The second section provides a brief introduction to some of the emerging technologies that can be used to implement those plans, with a special focus on blockchain-based self-sovereign identity (SSI). The third section describes the model for an SSI-based mapping and data sharing platform that can be used throughout the disaster management process, from vulnerability assessments, to disaster response, to tracking the distribution of recovery aid.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-04: Can land administration foster gender equality?|
Session Chair: Rumyana Tonchovska, UNFAO, Italy
Improving gender equality in land tenure in the Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia
1Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia; 2UN Food and Agriculture Organization
Serbia is one of the countries participating in the Western Balkans regional initiative, aiming to address the challenges to increase female land ownership. Gender disaggregated data have been produced from the administrative systems in the region, indicating a low percentage of female land ownership across the region. After the adoption of the Global Agenda, the work is focused on developing capacities to collect data and report progress on the SDGs land indicator under target 5.a: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Serbia is one of the first countries in the world, which produced the baseline data for SDGs indicator 5.a.2. and is taking serious actions to achieve the indicator. The paper will present the results from applying the methodology for monitoring and reporting on SDGs indicator 5a.2 and good practices from Serbia in improving gender equality in land ownership and its impact in the next coming years.
From laws to action: Achieving SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans
1FAO, Italy; 2GIZ, Germany; 3UINL, Italy
With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, gender equality has become more and more present in the agendas of the governments and the international community. This paper will present how the countries of the Western Balkans, assisted by the German Government, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Union of Notaries (UINL) have moved forward in strengthening women’s access to land. The Session will focus on the implementation gap between the law (de jure) and the practice (de facto) in the region and introduce a set of practical guidelines that invite notaries and registration officers to use their unique position to protect and strengthen the rights of spouses, partners and daughters. It will also explore how the experience from the Western Balkans could be applied in other regions of the world.
Using open data to analyze participation in the labor market and property registration of women in Kosovo
Marin Sh.P.K., Kosovo
In this study two analyses are conducted on the participation rate in the labor market and the registration of immovable property of women in Kosovo. This analysis is conducted using two main open data sources such as the Labor Force Time Use Survey and the Kosovo Geoportal. Estimations from the adjusted sample size show that the labor participation rate for women in Kosovo is 22% and for men is 52%, while the employment rate for women is 14% and 47% for men. The analysis is extended by using real time cadastral data on the registration of immovable property by all men and women in Kosovo from 2014-2018. Large gender discrepancies are found among the data in regards to the registration of immovable property, particularly, in 2018, women's registration of immovable property was 17.05% and 80.96% for men, and the remaining percentage belongs to the legal entities registered as property owners.
Women, Financial Inclusion and the Law: Why Property Rights matter for Women's access to and use of financial services
World Bank Group, United States of America
Property (including land and housing) rights are a focus of the project analyzing linkages with underlying legislation such as family, inheritance laws and land laws, and its impacts on areas such as women’s ability to access credit. Owning and being able to leverage their property, especially land, is essential for women when pursuing economic opportunities, particularly as entrepreneurs. Women, Business and the Law sheds light on specific areas of the law that are relevant for women’s access to financial services.
For example, our new research shows that women's account ownership is lower in places where their legal rights to work or own property are restricted. Women, Business and the Law 2018 finds that unequal legal rights can affect women’s financial inclusion both directly and indirectly.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Malcolm Childress, Global Land Alliance, United States of America
Land conservation for open space: spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors
University of Maryland at College Park, United States of America
Land conservation has been widely used as a policy tool to contain urban sprawl, protect habitat, and provide ecosystem services through conservation easements. This paper investigates spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors on private landowners’ conservation decision for open space. A spatially-explicit panel dataset is constructed to illustrate the patterns of private land parcels on conservation easements over time. In the empirical analysis, this paper identifies endogenous spatial interactions and employs a correlated random-effects model to correct for the endogeneity of time-varying covariates. The results show that there exist positive impacts of neighbors on the likelihood of private landowners’ conservation decision. This paper extends the literature by showing that such spatial spillovers diminish with distance and present a non-linear pattern as the number of neighbors increases. Land parcel characteristics such as parcel size and local land price are also found to influence landowners’ decision to place a conservation easement.
Smallholder crop market participation in Tanzania: The influence of transaction cost, asset endowment and producer cooperatives
Chr.Michelsen Institute, Norway
This paper assess the determinants of crop market participation among smallholder farmers in Tanzania, with a focus on the role of transaction cost, asset endowment and cooperatives. The study is based on household survey data from Southern Tanzania where cooperatives play a significant role in the cash crop market. We analyse market participation using Cragg’s double-hurdle model and control for potential endogeneity of cooperative membership using control function approach. We find that distance to market negatively influences cash crop sales while better access to information and communication encourages both food and cash crop marketing. Among asset endowments, only agriculture-specific resources have significant impact. The study shows that while cooperatives improve market participation among members, they also appear to stunt local food markets. Having a marketing cooperatives branch in the village reduces both the likelihood of selling food crops and the amount sold. It does not affect cash crop market participation.
Land access and household implementation of agroecosystems in rural Guatemala
Iowa State University, United States of America
Agroecology is increasingly promoted as a rural development and livelihood strategy that can reduce poverty and increase food security. However, this assumption is made without understanding how peasant households can access land on which they can implement agroecological practices. This research asks: How does differential access to land influence a household’s decision to implement agroecological practices? What types of land tenure statuses are conducive to adapting agroecosystems? Using a political ecology lens, I analyze the implementation of agroecological practices among households in San Martín Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango, Guatemala through qualitative research conducted in early 2016. I find that differences in land ownership and the size of the plots farmed or used for grazing are key factors to household implementation or use of agroecological practices. Agroecological practices can only be implemented and yield a sustainable livelihood if households have access to enough land on which they can implement the practices.
Land markets and transaction costs following institutional strengthening: A pre-post evaluation in Mongolia
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
High level interventions that focus on institutional and technology improvements at a national level or in a limited number of urban/provincial areas do not lend themselves to rigorous impact evaluations, as there is often no feasible counterfactual. Correspondingly, most quantitative research on land tenure has focused on measuring indicators and outcomes at the household or community level. The analysis of land administration and bank loan data is notably absent from empirical studies to-date. This paper seeks to fill this evidence gap and build the knowledge base on the effectiveness of national level land administration and capacity building interventions by presenting the endline performance evaluation findings of a Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Mongolia land registry strengthening project. Our paper utilizes a variety of data sources to test whether the project achieved expected outcomes, primarily increased efficiency of land transactions.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: Indonesia's 'one map' policy: Does it live up to its potential?|
Session Chair: Jill Pike, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Governance effectiveness evaluation and cost benefit analysis of one map policy delivery institutions at the sub-national level in Indonesia
1World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia; 2Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) of the Government of Republic of Indonesia
Indonesian national and sub-national government agencies produce their own maps, resulting in overlapping claims, land conflicts and hindering sustainable development. To address this, the government aims to compile, integrate and synchronize 85 thematic maps, involving 19 national agencies and 34 provincial governments through One Map Policy acceleration by 2019. Geospatial Information Agency is responsible to develop spatial data infrastructure, mandating national and sub-national government agencies to establish data management institution. The agency has commissioned research to evaluate governance effectiveness and conduct cost-benefit analysis on institutional arrangement alternatives at provincial level. Using a mix of qualitative criteria evaluation with quantitative weighting method, the analysis founded 15-year net present value of Governor’s Secretary (USD 137 Million) and separate Implementing Unit (USD 178 Million) as institutions with highest performance ratings. Investment and coordination factors show that the former could serve as short-term (quick win) alternative while preparing the latter as long-term (ideal) solution.
Mapping indigenous land: lesson learned from One Map Initiative in Indonesia
World Resources Institute Indonesia, Indonesia
The idea of One Map comes from the lack of integrated and synchronized geospatial data on land ownership and land use sector across Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to extract lessons learned of the process in an indigenous village in Riau, Sumatra where their settlements are declared as part of a Wildlife Reserve. The study suggests implementing an ideal inclusive, sustainable, and accountable One-Map in village level would require a greater emphasis on (1) a different community engagement approach to make all social class and gender within the community equally participate, (2) an incorporation of environmental impact assessment for land use planning, and, in context of One Map in forest area, (3) a mutual understanding among institutions about One Map and their support on sustainable practices.
Towards prosperity and sustainability: The progress of social forestry implementation in Indonesia
1WRI Indonesia, Indonesia; 2Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Sweden; 3Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Indonesia
Social Forestry (SF) in Indonesia had embarked on a new, exciting phase under the Jokowi administration. Despite the government’s ambitious social forestry goal, there has been no robust evaluation framework to assess whether the SF initiative is progressing toward achieving the program’s intended objectives, i.e. 1) tenurial conflict resolution, 2) welfare improvement, and 3) forest protection. After an extensive desktop review, we developed fifteen evaluation indicators covering the environmental, socio-economic, and institutional aspects of SF management. We then tested out the evaluation framework in two SF locations in Sumatra, where we conducted random household surveys, interviews, and focused group discussions. SF implementation in both locations is generally able to protect the forest from threats while also improving communities’ welfare through forest-based income and environmental services. Yet, overlapping boundaries between the proposed and approved maps also remained, suggesting the complexities of SF implementation in Indonesia.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-07: Supporting land management by customary authorities|
Session Chair: Stephen Brooks, US Agency for International Development, United States of America
Customary land secretariats in Ghana as change agents in land dispute management
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana
Innovative customary land governance in Zambia: experiences, lessons learned and emerging impacts
1People's Process on Housing & Poverty in Zambia, Zambia; 2Chamuka Royal Establishment; 3UN-Habitat/GLTN
Improving customary land administration in Ghana- CLSs shows the way
Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands, Ghana
Making Customary Land Secretariats financially and operationally sustainable from the ground up in Ghana
1Meridia, Netherlands; 2Innola, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-08: Remote sensing and automation for property tax assessment|
Session Chair: Amy Rasmussen, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Supporting local government administrations through public private partnerships (PPP).
1Cotecna Inspection SA, United Arab Emirates; 2Cotecna Inspection SA, Geneva
In a decentralised framework, local government is generally charged with the responsibility of delivering basic services to its constituencies, and for this system to work, local government entities are also given the right to raise their own revenues. The revenue from land & property tax is necessary if local government wants to achieve financial viability.
With the support of the WB, many governments have modernised their Land Information Systems, creating the platform for local government to collect property taxes. However, the failure of the vast majority of local governments to efficiently collect the property tax means that it is necessary for the private sector to provide support. Local governments undoubtedly need help to implement land & property tax systems.
This paper outlines practical and tangible measures of how innovation and collaboration with the private sector can help local government to be more successful in raising their internally generated revenue (IGR).
Land characteristics survey in Korea, utilizing spatial information
Korea Appraisal Board, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The purpose of this presentation is to show how the land characteristics survey method of Public Land Price Assessment System (PASLP) of the South Korea developed by applying spatial information science, with specific examples.
The Korea Appraisal Board developed the Automatic Land Characteristics Survey (ALCS) System with its own GIS and information technologies in order to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of land characteristic survey with less survey error.
By using geospatial technology, the said automated survey system of land characteristics influences pricing of land. It is especially used to analyze topography, parcel shape, aspect, road adjacency, area, zoning, land use, planning and accessibility to land parcels for public facilities. It allows quick and accurate field surveys of each land parcels throughout the country, improving time efficiency and saving human labor. Moreover, it enhances the accuracy, objectivity and consistency in field surveys, saving the cost of field surveys.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a satellite–based approach to maintaining a property database
Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom
Maintaining up-to-date and accurate information about all assets and services owned and operated by organisations is essential for good governance. Often insufficient attention or resources are provided to ensure this occurs and in rapidly changing environments, such as exist in the developing world, where increasing urbanisation is a major factor, information about land and property is all too often inaccurate, considerably out of date and not maintained in any meaningful way. The change detection project in Dakar, which uses the analysis of Very High Resolution satellite imagery to identify urban change, provides a means to keep the database of land and property up-to-date at reasonable cost. However it is only of benefit if, upon the completion of a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), the method adopted is demonstrably shown to be carried out at a lower cost than the alternative approaches, such as a field-only based approach.
The points-based method: simplification of valuation processes for property tax purposes
International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD), Cameroon
It is widely acknowledged that property taxation systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are severely underperforming due in part to ineffective valuation. The paper discusses the importance of simplifying valuation in contexts where property markets are inexistent, institutional flaws are rife and valuation rolls are incomplete. Drawing on experiences from Sierra Leone, Malawi and Senegal, it argues that simplified valuation like the Points-Based Method (PBM) are easier to administer and particularly more attractive options in resolving challenges linked to the more traditional market and surface area methods. Outcomes of the implementation of iterative processes of PBM clearly show that the method is: flexible, transparent and ensures efficient coverage of wider areas. It mimics market price trends and is easily managed using simple ICT systems. Therefore, a strong empirical case exists to take progressive medium-term steps to substitute traditional with more simplified methods that improve chances of optimizing property tax yields.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-09: Using cadastral information to value and govern natural capital|
Session Chair: Randall Bluffstone, Portland State University, United States of America
Valuing Natural Capital
RICS, United Kingdom
Natural capital has been defined by the Natural Capital Protocol (NCP) as the “world's stocks of natural assets which include geology, soil, air, water and all living things”. Green finance and green growth offers unprecedented opportunities for financial institutions to invest in natural features such as woodland, peatland and wetland. Natural capital can catalyse new partnerships and foster innovation between financial institutions, land owners, environmental organisations and government. With a range of “values” being attached to natural capital assets, it’s important to note the distinctions between the value of an asset as it stands for sale / notional sale, the evaluation of an asset for its deemed or perceived benefits / disbenefits associated with its existence, enjoyment, environmental or aesthetic contribution, and the evaluation of an asset for strategic decision-making purposes. Relevant parties need to be aufait with the range of “values” being calculated and their origins.
Improving natural resource management for developing nations through the implementation of online mining cadastre solutions
Trimble, South Africa
Government agencies world-wide acknowledge that the transparent and efficient management of their natural resources is a critical factor in the growth and stability of their economies and in uplifting communities.
While the extractive industry is often a complex and dynamic sector, with participation of stakeholders across many parts of the community, governments are able to effectively manage compliance and revenues, and attract responsible investment to their jurisdiction through a modern, fit for purpose, mining cadastre information management system.
This presentation will focus on how the implementation of a modern mining cadastre system, particularly for developing nations, can assist government agencies in meeting their extractive industry goals, while at the same time providing the industry with the confidence that their underlying mining tenure is protected and secure.
Open Interactive Map Platform Infrastructure to support projects on local and regional scale.
Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil
Brazilian Forest Services manages the Rural Environmental Register from Brazilian Forest Code for environmental planning. Non-governmental organizations, small hydrological basin committees and city administrators work closer to the people on the countryside. Some of these data clients had difficulties on usage and processing of the information and we helped with personalized versions of official interactive maps with changed coverage regions, available layers and tools.
We developed a platform in the most transparent, simple and open sourced way possible. This platform now allows anyone to connect to our data via web service, using the desktop GIS software of preference with the possibility to just use the updated information as needed instead of downloading every part every time. After studies on scale representativeness and rural properties characteristics we got service loading and data exporting times reduced on a 40 to 60% average to better attend each of the 5.570 municipalities in Brazil.
Restoration Opportunities Atlas of India - building information bridges for people, forests and landscapes
World Resources Institute India, India
Protecting forests, implementing tree-based landscape restoration, and securing tenure and resource rights are globally recognized as cost-effective solutions for combating climate change. In India, the landscape approach underpins achievement of international and domestic commitments to climate and development. However, critical gaps in data, particularly of key enabling conditions such as tenure, resource rights, risks and financial mechanisms undermine planning for landscape restoration at scale. This abstract provides an overview of the key enabling conditions that underpin success of landscape restoration and introduces the Restoration Opportunities Atlas of India. The Atlas is a web-based platform that brings together best available data and rigorous analysis to support development of pathways to achieve the NDC, plan for restoration at scale and understand status of enabling conditions.Importantly, it promotes data sharing, fosters adaptive learning within the restoration community and provides basis for developing a monitoring platform for tracking India’s progress towards the NDC.
The socio-economic impact of measures to avert or reverse land degradation in agriculture: a systematic review
1PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands, The; 2Wageningen University, Netherlands, The; 3IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Continuous processes of land degradation -losses of soil, nutrients and water holding capacity, pose a threat to maintaining or increasing agricultural productivity. Raising agricultural productivity is key to feeding a burgeoning global population and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, various options to promote sustainable land management are advocated to avert or reverse such processes of land degradation on agricultural land. While a positive impact of such interventions on socio-economic outcomes is often assumed, the actual evidence base supporting such claims is lacking. We set to fill this gap using a systematic review. We identify relevant studies on promoting sustainable land management that assess impact on socio-economic indicators, including changes in net income or food security status, and those that apply rigorous econometric methods. We estimate the average effect of the management options considered on socio-economic outcomes and explore potential sources of heterogeneity.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-10: Balancing rights, development and natural resources protection|
Session Chair: Omoding James Peters Opio, AfDB, Côte d'Ivoire
Land and resource tenure tensions driven by extractives on the commons of Karamoja – Uganda:
1Associates Research Trust Uganda, Uganda; 2Resource Equity, US; 3Global Land Expert
The Karamoja commons are richly endowed with minerals, including gold, limestone and marble. Both foreign and domestic companies have mining interests in the region. Open access defines the commons, is key to the success of herding, but, to mining it presents a dilemma; there is unimpeded access to mining claims, yet these are being individualized amidst changing land use. The status of the reversionary interest of the once common lands when mining is concluded, is at stake. Open access means high influx of miners, hence high mineral supplies and low prices. Not helping are blind spots between mining and land laws that allow mining companies to operate like ‘middlemen’ using their licenses to exclude competition. Open access and the legal and policy blind spots make it difficult to determine recipients of royalties and surface rights compensation. This leaves communities with neither the commons for herding nor the benefits from mining.
Emerging issues in convergence of conservation and development within wildlife protected areas in Kenya
Kenya Wildlife Service, Kenya
Kenya is implementing a national long term development plan aimed at transforming the country to a newly industrializing middle-income country by the year 2030. The development of physical infrastructure including transport and energy infrastructure, is considered as one of the catalysts for this economic transformation. However, national development requires the use of land reserved for conservation purposes including wildlife protected areas. In the recent past, the country has come up with innovative ways to avail conservation land for development while ensuring the necessary environmental mitigation measures are undertaken in order to ensure sustainable development. The paper presents the emerging issues in convergence of conservation and development within wildlife protected areas in Kenya.
The assault on sanctity of village lands in Tanzania by conservation initiatives
Lawyers' Environmental Action Team (LEAT), Tanzania
in 2009 Tanzania enacted the Wildlife Conservation Act (the WCA). Its section 16(4) required the Minister responsible with wildlife to publish a list of game controlled areas (GCAs) within one year after its coming into force and give reasons for their continuation. To this date, the Minister has not done so. Yet the repealed WCA of 1974 allowed habitation of GCAs by people. The Village Land Act likewise legalized villages created under the villagization program of 1974-75 and WCAthose that were created on GCAs. The 2009 WCA banned the existence of GCAs on village lands meaning the Tanzanian government was duty bound to re-gazette GCAs and ensure that none of them was on village land as GCAs were elevated into protected areas status barring human activities on them. The failure to resolve this conflict of laws many render many villagers landless.
Protecting the nexus between communities’ land and water tenure rights: a comparative analysis of national laws recognizing the freshwater rights of indigenous peoples and local communities
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2Environmental Law Institute, Malawi
Indigenous and local communities utilize and govern terrestrial and freshwater resources in an integrated manner, yet insufficient attention has been paid to community-based “water tenure,” linkages between communities’ water and land tenure, and the extent that communities’ rights to freshwater are legally recognized. A forthcoming analysis seeks to narrow this critical knowledge gap by assessing the extent to which countries’ national laws recognize freshwater rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Analysis of 16 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania concludes that communities’ recognized freshwater rights are largely dependent on their land rights. Laws governing freshwater and terrestrial resources commonly lack sufficient harmonization and gender sensitivity, while also burdening communities with onerous procedural requirements that prevent them from realizing their water rights. Findings emphasize that the security of communities’ land and water tenure demands an integrated multi-sectoral approach to legislative reform and natural resource governance.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-11: Fit for purpose land administration|
Session Chair: Rudolf Staiger, FIG- International Federation of Surveyors, Germany
Delivering land administration services at scale
Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, Malaysia
A proper land administration system should be established in order to ensure stability in society by creating security not only for landowners but also for investors, traders and the government. The improvements and changes have assisted more foreign and local investments to this country and further strengthened Malaysia’s position in World Bank Ease Doing Business.
As the country moved from an agriculture-based economy to manufacturing and technology-based one. The usage of physical documents and hard copy files can no longer cope with the surge of the economic activities, so manual land registration was converted to electronic system.
Despite the use of technology and the introduction of various systems to expedite and simplify conveyancing. Such improvements require both commitment and willingness at the government side as well as the business community.
Using participatory approaches and innovative technology to empower communities in securing their land
US Agency for International Development, United States of America
Land and resources documentation can improve rural livelihoods by increasing access to credit and encouraging long-term sustainable investments in the land. However, obtaining land documentation can be difficult due to the high costs of surveying land, stringent accuracy requirements, and outdated land registries. To overcome these constraints, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) supported the development of participatory approaches as part of Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure (MAST). Through participatory methods and innovative tools, MAST supports systematic mapping and documentation of community land resources in an efficient, sustainable, and participatory manner.Local community members and land resource managers receive training in resources governance, land rights, and participatory approaches to mapping land and resources.MAST has been tested in Tanzania, Zambia, and Burkina-Faso, where it significantly reduced claim processing times, led to increased awareness of land rights by community members, and resulted in unprecedented parity in women’s claims to land ownership.
Low-cost cadastre and valuation with lightweight technology
Esri, United States of America
Configurable off-the-shelf GIS technologies for cadastral systems and valuation systems are affordable and easy to use. There is no longer a need for custom programming, complex implementations, and special skills. Leveraging standard data models such as the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GIS data and technology deliver systems that are quickly implemented, scalable, evolve with changing requirements and supported by numerous public, private, and NGO communities.
This new approach addresses many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, accurate GPS use, scalability and security. This presentation will detail the technology used including Android, survey accurate GPS, LADM, and ArcGIS Online combined with innovative ways to collect ownership information. This presentation will detail technology used in pilot projects in Kenya and Colombia.
Digitization of the Land Registry within a Plural Legislative Framework: A case study of land registry innovations in Trinidad and Tobago
1Land Administration Consultant, Bolivia, Plurinational State of; 2Ministry of the Attorney General and Legal Affairs, Trinidad & Tobago
The practice of managing land involves policy, legislative and administrative structures. Technology-based land use solutions require standardization of data and countries that introduce land management technology often face difficulties in creating and sustaining accurate and complete databases. In Trinidad and Tobago, the approach to digitization of land records is set under a plural legislative framework that governs land transfers. With two islands, two levels of government (local and national) and two legal registration frameworks - Common Law and Real Property Act (Torrens-based), this twin-island republic faces ongoing challenges related to digitizing two types of records (Deeds and Titles) standardizing metadata fields, capturing non-land related transactions under the Deeds system; and improving quality, accuracy and completeness in an integrated database. The paper will focus on past and current approaches to digitization and the impact of the digitization outputs on future electronic systems in the country.
Taking matters into their own hands: why innovation in community land data collection matters
Cadasta Foundation, United States of America
This paper addresses practical, on-the-ground solutions to bridging the gap between government land systems and undocumented or informally documented communities. Case studies highlight how communities are using a digital platform and tools for community-collected data used for decision-making, advocating for land rights and tenure recognition, and accessing public and private sector services, such as loans, insurance, and other goods and services. This paper shares data on how putting accessible and appropriate land documentation technologies and training into the hands of local partners and vulnerable communities has transformed and empowered communities left out of the land registry system. Four case studies are highlighted to show different uses of land rights data: land rights for slum dwellers in Odisha State, India; supply chain transparency with Seed Change in Tanzania; rural community land governance with iCT-F in Mozambique; and prevention of urban settlement evictions and infrastructure upgrading with C-MAP in Nigeria.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-12: Can large investment catalyze agricultural transformation?|
Session Chair: Thomas Jayne, Michigan State University, United States of America
The Resource Impact Dashboard (RID) An innovative global framework to measure the local impact of landed resources exploitation by industries
1Institute for Social Research in Africa, Burkina Faso; 2Universidade de Lurio, Mozambique; 3Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
Within the larger goal of improving our understanding of the development impact of landed resource extraction on territorial management, the main focus of the RID research project lies on developing a methodological and technical framework that allows gathering field-based evidence across the diverse dimensions of outcomes, in a way that is readily available and understandable to both policymakers and local stakeholders. The RID framework is informed by a relational theory approach and integrating insights from research into the emergence of civil conflict and into the role of institutions in creating social capital. Mixed qualitative and quantitative data are collected through survey on wellbeing and perceptions; complementary data are collected from extractive companies and government bodies. The survey is currently being tested in two mining areas in Burkina Faso and Mozambique each, administering surveys to a total of 2'000 households.
Agricultural growth corridors in Sub-Saharan Africa - New hope for territorial rural development or another non-starter?
German Development Institute (DIE), Germany
Agricultural growth corridors - geographically bounded areas along a central transport line that receive intensive agricultural investments - are a recent approach to economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. They figure prominently in several national development strategies in the region. Agricultural growth corridors combine agricultural policies with agrobusiness and infrastructure investments. Since they are usually planned and managed as strategic private-public-partnerships, they promise to bring together expertise, funding and coordination that are usually dispersed and aim to benefit from multiple synergies that arise. There are, however, huge pitfalls to be overcome from agricultural corridor approaches, including social exclusion, land grabbing and ecological stress. The paper brings together literature on geographical approaches to rural development as well as empirical evidence from the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT).
A framework for the development of responsible agropoles in Africa
International Institute for Sustainable Development, Mali
Agropoles are simultaneous, coordinated investments in agriculture to support self-sustaining industrialization in a country. Ensuring that the new wave of agropoles in Africa is effective requires robust policies, laws and practices to ensure that a possible new trend of investment helps Africa achieve its sustainable development goals. There’s therefore a need for a clear framework outlining the key stages and steps, including the practices they entail, to follow in order to make sure they are developed in a responsible and a sustainable manner, i.e. in such a way that the risks associated with their development are minimized and the benefits maximized.
The present paper is a reflection on such a Framework for the development of responsible Agricultural growth zones. It identifies eight key steps spread across three main phases for a responsible agropole development framework: planning (1), Design (2) and implementation (3).
Changing farm structure and rural transformation in Africa
Michigan State University, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-13: Gender aspects of land tenure|
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
Land reform and child health in the Kyrgyz republic
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Georgia Tech, United States of America
Gender gaps in forest tenure reforms in Peru: The impact of expectations on the household incomes of native communities
Universidad de Lima, Peru
Land joint titling and its effects on household welfare in Vietnam
World Bank, United States of America
Gender differences in housing ownership in Dhaka, Bangladesh
World Bank, United States of America
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-12: Leveraging geospatial infrastructure to advance tenure security at scale|
Session Chair: Haishan Fu, World Bank, United States of America
Leveraging geospatial infrastructure to advance tenure security at scale
ESRI, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-01: Building analytical capacity on land in Africa|
Session Chair: Emmanuel Nkurunziza, Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
NEPAD support to policy analysis capacity building in Africa
NEPAD, South Africa
Policy relevant research: Building on AERC's PhD course to strengthen analytical capacity on land governance in Africa
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
Harnessing the IT revolution for African land policies
World Bank, United States of America
Expanding the frontier for research on land in Africa
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-02: New ways of measuring urban extent|
Session Chair: Shlomo Angel, New York University, United States of America
Definition matters. Metropolitan areas and agglomeration economies in a large developing country
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Erasmus University Rotterdam
A variety of approaches to delineate metropolitan areas have been developed. Systematic comparisons of these approaches in terms of the urban landscape that they generate are however few. Our paper aims to fill this gap. We focus on Indonesia, and make use of the availability of data on commuting flows, remotely-sensed nighttime lights, and spatially fine-grained population, to construct metropolitan areas using the different approaches that have been developed in the literature. We find that the maps and characteristics of Indonesia’s urban landscape vary substantially depending on the approach used. Moreover, combining information on the metro areas generated by the different approaches with detailed micro-data from Indonesia’s national labor force survey, we show that the estimated size of the agglomeration wage premium depends nontrivially on the approach used to define metropolitan areas.
Densification vs. expansion: recent findings for a global sample of cities
New York University, United States of America
When the populations of cities grow, they can be accommodated within the existing footprints of cities or in newly-built expansion areas. Urban planners, have called for the densification of existing footprints, but there has been little data to measure the extent to which densification has been effective. Using a new dataset, a global stratified sample of 200 cities of 4,231 cities that had 100,000 people or more ind 2010, we explore the share of the populations added to cities between 1990 and 2015 that were accommodated in areas built before 1990, and compare it with the share accommodated in expansion areas built between 1990 and 2015. We also explore the extent to which the built-up areas in pre-1990 footprints increased in density, and the extent t to which vacant areas within pre-1990 footprints were built upon. We then seek to explain why some cities densified while others expanded.
Accurately monitoring urbanization at global scale – the world settlement footprint
1German Aerospace Center - DLR, Germany; 2Google Inc., USA
Reliably monitoring global urbanization is of key importance to properly estimate the distribution of the continually expanding population, along with its effects on the use of resources, transport, socioeconomic development, human health, etc. To this purpose, in order to accurately outline the actual settlement extent globally we generated the World Settlement Footprint (WSF) 2015 , i.e. a 10m resolution binary mask derived by jointly exploiting multitemporal optical and radar satellite imagery, which outperforms all other existing similar layers. Furthermore, to characterize the urbanization occurred in the last three decades, we are currently generating the WSF Evolution, i.e. a novel dataset aimed at outlining the growth of settlement extent globally at 30m spatial resolution and high temporal resolution (i.e., 5-year or even finer) from 1985 to 2015. The WSF Evolution will be released in 2019 and is expected to become a revolutionary product in support to a variety of end users.
Characterizing and managing urban expansion for higher equity, productivity, and environmental quality in the global south
1World Resources Institute, WRI, United States of America; 2Yale University, , United States of America
This paper examines how urban expansion can be managed in a way that achieves more equitable access to core urban services for the under-served, while bringing wider economic and environmental benefits to cities. It presents new remote sensing analysis of the growth in urban built up area over a decade in 499 cities with population greater than one million and develops new metrics to measure changes in their outward and upward growth. The analysis highlights regional trends in urban expansion, differences in urban structure within and between cities, and combines this information with urban population and economic growth projections. The paper then discusses some driving forces for outward expansion, highlighting key equity challenges of the phenomenon in cities of the global South. We argue that while some urban land expansion is inevitable with increasing urbanization, the pace, scale, and nature of this expansion can be managed through some proven strategies.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-03: Low-cost ways to establish cadastral systems|
Session Chair: Andy Wickless, Trimble, Inc., United States of America
Precision geolocation at the service of least developed countries
GNSS is a technology that enables location of objects, points and maps anywhere in the world with the same level of accuracy. In particular, it allows emerging countries to set up internal databases in perfect complementarity and continuity with international information.
In France, the “Ordre des Géomètres-Experts” launched the TERIA project in 2005 to deploy a network able to offer an NRTK satellite data processing service with centimetric accuracy. This network served as a basis for the deployment of the Géo-Foncier digital portal, which is today the keystone of the management of land rights and public constraints.
The TERIA process can be replicated in least developed countries and participate in their autonomy. It is a powerful lever for setting agricultural policies and boosting the global economy by offering a leading basic tool for advanced technologies (robotics, navigation, transport ...).
Fit for Purpose, scalable GNSS data collection
Leica Geosystems, Germany
It is not uncommon for the user of a software or hardware product to touch only a small percentage of the tools available to them. Functionality correlates highly with cost and can be a contributing factor to users being excluded from innovative new technology. GNSS data collection vendors have a responsibility to ensure their products are not only fit for purpose but also flexible enough to reach a wide range of users.
Scalability has become an expectation of the user and you no longer have to be locked into a large, complex workflow when you can pick and choose which elements of a system are relevant for you. Software and hardware should align to user’s needs as their own industries are developing and changing as rapidly as the technology is advancing. Users need a solution which is tailored to their knowledge and experience. This is especially important for developing countries.
Customized earth observation based information services
1GeoCodis Ltd., Slovenia; 2ZRC SAZU, Slovenia
Earth observation (EO) data enables a quick assessment of regions of interest. This is particularly relevant for areas undergoing social and economic change that may lead to increased pressures on natural resources. The present work focuses on the development of a cloud-based end-to-end processing chain which provides easy-to-use services for rapid overviews of on-the-ground conditions. The resulting EO-based information including maps, time series graphs and derived statistics can be integrated into geospatial systems or reports.
Using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data, and customized generic modular workflows to provide Information Layers (IL), the product is designed to assist monitoring and safeguarding actions by International Development Banks.
Broader areas of interest are arid zones, where there have been conflicts, big population changes, and/or urban expansion. Four thematic IL are conceived: Extent and status of dwellings of forcibly displaced persons, Surface water extent, Grassland extent and status, and Degradation risk assessment.
Deploying titling and customary land registration systems with a blockchain element
Medici Land Governance, United States of America
Medici Land Governance, working with communities and governments, has written systems to gather ownership claims and also to register titles with governments. We describe the work in Zambia for a systematic titling project, which includes features for transparency using a public blockchain network. We then describe an approach that applies to customary land, where the communities are able to assert their ownership and later verify their claims on a public blockchain in a semi-public way; this approach requires smart-phones and thus currently applies to areas outside Africa (eg. Peru), but it allows for independent affirmations. We will discuss the designs and tradeoffs for these systems, mostly from an engineering point-of-view but including lessons learned in policy and logistics.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-04: Recognizing women's rights over common resources|
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource Equity, United States of America
Securing women’s property rights in utilization of commons: Lessons from the Kadenge community of Yala Swamp
National Legal Aid Service, Kenya
Women in Kenya, as in the rest of the world, continue to suffer from both structural and systemic gender based discrimination. Indigenous women and women living in the rural areas have since time immemorial been particularly vulnerable to marginalization in the management and utilization of commons resources. Despite progressive laws in Kenya which attempt to stem out gender based discrimination, this paper establishes that the gender neutral approach to the management of and access to the commons, leaves room for perpetuating discriminatory practices thus promoting marginalization. The study takes case study of the effect of land reclamation, adjudication and sale of part of Yala Swamp to Dominion Farms ltd on the women of Kadenge community who depended on the Swamp for their livelihoods. This paper proposes a framework to ensure inclusive and participatory governance of the commons to guarantee the property rights of the women who depend on the commons.
Customary land tenure systems and gendered land rights in Ghana’s northern region: Results from phase II gender equity and land tenure focus groups
Mississippi State University, United States of America
We present results from Phase II of the Gendered Equity and Land Tenure (GELT) focus groups, conducted in Ghana’s Northern Region in 2018 to further investigate gender equity and customary land tenure systems among men and women smallholder soybean farmers in Ghana’s Northern Region. Preliminary GELT Phase II results reconfirmed that the primary way a woman farmer can acquire agricultural land is with the permission and assistance of an adult male. The primary way that women acquire land is through their husbands upon marriage. However, it is important to note that in some communities custom dictates that if a husband wishes, he can ‘reclaim’ his wife’s land and allocate her a different plot of land. In a feedback loop, this lack of tenure security made some women reluctant to make improvements to their farm plots, for fear their improved plots would be taken away from them.
Women’s tenure security on collective lands: Implications for measurement and policy
1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Namati; 3University of Oxford
Most of the growing attention to women’s tenure security has focused on individual or household-level land rights, with relatively little attention to women’s rights under collective tenure and common property systems, such as forests and rangelands. This paper presents a framework for assessing women’s tenure security on collective lands. Key dimensions include the bundles of rights held, duration, robustness, and how rights are shared. Women’s security of land rights under collective tenure depends on the extent to which the collective has secure tenure, and the extent to which women’s rights are recognized and exercised within the collective. The paper recommends indicators for in-depth research and for monitoring and reporting women’s tenure security, and identifies implications for policies and programs to protect or strengthen women’s rights to collective resources.
Exploring the role of gender equity in customary land administration to boost production
1International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Uganda; 2UN Habitat/GLTN, Uganda
Land security contributes greatly to the realization of basic human rights and the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In Uganda, registered land is still at 20% with registered women owners constituting a meagre 20%. Gender equity in rights to land can thus increase women’s social and political power. The most significant challenge has been the problem of insecurity of tenure which has affected ability to invest in production.
Against this backdrop, the current initiative supported by UN Habitat GLTN and Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands, IIRR is supporting 1000 indigenous households who are rural small holder farmers through promoting pro-poor, fit-for purpose and gender responsive strategies to secure land tenure rights. Considering that 70% of land is owned under customary tenure, the issuance of certificates of customary ownership is also an important element of the initiative in order to contribute to the right to food and poverty reduction.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-05: Land price determinants|
Session Chair: Dieter von Fintel, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Does the Real Estate Trading Management System (RTMS) affect housing price and tax base?: Evidence from Korea
Korea Development Institute, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Spatial distributions of job accessibility, housing rents, and poverty in Nairobi, Kenya
World Bank, United States of America
Monopolist land supply, housing cycle and entrepreneurship in urban China
The Economist, China, People's Republic of
Growth of cities and urban influence on agricultural land prices in Malawi
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-06: Land policy to improve agricultural land use|
Session Chair: Wordsworth Odame Larbi, FAO, Ethiopia
Can group farms outperform individual family farms? empirical insights from India
School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, UK
Can group farms, wherein farmers voluntarily pool land, labour and capital and farm collectively, outperform individual family farms? This paper tests this, using the author’s primary survey of two experiments begun in the 2000s in Kerala and Telangana, India. Constituted only of women, the groups collectively farm leased-in land and share labour, costs and returns.
Kerala’s groups perform strikingly better than the largely male-managed individual farms in the state, both in annual value of output per hectare and annual net returns per farm, while Telangana’s group farms perform much worse than individual farms in annual output, but are equivalent in net returns. In both states, groups do better in commercial crops than foodgrains. The factors underlying the differential performances of Kerala and Telangana, and lessons for replication, are discussed. Overall, the paper demonstrates that group farming can provide an effective alternative under specified conditions and local adaptation of the model.
The effect of land sizes and land holdings on “transitions” in and out of income poverty in Uganda.
1Ford Foundation, United States of America; 2Associates Research Trust, Uganda
This paper explores transition out of “income poverty” for land-owning and land-secure agricultural households using national data (UNHS 2016/17). Given Uganda’s strong performance on income poverty reduction, we show the contribution of land holdings and impact of land sizes to this drastic drop from 54.3% to19.7%. We establish which households are; asset-richer; more food secure; less vulnerable to shocks and with access to varying proportions of productive agricultural land. We find that escape from income poverty, is driven in part by the size of land holdings not falling below the average of one acre per household and peaking at four acres for smallholder market-oriented producers. At this acreage incomes from enterprises rise, the ability of households to mitigate shocks improve, while simultaneously keeping in the food secure zone. This pathway to reducing income poverty, it is better recognized by economic growth and investment policies than by land sector policies.
Land as the enabling asset on a value chain for rural development in Colombia's rural reform
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
Colombia’s rural policy for the next four-year period aims to create a value chain process in which four elements are mainly taken into account to develop rural territories. The policy seeks to achieve equity in rural territories by providing equal opportunities to population and by closing the gap between urban and rural environments. Therefore, the public policy must add up the elements that together contribute for rural development and productive development. These elements take into account land access, productivity, public goods’ provision and rural population as a transversal element through all the process.
Land tenure regularisation for sustainable urban and agriculture development in Rwanda
The need to improve land governance is often informed by issues like increasing demand for land tenure insecurity. Land registration has often been embraced as the panacea to the problem of land tenure insecurity (LTI) and based on this, it is further posited that land registration guarantees access to formal capital. However, there is an ambivalent literature on whether or not it guarantees land tenure security and access to formal credit in improving. Rwanda embarked on an ambitious land tenure reform (LTR) with a national-wide systematic registration of all land that was primarily aimed at among other things, establishing LTS. This culminated in the registration of over 11 million land parcels, a feat considered unprecedented in Africa. The aim of this paper is to examine whether or not land registration assures LTS as well as to holistically assess how the results of the LTR are contributing to urban and agriculture development in Rwanda.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-07: Land policies for smart city development|
Session Chair: Rachelle Alterman, Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
Experiments of urban land supply and development: India
RICS School of Built Environment, India
In India, approximating a business-as-usual scenario, an average of 15 square kilometers of land needs to be planned and serviced for urban use every single day up to the year 2050 (WRI India, 2016). However, compulsory land acquisition and traditional planning instruments/apparatus have continually failed to achieve the entrepreneurial dreams of 'worlding cities' of India. The answer thus is found in increasing private sector participation in land assembly, planning and development, and metamorphosing public development agencies from providers to facilitators. This research throws light on a few of these innovative methods of land supply and development. This research tries to investigate urban sprawl and excessive reliance on real estate business for land development, in the garb of land supply for urbanization, the ever-increasing role of parastatals morphing into pseudo developing authorities by involving private planning consulting firms leading to privatization of development planning with a meager public consultation/participation.
Citizen-centric digital land and asset management in the greenfield city development: case study of Amaravati
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, India
Smart cities across the world are deploying digital systems and infrastructure, that is helping achieve various objectives on efficiency, transparency and in general, improved governance. Amaravati, a greenfield capital city that is being developed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh is taking lead in deployment of various technologies to streamline its efficiency of operations whilst keeping the citizen at the center of such activities. Several initiatives such as a Citizen mobile application, blockchain deployment for land registry, development of a digital twin for the city, implementation of BIM and 3D City modelling all emerge as an array of best practices that cities can learn from. It is important to note how various data sources and applications converge in a manner that positively and systematically drives city outcomes – and it can only be achieved by design and policy.
Egovernance initiatives of slum rehabilitation authority, Mumbai
Government of Maharashtra, India
Slum Rehabilitation Authority, Mumbai has initiated lot of eGovernance initiatives which are beneficial for slum dwellers as well as common citizens. It is SRA’s vision to have a digital workflow for all the citizen services so that there is transparency and efficiency in the functioning of all the Departments.
The aim of this paper is to showcase the GIS based Slum Information Management System (SIMS) solution which consists of four components; Topographical Survey of Slum Clusters & Slum Rehabilitation (SR) Schemes, LiDAR Survey of Slum Huts, Mobile Application for gathering slum dwellers information and Web Application with Web-GIS feature for determining the slum dwellers eligibility for free housing under SR Schemes.
SIMS has facilitated Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) in sector-wise micro-planning of slum cluster, speedy implementation of SR schemes, availability of digital data in real-time, easy dissemination of slum information and bringing transparency, and effectiveness in identification of eligible slum dwellers.
Imagine and design the legal framework for the cities of the future: the example of Mauritian ‘smart cities’
1Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France; 2Conseil Supérieur du Notariat, France
By 2050, the proportion of the world's population living in urban areas is expected to reach 66% (54% in 2014).
Planning efforts will therefore be essential to ensure essential services to populations, such as access to energy, water, waste treatment, housing, health and transport.
In 2015, Mauritius launched the creation of fifteen new intelligent city projects, that are supposed to rely on the capacity of self-organisation of inhabitants. Nevertheless, it is necessary to provide in advance an appropriate legal framework, because these new cities will consist of land or buildings for common use and others for private use.
However, the provisions of the Civil Code have so far proved insufficient to support the construction of such complexes, which include private owners, companies and condominiums.
To meet this urgent need, Mauritius mandated a multidisciplinary team to develop a new regulatory framework for real estate complexes, and co-ownership in particular.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-08: Making property tax systems transparent and equitable|
Session Chair: Ronald Worth, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Open Government - Building trust and strengthening the delivery of valuation services
1Council for Real Estate Assessment, The Netherlands; 2Valuation Office, Ireland
Based on experiences of the Valuation Office in Ireland and the Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment in this presentation different methods to achieve transparency and to improve citizen participation are explained.
In Ireland valuation for taxation purposes are carried out by the central Valuation Office. This paper describes how the Valuation Office, through a pilot approach known as Occupier Assisted Valuation (OAV), encouraged taxpayer participation. The outcome of this enhanced interaction between the VO and taxpayer is a more open, transparent and responsive valuation service with a better understanding by taxpayers.
In the Netherlands the responsibility for property valuation for taxation purposes lies with the municipalities. The Netherlands system promotes transparency of municipalities with the goal to advance the public trust in the property valuation. We will present results from municipalities involving taxpayers in checking quality of data but also results of measuring taxpayers trust in the assessed value.
Customer relations and communication in land administration
Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom
As land administration and property tax reforms gain pace around the World this paper focuses on the need to develop the methodology and techniques that public entities can use to communicate with customers. The citizens and tax payers must be informed about their and rights and responsibilities in any reform or on-going process. In essence the overall objective is to put in place innovative approaches to communication which
• Ensure proper public participation in the reform process
• Improve potential tax compliance, by ensuring that open and clear information is provided to those with interest in the land or taxpayers;
• Improve the credibility of the public entity, by promoting concepts such as attitude, efficiency, integrity, service quality and professionalism, and
• Are “future” proofed.
This is a paper that provides details on the various tools that can be utilised in the communication process to achieve a successful outcome.
Property Taxation in India: Issues impacting revenue performance and suggestions for reform
World Bank, United States of America
Rapid urbanization in India means that Indian cities face a tremendous challenge to finance and deliver the increasing demand for basic municipal services. When compared to OECD peers, India performs poorly in terms of generating revenues from the urban immovable property tax. Several factors lead to low property tax revenue in India: undervaluation; incomplete registers; policy inadequacy; ineffective administration and lack of accurate property tax rolls in the jurisdiction of the urban local bodies (ULBs). Property tax reform in India would need to undertake a range of activities: updating property tax laws, getting rid of ineffective exemptions, completing property registers, adopting more effective valuation approaches, and strengthening administration.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-09: Linking tenure to planning in forest land|
Session Chair: Anne Larson, CIFOR, Peru
Best-bet options for ensuring tropical forest conservation and livelihoods development: Evidence from the community forest concessions in Petén, Guatemala
1Bioversity International, France; 2World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), France; 3Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Guatemala; 4Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) in Petén, Guatemala, is a prominent example for the devolution of forest rights to local communities. Community forest concessions have been established on about 400,000 ha, reducing deforestation to a minimum. While the conservation benefits of the concessions are well documented, there is little insight into their socio-economic performance. This in-depth study of currently nine active and three inactive concessions focuses on the community forest enterprises (CFE) operating them, with emphasis on: 1) the benefits accruing to CFE members, local communities, and society at large; 2) the degree to which forest-based income allows member households to move out of poverty; and 3) how such income is reinvested in livelihood and business assets. We show the critical importance of the findings in support of the communities' claim for renewal of the concessions, which is due over the next years, and broader implications for natural resource governance.
Forest restoration and afforestation in India
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2University of Toronto, Canada
India’s regreening ambitions are second only to China’s, with vast investments having been made in afforestation and restoration of degraded forests and lands. It is estimated that India has planted over 19 million ha. of forestry plantations between 2003-2014, even though the forest cover has barely increased. Its forest policy aims to increase forest cover from 23% to 33% of the country’s land area. The regreening thrust is also captured in its INDC, wherein India seeks to sequester an additional 2.5-3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent and plans to take up at least 5 million ha. of afforestation. A $7 billion fund called the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF), derived from statutory offsets for diversion of legal forest lands, is targeted to be spent for afforestation and forest restoration. Additional funds are allocated by the government for afforestation through Green India Mission, Rural Employment Generation schemes etc.
Integrating forest recovery and low-carbon agriculture in priority watersheds of Brazilian savannah: The FIP-Landscape Project
1Brazilian Forest Service (SFB), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 2Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4World Bank, Brazil
The article shows the methodology of prioritization of watersheds in Brazilian Savannah Biome ("Cerrado") for the activities of the new project of the World Bank's Forest Investment Program (FIP) in Brazil - Integrated Landscape Management in the Cerrado Biome Project or "FIP-Landscape". This project integrates, in a innovative approach, practices of Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Recovery for landscape management. It is coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service-SFB and the Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply-MAPA with technical cooperation of GIZ.
Tenure security and forest landscape restoration: Results from exploratory research in Boeny, Madagascar
1Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America; 2Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques (ESSA); Université d'Antananarivo – Madagascar; 3Independent consultant
Madagascar aims to restore 4 million ha of degraded forests by 2030 under the Bonn Challenge. Chief among the constraints identified to forest landscape restoration (FLR) are a lack of tenure security for smallholders and weak forest law enforcement. We present preliminary results from research in Boeny Region, Madagascar to improve understanding of local tenure systems and how they might affect FLR investment. We identified two land tenure models: an endogenous model rooted in the local customary system with weak state intervention, and an exogenous model heavily influenced by external actors and where customary systems have limited legitimacy. These differences will affect FLR investment choices and success of tenure securitization. We recommend that FLR actors be trained to use tenure diagnostic tools that distinguish between different hybrid systems. Such training will provide FLR actors with the conceptual tools needed to design and implement FLR programs appropriate for complex tenure systems.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-10: Can participatory land use planning help secure tenure?|
Session Chair: Christopher Mulenga, University of Lusaka, Zambia
Rural land use planning, the integration of shared resources mapping for improved communal tenure security: experiences from Zambia
1University of Lusaka, Zambia; 2Chipata District Land Alliance, Zambia
Rural areas in Zambia are characterised by encroachment of important historical sites and natural biodiversity such as burial sites and natural forests. This is mainly due to lack of co-ordinated land use planning. Although the chiefs act as arbiters of land disputes and have ultimate authority over the management of customary lands in Zambia, the methods they employ are of a curative nature. In most chiefdoms there are few records kept on land allocation to subjects, on land management rules or decrees, or on rulings from land disputes. Due to these numerous problems facing customary land governance structures in resolving land disputes and help in the preservation of historical sites and natural biodiversity, long lasting preventive land administration techniques are inevitable across chiefdoms. Land use planning has been identified as one of the tools that can be employed to effectively resolve the chiefdom problems identified above.
Context, power, equity and effectiveness in territorial planning multi-stakeholder commissions: a comparative analysis of two very different Brazilian States
1University of Florida (UF), United States of America; 2University of Florida (UF), United States of America; 3Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Peru
Multi-stakeholder forums (MSFs) gained popularity in territorial planning as an innovative method that brings diverse actors together to advance “good governance” and “sustainable development”. However, both territorial planning and MSFs constitute a double-edged sword. Advancing certain goals, strengthening certain land-use rights and benefiting certain actors can come at the cost of others, with the potential to both challenge or reproduce power asymmetries. MSFs may present the shortcomings, and profit from the lessons, recognized by scholars and practitioners. Based on mixed methods research, we comparatively analyze equity and power dynamics in the Ecological-Economic Zoning (ZEE) commissions of Acre and Mato Grosso, two Brazilian States with different contexts. We reveal that territorial planning MSFs have better chances to promote equitable power relations and environmental benefits when they emerge - and operate in - a historical context that embraces social-environmental movements, the “common good”, trade-offs and subjectivities, rather than from technocratic top-down initiatives.
Clarification, recognition and formalization of land rights in a landscape restoration project in Burundi
1Independant consultant, France; 2World Bank
The World Bank “Burundi Landscape Restoration and Resilience Project” mobilizes an integrated landscape approach for sustainably managing land, water and forest resources. It includes a land certification subcomponent that aims at clarifying and securing land rights. This subcomponent is made possible by the existence of a land reform undertaken in Burundi for 10 years: political and a renewed legal and regulatory framework, pilot implementation experiments and first phase of scaling-up. The creation of Communal Land Services enables the clarification, recognition and formalization of the land rights through a local, public and contradictory procedure which leads to the issuance of land certificates. This system also allows to solve amicably a number of land disputes. The land component will consist in the creation or the reinforcement of Communal Land Services in the project intervention communes and the implementation of systematic land rights recognition operations in the hills concerned by the project.
Participatory Community Land Use Planning (CLUP ) as a means of conflict prevention and poverty alleviation in rural areas through pilot experiments in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo: provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Tituri
UN-HABITAT, Congo, Republic of the
The communication aims to present the PCLUP as an approach that can contribute to the fight against the root causes of land conflicts in the DRC while developing good practices in terms of peaceful, fair and secure access through a process in which all actors from the locality took part.
The added value of the CLUP : A process based: on the participation of communities and institutional, administrative and political actors ; on ownership by the political authorities; on consensus building on land regimes and uses.
A process contributing to the improvement of the security of tenure rights (formal, informal, collective, individual). A process that responds to land access needs of the vulnerable (women, displaced); Anticipates the causes of land conflicts: social dialogue, consensus on rules of access and land use;develops appropriate tools for integrated and participative management of space and land. and sets up a Community Land Use Plan (CLUP).
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-11: Interoperability of land data: Conceptual issues|
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Land administration data integration – modern concept
Innola Solutions, Inc., United States of America
Building a national scale land administration system inevitably depends upon existing data digitization, migration and ultimately, integration of the digitized data into the system as a pre-requisite of the system rollout. Separating data digitization from system implementation makes it easier to early start the data production processes using different available tools - mainly serving specific needs such as scanning, indexing and maps digitization. However, the real content of the land administration records requires a more complicated data structure and, accordingly, more elaborate technologies to ensure the quality, completeness, sequence and integrity of the produced digital data. Based on the experience gained in several national-scale projects, the authors describe a holistic “top-down” approach of data digitization and acquisition. Modern concept is in evaluation of different data sources from a prospective of the future services and system functions, and defining a clear schema of how those various data are going to be integrated.
Land Administration Models - A central register and land information system containing as much information as possible about a property
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
We review the benefits of centralised land information and registration systems, defined as an integrated land information system, where formal registration of legal information as well as technical information about land is supervised, controlled and operated by one authority, so that all matters affecting one parcel of land can be easily accessed.
Land registration and cadastral functions are more effective under a centralised system. Decentralisation of land administration may help to develop local democracy and skills, but in the longer run could hold back progress. Local conditions may mean that it is difficult to implement a centralised system and innovative decentralised solutions may help in the short term. However, improvement of a centralised system is likely to be more advantageous in the long term than developing a decentralised model where there is a risk of introducing or perpetuating a fragmented system of land registration and land information.
An applicative approach for cadastral processes implementation in multi-dimensional land management systems
Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
The world’s population is expected to reach 9.7 billion in 2050, 66% of them will live in urban areas, resulting in the crucial need for multi-dimensional cadastral systems that are required for an efficient management of the urban space. Our study aims at setting an approach for augmenting existing 2D cadastral systems to multi-dimensional ones. The full integration of the height, time and scale dimensions, including all topological aspects within the same system, will prevent the need of handling management and functional properties in segregated systems to support decision-making and multi-purpose applications, as well as providing the opportunity of sharing geo-data by diverse users. A simulation of planning a new 3D project in a complex urban environment, offering functionalities and data model for performing complex 3D analysis and editing, is presented. Our solution is a first step towards the implementation of multi-dimensional cadastral systems.
The impact of the agricultural land management information system on the work of local self-government units and directorate for agricultural land
GIZ- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, United States of America
This Impact Study assesses the impact the IT-solution for the management of state-owned agricultural land has had on the work of municipalities and the Directorate for Agricultural Land in Serbia. It analyzes the biggest changes the system brought to the local and national level, as well as the influence it had on the end beneficiaries. Data was collected from three sources: document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews, and an online questionnaire sent to all 145 municipalities. Analysis of all data shows that DAL and municipal officials are spending significantly less time creating Annual Programs and Contracts. They are printing, filing, and mailing many fewer documents, all while increasing transparency in a previously opaque system. There are already measurable improvements in the quality of products from the new IT system. There is evidence that customer service will be enhanced and communications among DAL, municipalities, and clients is easier and clearer.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-12: Can large farms attract local growth?|
Session Chair: Derick Bowen, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
How and why large-scale agricultural investments induce diverse trajectories of regional development in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique
1Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition; 3University of Pretoria; 4CIRAD / University of Pretoria; 5CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier Madagascar; 6CIRAD, France; 7CETRAD, Kenya
If a consensus emerges regarding the necessity of additional investment into agriculture, it is less evident whether large-scale agricultural investments (LAI) are a vector for broader agrarian and socio-economic transformations in a sustainable manner.
Against this backdrop, this paper presents the results of a study aiming, on one hand, at assessing the changes and impacts of LAIs at various (individual, household, regional) levels within target regions, and on the other hand, at a nuanced account of how and why LAIs subsequently induce diverse regional development trajectories in these regions. We focus on LAIs in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. Specifically, this study provides a cross-national comparative analysis of business models, land-use changes, governance dynamics of LAIs and their socio-economic, food security, and environmental impacts in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique.
Investing in land versus land use: analyzing investment decisions by transnational forestry and agriculture companies
1Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2F.R.S.- FNRS, Brussels, Belgium
Our work in Southern and Eastern Africa aims at understanding investor decisions in shaping the emergence of new commodity frontiers and the different trajectories of land use change that may result from these decisions. Based on our findings, we derived two key approaches to choosing land for agricultural investments. One approach (‘crop-to-land’) was to choose a land that suited a specific crop or an agricultural “project” that had been identified already. The other approach (‘land-to-crop’) was to choose a land that was suitable for agriculture in general, and then identify a crop or a set of crops that would suit the land. The two approaches show noticeable differences in the types of investors involved, decision rationales, types of crops grown and land area acquired and developed. These differences are also reflected in the broader land use patterns and its implications for the land and its people, and warrants further investigation.
Large-scale land aggregation for transforming and scaling up African agriculture
African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire
Untapped agricultural potential in Africa has contributed to persistent poverty and deteriorating food security, resulting in a projected increase in the number of undernourished people. Population growth and urbanization increase food demand and changing consumption habits that lead to rapidly rising net food imports. Access to land and land rights in both rural and urban areas remain major challenges that hinders agriculture productivity across the continent. The main question is whether large scale land acquisition by public and private sector facilitates access to land and fast-track agriculture productivity. The implementation of the AfDB’s Feed Africa Strategy for Agricultural Transformation that ensures productivity and alleviates poverty requires land that is accessed and secured equitably. The paper argues that large scale land acquisition can immediately resolve food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, appropriate land policies and regulation for large scale acquisition are necessary to ensure access to land and Land rights are provided.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-13: Drawing policy advice from land data analysis|
Session Chair: Hamady Diop, NEPAD, South Africa
Predicting deprivations in housing and basic services from space in slums of Dhaka
1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Inter American Development Bank, United States of America; 4GiSAT, Czech Republic
This paper develops a novel approach to identify and enumerate housing deprivations in slums of Dhaka using Earth Observation data. We integrate household survey data with very high resolution remote sensing data to build a robust econometric model to estimate housing and basic infrastructure deprivation such as water and sanitation in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Such a model could be used to predict housing and basic services deprivation in areas where household surveys are not available. Identification of most deprived areas from space could be used to inform policymaking and targeting beneficiaries of such policies. We argue that spatial data, which have become increasingly available and affordable, could answer the following questions: ii) How to identify and delineate slums spatially in a metropolitan area using Earth Observation data? ii) How to detect and predict deprivations in housing and basic services as a function of factors from Earth Observation data?
International collaboration: capturing the impact of emerging trends
Columbia University, United States of America
The surge in global population, over the past decade, has fueled technological innovation. Many advancements are developed to manage and forecast population growth rates while complexities in the political and economic landscape increases. With this in mind, the research how international collaboration can strengthen our ability to achieve the poverty reduction targets in the 2030 Agenda. The research methodology used to explore the potential impact of data collaboration among the World Bank, United Nations, and Internal Monetary Fund is a case study. In the case, the research captures how data collaboration can strengthen the Partnership Framework for Crisis-Affected Situations between the World Bank, IMF and the United Nations. The research examines the mandate and goals of the framework then explores how data collaboration strengthens or weakens the group’s ability to achieve the desired goals. The primary sustainable development goal highlighted in the case is goal 1.A.
The effects of agricultural income on Internally Displaced Persons: Evidence from Colombia
Universidad Icesi, Colombia
Colombia has the largest population of Internal Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the world. Not only IDPs suffer a significant welfare loss suffered after migrating, they also generate an enormous cost to the Colombian society in several respects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of agricultural income on the number of IDPs expelled from Colombian municipalities. To address the possible endogeneity and omitted variables bias, we use an instrumental variables’ approach. The standardized deviation of precipitation from its mean serves as an instrument for municipal agricultural income. Our main result indicates that agricultural income has a negative and statistically significant impact on forced displacement: an increase in agricultural income of one percent reduces forced displacement in the municipality by 1.2%. As a robustness check, we use alternative definitions of economic activity at the municipality level such as agricultural loans, GDP, and energy consumption finding similar results.
The consequences of increasing block tariffs, magnitude and distribution of electricity and water subsidies for households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America
In Addis Ababa the increasing block tariff (IBT) is used to calculate households’ monthly bills for both electricity and water services. We estimate the combined water and electricity subsidies received by households with private connections to both the electricity grid and the piped network water in 2016, and evaluate the distribution of these subsidies among wealth groups. We use customer-billing data and match those data with socioeconomic information collected from a household survey. Results show that the combined subsidies are large. The average household receives a subsidy of US$26 per month, about 6% of household income. Also we find that both the electricity and the water IBT subsidies disproportionately target richer households, with even worse poor targeting outcomes when both sectors are considered jointly. The poorest quintile receives 12% of the cumulative subsidies provided by both electricity and water services, while the richest quintile receives 31% of the cumulative subsidies.
|3:30pm - 3:45pm||Coffee Break|
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-01: Scaling-up land programs - African experiences and global solutions|
Session Chair: Michael Roth, World Bank, United States of America
Translation English - French
African Union Commission, Ethiopia
Setting the scene
Consultant, United States of America
Power Point presentation setting the stage for the 2019 African Roundtable, Scaling Up Land Programs: African Experience and Global Solutions. Power Point reviews questions raised and addressed at last years 2018 Roundtable, announces five panelists for this year's roundtable, poses four questions for plenary discussion and sets out the format for panel comments, questions and answers and next steps for reporting.
Agence Foncière Rurale, AFOR, Côte d'Ivoire
La Côte d'Ivoire a adopté la loi n° 98-750 du 23 décembre 1998 dans le but de transformer les droits coutumiers en droit de propriété.
Afin de faciliter et accélérer l'application de cette loi, un cadre institutionnel adéquat a été mis en place à travers la création de l'Agence Foncière Rurale (AFOR), chargée d'assurer la maîtrise d'œuvre de l'ensemble du Programme National de Sécurisation Foncière Rurale.
Au niveau local des comités villageois et Sous-préfectoraux, ont été créés avec pour rôle l'approbation et la validation des dossiers de sécurisation foncière. Interviennent également dans ce système, les Commissaires Enquêteurs, les Préfets de département, les Sous-préfets et les chefs de villages.
L’amélioration des compétences de ces acteurs nécessite un accompagnement sur plusieurs aspects, à savoir une définition claire des rôles et des responsabilités, l’élaboration d’un mode opératoire simple, la formation des acteurs. Un appui financier, matériel et logistique est un complément indispensable.
Ministry in charge of Land Affairs, Madagascar
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
World Bank, United States of America
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-02: Registry interoperability and data protection|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Interoperability model for land registries (IMOLA) project in the European Union
Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
European Land Registry Association is developing an amazing project regarding the interconnection of european land registries. The name of the project is IMOLA (Interoperability MOdel for Land Administration). The development of the project is based on a complex methodology ment to maximize the knowledge acquired. A standardised structure of information is already available (ELRD - european land registry document).
The project is perfectly aligned with LRI (Land Registries Interconnection) project of the European Commision.
The evolution of the Chilean land registry system: from the 19th century to the implementation of new technologies
Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Chile
Land Registry in Chile is governed by statutes dating back to the 19th century. The Civil Code of 1855 called for the creation of regulations on a system of property records and, on June 24, 1857 with the enactment of the Regulations on the Land Registry that mandate was brought to fruition. And yet, both the Code and the Regulations were representative of an era far different from modern times. An opportunity for an upgrade arose in 1943 in the context of new regulations on Notaries and Land Registrars enacted along with the Organic Court Code that year. Unfortunately, however, the existing shortcomings were not corrected at the time. As a result, there is no doubt that current regulations require an overhaul to bring them up to modern standards.
Registry of True Owners according to the European Directives to fight money laundering
Really, The Land and Poverty conference presents the latest research and innovations in policies and good practice on land governance around the world.
Following this trend, I wanted to give a brief presentation to you all from the “Registry of Real Estate Ownership” (RETIR) in Spain. Its purpose is to learn who is behind corporations and it can be an important instrument in the fight against poverty, ensuring that investments made in a determined country are used effectively for their intended purposes and are not fraudulently misused at the hands of people, through the creation of interposed societies.
It deals with, definitively, a bet of transparency.
The interconnection and interoperability between Business Registries in Europe
Registrars of Portugal, Portugal
The implementation of Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS).
Main aspects of Directive 2012/17/UE and the Regulation (EU) 2015/884, regarding interconnection of central, commercial and companies registers.
Also refer to Directive (EU) 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council, relating to certain aspects of company law.
Accessibility to the European e-Justice portal.
Within the scope of the “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice”, the Decision 2008/615/JHA incorporates into the legal framework of the European Union the substance of the so-called Prüm Treaty on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation.
Administrative and technical provisions for the implementation of Decision 2008/615/JHA (above), aiming the automated exchange of information, in particular, the vehicle registration data, by the use of the European Vehicle and Driving Licence Information System (EUCARIS).
Overview of the main aspects of EUCARIS accessibility and content of information displayed.
The interconnection between Land Registries in a Federal State such as Mexico
Transformative initiatives concerning the delivery of land title registration services in British Columbia
Director of Land Titles, British Columbia, Canada
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-03: Interoperability of spatial data: Examples and regulatory framework|
Session Chair: Gitanjali Swamy, IoTask, India
Policy person’s guide to navigating past the map
Hexagon Geosystems, United States of America
How new production technologies and business models increase affordability of geospatial data...
One can’t manage that which is not measured. However, projects can’t simply exhaust the entire budget on the measurement phase, leaving nothing for the management portion. Primary geospatial data acquisition should not be the end, it should be the beginning, from which policy, projects and management can commence. But, how to get the needed data at reasonable cost and leave more of the budget for the real work at hand? This presentation examines alternatives for both business models and acquisition technologies that help minimize the front-end costs for obtaining geospatial information and allowing its utilization for multiple applications. Examples are given for various large-area geospatial acquisitions of both image and point cloud (LiDAR) data, with an eye towards two key objectives: (1) minimizing cost per pixel or data point and (2) acquire once/use many models.
The future role of official geospatial reference data in a fully digital environment
State Agency for Geoinformation and State Survey Lower Saxony (LGLN), Germany
This presentation will describe the approach taken for shaping reference data and customer services according to customer requirements. It will then focus on a pilot implementation for mobile devices developed for real estate market data and designed for improving real estate market transparency. It explains how the components used could serve us as best practice for a redesign of all other official geospatial reference datasets and services.
Our open source based project will provide a very useful tool for maintenance and delivery of highly relevant official real estate market data, and the geographical context. The presented approach paves the way for improving dissemination of all other official geospatial reference data (cadastre and topography) and substantial improvement of relevant land administration services. It enables a smart mapping solution for the discharge of public services in the field of land administration meeting customers’ needs for the next decade.
Legal and policy frameworks for geospatial information management
Centre for Spatial Law and Policy, United States of America
Governments around the world have recognized the importance of geospatial information to achieve critical societal and economic objectives and to address global challenges such as climate change. However, many are finding that their existing legal and policy frameworks hinder the collection, use and/or sharing of geospatial information. As a result, the potential for geospatial information is not being realized.This paper will discuss why geospatial information management is a challenge from a legal and policy standpoint. It will also identify ways in which governments can develop a legal and policy framework that suits their legal system and geospatial management objectives.
Geospatial Data points the way to integrating government for sustainable development
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
Improved availability of fundamental geospatial data, a foundation for better government, leads to more transparency, effective urban planning, improved resilience and environmental management, and new business opportunities. But little investment is being made into national geospatial capabilities, the arguments still need to be won.
In Summer 2018, the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management endorsed the Integrated Geospatial Information Framework, a landmark step in guiding nations. It provides a strategic approach and the means to justify, plan and deliver geospatial enablement. The Committee also endorsed 14 fundamental geospatial data themes deemed appropriate for all nations.
Two powerful tools were unleashed onto the global community in one meeting. These global frameworks will enable better data integration and interoperability in the public sector. This paper explores how these tools will support sustainable development and in particular catalyse innovation, demonstrating that a national approach is the only sustainable approach.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-04: Legal and normative aspects of making law gender sensitive|
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Tetratech, United States of America
Land and womanhood- ethnography on propertied women in Bengal
Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Germany
This paper argues the tentativeness rather than the inevitability of the established knowledge that possessing land titles empowers women by placing them in a stronger position of better bargaining power within the home and community that is characterized by discrimination and intra-household inequalities. Based on ethnographic data in rural west Bengal this paper captures the nuances of women’s subjecthood as shaped by their socio-cultural existence as well as their ‘purposive actions’ shaping their life situations. I address the particularity of women’s experience of poverty and their specific locations as subjects in relation to property and livelihood. A gendered analysis of land in a certain social context, therefore, requires critical consideration of diverse social relations of women in distinctive subject positions, tracing the historical trajectory of her subjectivities along life courses, the kinship and familial relations they involve and ideological and juridical pattern of inheritance in which land has particular significations.
"Innovations to protect women’s customary land rights: Practical experiences from Sierra Leone."
1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Sierra Leone; 2Lafayette University, USA; 3Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Italy
Since the end of the conflict in 2002, Sierra Leone has made significant progress in rebuilding its economy. However, these gains have not sufficiently translated into an equal distribution of development dividends for the population, and particularly women. As the government considers feasible NLP implementation strategies, priorities have been set to ensure rural women and men in the provinces are able to negotiate women’s rights and access in order to overcome prejudicial cultural practices.
Within the framework of implementing the VGGT, Sierra Leone is piloting Solutions for Open Land Administration (SOLA) geospatial tools for recording and mapping women’s land rights to ensure that rural women are able to negotiate their rights of access, use, and ownership of land. This paper presents the findings from nine villages in three chiefdoms in Sierra Leone. The findings are significant in influencing the call for innovative fit-for-purpose solutions for land administration in Sierra Leone.
The farmer and her husband: legal innovations for women in contract farming
Contract farming is increasingly seen as a promising alternative business model to the negative impacts associated with large scale land-based investments. This is because contract farming leaves the farmer in control of their own land while potentially providing them with a steady, predictable income, and helping them access higher quality inputs such as seed, fertilizer and technical assistance. However, contract farming schemes tend to be dominated by better-off male farmers and have very poor gender outcomes. The research points to two key disadvantages for women farmers; doing most of the work but not being included in the contract, and having their subsistence farming activities displaced by contracted crops.
This paper proposes innovative legislative and contractual solutions to be applied to contract farming relationships in order to address these disadvantages and better protect women, and provides model legal drafting that can be adopted and adapted by policy-makers and contracting parties.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-05: Assessing impact of Infrastructure investments|
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
How do mass transit investments affect land values? evidence from MRT-3
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Ecological footprint of transportation infrastructure
1University of California, San Diego, United States of America; 2World Bank; 3Dartmouth College
How large are the contributions of cities to the development of rural communities?
1London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom; 2Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP); 3Food and Agricutural Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 4The National Statistics Institute of Chile (INE)
From municipal investments to functional subregions: new territorial planning units in Colombia
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-06: Kenya's land policy reforms: Did they deliver?|
Session Chair: John Bugri, KNUST, Ghana
Land policy implementation in Kenya: achievements, challenges and lessons ten years later
Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya
Having enacted its national land policy ten years ago, Kenya has had experiences with implementation whose progress, challenges and lessons need to be shared. This will be helpful for the review of the policy which will be done in the year 2019, and will also inform scholars and other regional jurisdictions with similar circumstances and levels of development as Kenya’s.
The paper discusses the institutional framework established under the land policy and the constitution and how this has played out in practice, including the conflicts and solutions engaged. It also brings out the laws and regulations enacted, the roles and programmes driven by the land commission, the national and devolved governments. The paper also analyzes how some of the contentious issues in the land policy have played out at implementation. Recommendations to inform the 2019 policy review are made.
Smallholder settlement schemes in Kenya: A retrospective and prospective analysis of Trans-Nzoia county
National Land Commission, Kenya
Smallholder settlement schemes have played a central role in the economic and development strategies in postcolonial Kenya. Adhering to the ‘land re-distribution’ agenda, these schemes marked a critical turn in the land question. Hence, in the transition to independence, settlement schemes helped de-racialize land ownership, and offered land to landless Africans who had been displaced in the struggle against British colonial rule. These land transfers were varied and became instrumental linchpins in the agrarian land re-distribution and economic development strategies. In the context of increased land fragmentation, astronomical rural-urban migration and changing rural population demographics the transformations occurring in these schemes especially in high potential agriculture Trans-Nzoia County call for considerable evaluation of the settlement scheme program. Research was conducted in Trans-Nzoia County with the aim of offering insights into the history and development of settlement schemes as pillars of rural development and agrarian reform.
By the communities for the communities: A holistic approach to community-based natural resource governance:
Kenya is in the midst of land reform that has far-reaching implications for securing the land rights of rural people, and promoting political stability and economic development. The reform is based on a National Land Policy (NLP), adopted in 2009. Since then the country has also adopted various laws and policies including the Constitution 2010, The Land Act, The Land Registration Act, the Community Land Act etc .
This paper aims at demonstrating how Kenya’s land reforms have led to the improvement of tenure security and increased participation investments at the community through Constitutional categorization of land into Community, Public and Private. will highlight how the reforms done at national level have opened opportunity for the securing tenure rights for communities. It is anticipated that the actualization and implementation will scale up of this enhanced of tenure security will result in the positive transformation of the livelihoods of more communities.
The political economy of Kenya land policy review
KENYA LAND ALLIANCE, Kenya
The political quest to review the Kenya National Land Policy has been on the cards since it was formulated and endorsed by Parliament on December 3, 2009. This is despite the fact that the policy document was developed in tandem with the African Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy (F&G), which spelled out a comprehensive process of restructuring three major components of the land system, namely its structure of land ownership (property system), land use and production structures, and the support services infrastructure for land delivery. Important to note is that the Kenya National Land Policy was endorsed after the Heads of States and Governments had declared their commitment to the shared vision, objectives and principles on land policy matters in July 2009. The blueprint was to govern ownership, access, use and management of land resources to enhance productivity and contribution to social, economic, political, environmental development and inclusive development.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-07: Managing sprawl: From data to policies|
Session Chair: Neeraj Baruah, Vivid Economics, United Kingdom
Anatomy of Density
New York University, United States of America
We have found a novel way to decompose the average urban density of a city--the ratio of the total population of a city and its urban extent--into three, five, or seven factors that, when multiplied together yield urban density. Decomposing density into its factors--crowding, the occupancy rate, floorpan efficiency, building height, plot coverage, residential land use share, and the saturation of the urban extent by the built-up area--allow us to form a set of pragmatic policies that can increase average urban densities and to assess the potential effectiveness of such policies. We have collected data on the seven factors that together constitute average urban population density in a global sample of ten cities--Dhaka, Hong Kong, Kinshasa, Bangkok, Madrid, Baku, Minneapolis, Wuhan, Cairo, and Bogotá. We will present and discuss these data, much of it surprising, and discuss their implication for the potential for densification in cities in the world at large.
Measuring urban economic density
The London School of Economics, United Kingdom
This paper evaluates the use of different measures of economic
density in assessing urban agglomeration effects, by examining how well they explain household income differences across cities and neighborhoods in six African countries. We examine simple scale and density measures and more nuanced ones which capture in second moments the extent of clustering within cities. The evidence suggests that more nuanced measures attempting to capture within-city differences in the extent of clustering do no better than a simple density measure in explaining income differences across cities, at least for the current degree of accuracy in measuring clustering.
Master scheme for the simplification and digital transformation of urban land management
1IGN FI, France; 2Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLAU), Ivory Coast
In April 2017, the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLU) created by decree the Steering Committee for Simplification and Digitization (CP-STD). By setting up this committee, the Ministry is strengthening the coordination and leadership mechanisms for managing the tasks involved in modernizing its administrative functions in line with the vision of reforms recommended by the “Doing Business” program – improving the business environment by simplifying administrative procedures relating to construction, housing, sanitation and urban planning.
In order to implement this transformation within the Administration, the Department has chosen to develop a blueprint of the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of urban land. This study, led by the Permanent Secretariat to the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of the MCLU, and conducted by IGN FI with technical assistance from the BNETD, marks the willingness of the Government to implement reforms.
The National Urban Policy as a Framework for managing Urban expansion and land use change in Malawi
Mnistry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Malawi has experienced rapid urbanization since independence with 15.3% of the national population living in urban areas in 2008. Estimates by the National Statistics Office (NSO) indicate that 30 % of the population in the country will be urban based by 2030, escalating to 50 % in 2050.
Rapid urbanisation coupled with limited technical and financial capacity among urban development institutions has contributed to unregulated urban growth among others. Government has in the past implemented Rural Development programmes in an attempt to manage urbanization by reducing rural urban migration. .
This paper looks at these programmes and the impact they had on managing urbanization and the lessons learnt from their implementation. The paper concludes that sustainable urbanization can only be achieved through the implementation of a proper guiding framework like the National Urban Policy.
National Physical Development Plan; National Urban Policy ,Secondary Centres;
Rural Growth Centres,urban expansion. Urbanisation;
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-08: Implementing urban land value capture|
Session Chair: Riel Franzsen, University of Pretoria, South Africa
The role of transferrable development rights in emerging economies
1Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom; 2World Bank, Washington DC, USA; 3World Bank, Ankara, Turkey
In recent years a number of emerging economies have experimented with the use of transferrable development rights (TDRs) to support urban development, including Brazil, India, and Turkey. Most TDR schemes are found in USA and are used to protect vulnerable land and buildings from being destroyed by development by persuading their owners voluntarily to accept restrictions on their ability to undertake legally permitted development in return for credits which can be sold to developers for use in designated receiving areas. The paper examines the potential uses of TDRs and the economic and governance environment needed to make them effective. It considers how effective a spatial planning tool TDRs are likely to be in emerging economies and whether there are better alternative ways of achieving the objectives aimed for in TDR programs.
Is there a role of Land Value Capture Instruments for financing infrastructure investments in a messy urban growth scenario?
Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
Many cities experienced a highly disorganized urban growth resulting in severe under-provision of urban infrastructure due to institutional and budgetary fiscal weaknesses. This study explores the feasibility of widening public funding of infrastructure investment using LVC tools in Metropolitan Buenos Aires, taking into account the wide income dispersion of households. A simulation model, estimates the potential collection from alternative LVCs and their feasibility in terms of the impact on income distribution due to income dispersion in each municipality where specific infrastructure is to be developed. Novel data on land values, household income/expenditures and land regulation are used, adding to local/state land revenues which are combined with the infrastructure plans advanced by the government. A general estimation of the share of land value increases that could be captured through various LVC instruments is provided, as well as the comparison of this projected revenue relative to public funds generated via other mechanisms.
Unlocking the potential of urban land in Kenya
1World Bank, Kenya; 2Walker Kontos Advocates, Kenya
An ambitious public infrastructure program funded by public debt has positioned Kenya as a regional economic hub with growth in the financial, technology, service and hospitality sectors. Kenya has become an attractive and preferred destination for foreign companies who set up assembly plants in Kenyan business districts to penetrate the lucrative markets in the region. Ideally, the substantial investment in infrastructure should result in similar or higher return to the government through increased revenue collection. This is however not the case as the revenue generated in these business districts is less than optimal. The government is not getting a fair return on its investment and has to contend with rising public debt. This paper recommends innovative alternative funding sources such as land value capture, as a way of ensuring direct beneficiaries of infrastructure developments pay their fair share towards reducing the mismatch between public expenditure and revenue collection.
Institutional arrangements as a catalyzing instrument for land value capture processes in public transportation projects
JFP & Asociados, Colombia
Land value capture (LVC) tools and policies are arousing as innovative mechanisms that could serve to accomplish a two-way goal: to fund public construction and to enhance accurate urban development.
Among other urban processes, public transportation projects in cities in developing countries represent at the same time an opportunity and a challenge for public administrations to execute LVC policies.
Three cities in Latin America, have started the path to build and urban strategy to adavance LVC and TOD policies in their metro systems: Bogotá, City of Panamá, and Quito. From different contexts the cases are showing that is crucial to look close to institutional arrangements and found ways to set a solid basis for the dialogue between urban planning and transport.
Lessons learned in each case should bring important conclusions to understand how institutional arrangements could work as an innovative mechanism that could catalyze LVC processes implementation.
The untold story of Taiwan's land-based financing program - land readjustment or land grabbing?
1National Chengchi University, Taiwan; 2China University of Technology, Taiwan
Land-based finance (LBF) has become an important topic in recent years. To a local government this represents a valuable source of income from which to fund services, infrastructure development and maintenance programs. LBF encompasses a variety of taxes, charges, income from the sale of development rights and public lands, and land readjustment. Urban land readjustment (ULR) is one of the major ways in which Taiwan's LBF programs have accrued great revenues for government. However, the untold story is that ULR deprives landowners of their human rights, especially for those powerless to object. Who owns the power to decide the ULR zone? Can landowners say no to it? Can the ULR be justified only by its financial contributions to the government? These are important questions that this article aims to explore.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-09: Approaches towards sustainable land use management|
Session Chair: Kim Thompson, USAID, United States of America
Development of an informal land use register for South Africa
Data World (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
Spatial Planning is an important driver for promoting sustainable development and improving quality of life. It organises land uses to cater to the demands of development with environmental considerations. The effectiveness of planning hinges on the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of information. However, in South Africa, there is a critical gap in the availability of information that can genuinely depict the status of rural areas regarding current land. The problem is aggravated by the fact the no spatial reference can be made for large parts of the country’s rural areas as the cadastre does not cover them.
This paper presents a case study of a project that has recently been undertaken to create an informal land use register and a spatial database of infrastructure for rural areas of South Africa. This project is to assist all local municipalities in creating a single, wall to wall land use scheme.
Rural Environmental Registry in the priority municipalities for Cerrado deforestation combating, in Brazil
1The World Bank, Brazil; 2Brazilian Forest Service / Ministry of the Environment, Brazil; 3German Agency for International Cooperation - GIZ
The Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) is an important source of landholdings information for environmental and economic control, monitoring and planning, as well as to combat deforestation in Brazil. This publication provides CAR information declared until August / 2018, for the geographical context of the priority municipalities for Cerrado deforestation combating, a set of 52 municipalities located in the Cerrado Biome for priority actions to monitor and control illegal deforestation, land management and the encouragement of environmentally economic activities maintenance of native areas and recovery of degraded areas. Furthermore, the area registered in the CAR and the municipal boundaries were crossed with MapBiomas land cover – a database that provides the Cerrado land cover for a historical series between 2000 and 2016 – to evaluate the evolution of the land cover on the municipality and in the area registered in the CAR.
Environment and land use trends in the Ethiopian lowlands
The World Bank, United States of America
This study examines environmental and land use trends in Ethiopia focusing primarily on the lowland areas. Unlike the Ethiopian highlands which have been studied much more extensively, land-use trends, environmental threats and socio-economic challenges facing those living in the lowlands (i.e. areas below 1500m elevation) are much less understood as are the types of policies and practices promoting resilience among vulnerable groups. To support better decision making and more efficient delivery and targeting of programming, this study analyzes trends in the environment and land use to better understand the challenges faced by lowland changing vegetation patterns and expansion of cropping in traditional rangeland areas. The approach adopted draws heavily on a variety of remote-sensed (i.e. satellite) data in combination with environmental station monitoring data, field observations and local expertise to look at long-term (i.e. 1986-2017) as well as short-term (2000-2017) trends to better understand challenges faced by the lowland population.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-10: Addressing the challenges of pastoral tenure|
Session Chair: Stephanie Burgos, Oxfam America, United States of America
Innovative electronic pasture committee software
KYRGYZ JAYITY National pasture users' association, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan today: 15 pasture users unions (PUU) use an innovative approach to manage pastures. The information system “Electronic Pasture Committee” (EPC) allows to keep automated records of the pasture committee's work through the formation of a database of pasture users, livestock, data on pasture plots (capacity, optimal load, seasonality, etc.), calculating the pasture use fees, control of payments made, distribution of pasture plots, vaccination. Before EPC the whole process was carried out manually, not always correctly and regularly, there was no single approach and a unique tool for making operational decisions. Planning, management and use of state pastures in Kyrgyzstan has been legally transferred to local communities and the EPC has already proved its effectiveness, resulting in improved pasture conditions, reduction of pasture load, and overall improvement of pasture infrastructure. Currently, “Kyrgyz Jayity” is working on improving EPC in order to form a consolidated database of all 454 district PUUs.
Pastoral rights to mobility in Senegal: unpacking paradoxes and reimagining sustainable management
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Unites States of America
While national governments increasingly acknowledge the need to protect livestock mobility, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Current approaches to pastoral governance focus on internal dynamics among pastoral groups to regulate access and collectively manage rangelands. To operationalize rhetorical commitments to pastoral tenure security we need to broaden the focus on pastoral governance to address the types of protections and institutions requirements needed to maintain livestock mobility in mixed use landscapes. Drawing on participatory GIS mapping of over thousands of kilometers of livestock corridors and qualitative data collection in 18 communes, this paper integrates institutional analysis with an assessment of the structure and function of two corridor networks in eastern and central Senegal. Three institutional functions are crucial: (1) flexible access to distant pastures, (2) coordination to maintain landscape scale connectivity, and (3) mechanisms for conflict management.
Some issues of reducing pasture degradation in Mongolia
Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia
In recent years, many factors have been adversely affected by pastures due to climate change and human factors, such as crossroads, mining non-rehabilitation, pest rodent damage, and water supply limitation. Pasture area has decreased by 9.0 million ha over the last 50 years, 31.9 percent has been degraded, 1.2 percent has been affected by wind and water erosion, 38.4 percent is affected by rodents, 24.6 percent is desertified and 0.8 percent is polluted by mineral extraction.
It is important to define ways to develop sustainable pastoralism in mining areas and find out solutions to reduce pasture degradation, such as to decrease the negative impacts of mining, to manage well herder organization, to spend a portion of the profits earned from mining in the region, land and environmental offset.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-11: Are PPPs the future of land administration?|
Session Chair: Jacob Zevenbergen, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
The importance of public private partnership in cadastre: Turkish experience
1FIG, Turkey; 2Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü, Turkey
The aim of maintained cadastral works in Turkey is to determine both the legal and geometric position of all the real property. In this way, the modern land registration which is anticipated in Turkish Civil Code will be founded.
There are approximately 57 million cadastral parcels in Turkey. As of the beginning of the 2000’s, Turkey’s cadastre had been completed in 75% as villages and district based by its own staff of the institution. The legal and geometric parts of cadastre were separated and PPP model was created by the institution. Within the scope of the World Bank MEER – MERLIS and ARIP Projects, initial cadastre and cadastre renovation tenders were made according to this new model. As a result, 13 million cadastral parcels in 5 years has been completed by the private sector. The institution has also completed the renewal of the 10 million cadastral parcels by PPP model.
A review of public-private partnerships in land administration
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Equity International, Australia
This paper reports experiences in public-private partnership in land administration and provides lessons learnt from these partnerships. The review results suggest several factors contribute to the success of a PPP in land administration. The factors encompass political will of the public sector and government, support by the community of stakeholders, transparency in the bidding process and documents, a clear set of expectations from the partnership, active engagement of stakeholders during the partnership and strong leadership of the public partner in times of crisis. The review suggests, there is often a need for a legislative reform when adopting PPPs in land administration. The legislative changes are more pronounced in the regulatory framework of land administration than those of PPP. The literature suggests that the technology developed for one jurisdiction can be customised and adapted for other jurisdictions. There was not a notable first registration of land under the PPP schemes.
PPP in land administration - why now and what are the risks and benefits?
Ordnance Survey, UK
Demands and expectations on land administration services change radically as new technologies, environmental challenges, urbanization, requirements for completion of first land registration and other social and political influences now gradually transform our practices and mindset. The authorities need to provide greater choice and control, more transparency, process inclusiveness and equity, on-demand access to information, adequately capture RRRs, better utilize geospatial information as mean to integrate other thematic data for e.g. smart cities, utilities and e-government etc. They also need to be capable to innovate and maintain systems and services that can evolve over time. The ability maintain highly skilled employees is another constraint. In combination with uncertain budget allocation for modernization of land administration an increasing number of nations now consider public-private partnership as an attractive alternative to adequately respond to these needs. This paper discusses benefits and risks associated with this approach for the land administration domain.
Exploring PPP opportunities for improved Land Administration Reforms, emerging lessons from the Ghanaian Case
Office of the President, Ghana
The idea that capital, technology and skill can be leveraged from the private sector to enhance land administration is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries such as Ghana where donor funded land administration reform processes are not achieving the desired transformation after 15 years of implementation.
Among others, inadequate financing, weak technology base, human capacity issues and poor corporate governance practices are some of the underlining factors for the current state of affairs. In order to address these challenges, government of Ghana has resorted to PPP which is a non-convention but promising alternative strategies which can support government to achieve the anticipated transformation in land administration including reducing the turnaround time for first registration to within 30 days.
This paper examines a 11 point evaluation criteria to guide Ghana and others developing countries in order to ensure effective implementation that yields mutual rewarding outcomes for all stakeholders.
From client satisfaction to happiness: the front-office and back-office innovative concession models for fostering land registration in Dubai
Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
SDGs provide a framework for governments, multilateral organisations and donors to drive social investment on sustainable development. Among the 17 SGDs, SDG1(No poverty) SDG2 (Zero hunger) and SDG5 (Gender equality) directly highlight the importance of land tenure systems as a mechanism to achieve sustainable development.
This paper proposes strategies for practitioners to involve the private sector in land administration services while at the same time ensuring there is a contribution to the achievement of the SDGs. These are: (i) to target areas where the private sector can do a better job; (ii) find cross-services approaches within the land administration system (iii) build the participation in a trusted private sector; (iv) revenue should be based on achieving tangible social results aligned with SDGs. Analysis of SDG relation to Dubai registration trustees is presented.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-12: Gender impacts of large-scale investment|
Session Chair: Kerstin Nolte, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
Winners or losers: a gender analysis of the economic and social impact of corporate large-scale land acquisition on rural women in Cameroon
1University of Buea, Cameroon; 2University of Yaounde I, Cameroon; 3Islamic Relief Worldwide, Kenya
Cameroon like most sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed increase in large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) by local and foreign investors requesting huge hectares of land for investments. The underlying assumption is that LSLA is a win-win undertaking for investors and host countries/communities. Foreign investors are seen as catalysts of development whose capital will put ‘unused land’ into production and modernize agriculture, leading to growth and prosperity. This paper interrogates the situation of rural women in Cameroon based on primary investigations. It argues that, rural women are generally worse-off in the process of LSLA and even when they seems to benefit (jobs, social welfare, and amenities), these benefits are short-lived and replaced by far-reaching negative effects (exclusion, landless, poverty) on their reproductive and productive roles. These effects are obvious since LSLA is presently conceived from investors’ rather than investors/host countries’ perspectives. The current architecture of LSLA thus needs to be inclusive and engendered.
New research about gender, land and mining in Mongolia: deepening understanding of coping strategies in pastoral communities
1Mokoro Ltd, United Kingdom; 2People Centered Conservation (PCC), Mongolia
This paper shares findings from new research on gender and land in a pastoralist community in central-western Mongolia, with a complex structure of investment and operations in gold mining. The paper examines what has been learned from the research about people's coping strategies in the face of social and environmental change, specifically in the context of the development of mining since the transition from socialism and in a relatively isolated area. Comparisons are made with similar studies in other communities in Mongolia, where it is found that in some ways female-headed households are less vulnerable in this new research community, while many men are in fact the vulnerable members of the community.
Strengthening women's voices in land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land
1IIED, United Kingdom; 2IED Afrique, Senegal
Over the past two years, IIED has been working with local partners in selected communities in Senegal, Tanzania and Ghana to develop, test and when possible upscale tools and approaches to strengthen rural women’s voices in local land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land.This paper will distil insights from this work, documenting the tools and approaches developed and implemented in each country and presenting key challenges and lessons learned.The paper will explain the rationale behind each approach and provide a step by step description of the implementation process. It will also explore the challenges met during implementation and the mitigation strategies developed to overcome them. It will draw specific lessons for each geography, compare and contrast the approaches and identify broader lessons exploring their potential for replication.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-13: Land rights regularization and common property resources|
Session Chair: David Ameyaw, International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
Identifying best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale in relation to emission reduction programs
1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Bioversity International / World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), France; 3University of Papua, Indonesia
Benefit sharing is an important incentive for many actors who would otherwise not reduce GHG emissions. However, sharing schemes must be transparent, legitimate, and fair, especially because payments are often based on avoided actions rather than tied to specific goods. Earlier thinking focused on financial returns, but new thinking encompasses a broader set of ‘monetary and non-monetary benefits’, including tenure reform, local climate regulation, and community resilience. However, there is a gap in understanding best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale, reflected in the limited guidance for jurisdictions to develop such plans. This study aims to address this gap by assessing, compiling, and communicating best practices across the spectrum of data currently available in multiple programs with a case study approach in two focal countries using sound scientific methods including semi-structured interviews, surveys, Strengths Weakness Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, Q-sorting, and statistical analysis.
How Does Scarcity Affect Extraction of Resources? A study about land use as a common-pool resource dilemma using survey and field-experimental data collected in northern Namibia
University of Marburg, Germany
The aim of this study is to analyze how scarcity of resources affects at what rate users decide to extract or appropriate resources. We investigate this by conducting a survey and an economic field experiment in northern Namibia. The participants in our study are small-scale farmers who regularly make decisions about either staying on their old fields or clearing forest areas for new ones. We compare environments where resources are abundant against environments where resources are scarce.
Results from both the survey and the experiment show that a scarce environment does not cause faster extraction, but under scarcity the rate of extraction is lower than in an abundant environment. Survey results also reveal that abundant stocks tend to attract additional users.
Impact of land certification on cash crop expansion in Southwest China
Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany
We analyze the impacts of forest and farmland certification on cash crop cultivation in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China. Our analysis is based on the panel data from two socioeconomic surveys of 612 smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN covering the period of 2012 and 2014. We apply a multinomial endogenous switching model along with a counterfactual analysis to estimate “ratio of land allocated to other cash crops relative to rubber” under different land use certification.We divide households into 4 groups, namely, (1) households with only farmland tenure certificate, (2) households with only forestland tenure certificate, (3) households with both farmland and forestland tenure certificates and (4) households without any land certificates. Results show that expansion of other cash crop takes place in households with either (a) only farmland certificate or (b) only forestland certificate. Households with both land use certificates and those without certificate are less likely to expand cash crops.
Forest carbon supply in Nepal: Evidence from a choice experiment
1Portland State University, United States of America; 2Indian Statistical Institute, India; 3Smart Start Evaluation and Research, United States of America; 4Forest Action, Nepal
In this paper, we use a choice experiment conducted in 2013 to estimate household-level willingness to participate in a REDD+ program that requires reductions in fuelwood collections as a function of various CO2 prices. We find that robust participation occurs at prices that are higher than the early literature on developing country sequestration. Rather than prices of $1.00 to $5.00 incentivizing participation, we find that relatively little carbon would be supplied at such prices. This basic finding is in line with more recent literature focusing on Nepal REDD+ pilots, which suggests that the early optimism about low-cost carbon supply in community forestry settings may have been somewhat misplaced.
Formal community forests will almost certainly be the core institution within which REDD+ is implemented in Nepal and likely other countries.
|5:30pm - 8:00pm||OAS: Inter-American Network on Cadastre and Property Registry: innovation to improve land governance in Latin America (followed by a cocktail reception)|
Public: By invitation only (Registered participants for the land and Poverty Conference from the LATAM region)
Language: Spanish only
Deadline to RSVP: Tuesday March 19, 2019 - RSVP
|Organization of American States (OAS) - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC|
|5:30pm - 8:00pm||Red Interamericana de Catastro y Registro de la Propiedad: Innovación para mejorar la gobernanza de la tierra en América Latina (seguido por un coctel de recepción)|
Público: Por invitación (participantes registrados en la conferencia de tierras y pobreza del Banco Mundial)
Fecha límite para reservar participación: martes 19 de marzo del 2019 – RSVP
|Organization of American States (OAS) - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC|