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03-06: Land policy to improve agricultural land use
Can group farms outperform individual family farms? empirical insights from India
School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, UK
Can group farms, wherein farmers voluntarily pool land, labour and capital and farm collectively, outperform individual family farms? This paper tests this, using the author’s primary survey of two experiments begun in the 2000s in Kerala and Telangana, India. Constituted only of women, the groups collectively farm leased-in land and share labour, costs and returns.
Kerala’s groups perform strikingly better than the largely male-managed individual farms in the state, both in annual value of output per hectare and annual net returns per farm, while Telangana’s group farms perform much worse than individual farms in annual output, but are equivalent in net returns. In both states, groups do better in commercial crops than foodgrains. The factors underlying the differential performances of Kerala and Telangana, and lessons for replication, are discussed. Overall, the paper demonstrates that group farming can provide an effective alternative under specified conditions and local adaptation of the model.
The effect of land sizes and land holdings on “transitions” in and out of income poverty in Uganda.
1Ford Foundation, United States of America; 2Associates Research Trust, Uganda
This paper explores transition out of “income poverty” for land-owning and land-secure agricultural households using national data (UNHS 2016/17). Given Uganda’s strong performance on income poverty reduction, we show the contribution of land holdings and impact of land sizes to this drastic drop from 54.3% to19.7%. We establish which households are; asset-richer; more food secure; less vulnerable to shocks and with access to varying proportions of productive agricultural land. We find that escape from income poverty, is driven in part by the size of land holdings not falling below the average of one acre per household and peaking at four acres for smallholder market-oriented producers. At this acreage incomes from enterprises rise, the ability of households to mitigate shocks improve, while simultaneously keeping in the food secure zone. This pathway to reducing income poverty, it is better recognized by economic growth and investment policies than by land sector policies.
Land as the enabling asset on a value chain for rural development in Colombia's rural reform
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
Colombia’s rural policy for the next four-year period aims to create a value chain process in which four elements are mainly taken into account to develop rural territories. The policy seeks to achieve equity in rural territories by providing equal opportunities to population and by closing the gap between urban and rural environments. Therefore, the public policy must add up the elements that together contribute for rural development and productive development. These elements take into account land access, productivity, public goods’ provision and rural population as a transversal element through all the process.
Land tenure regularisation for sustainable urban and agriculture development in Rwanda
The need to improve land governance is often informed by issues like increasing demand for land tenure insecurity. Land registration has often been embraced as the panacea to the problem of land tenure insecurity (LTI) and based on this, it is further posited that land registration guarantees access to formal capital. However, there is an ambivalent literature on whether or not it guarantees land tenure security and access to formal credit in improving. Rwanda embarked on an ambitious land tenure reform (LTR) with a national-wide systematic registration of all land that was primarily aimed at among other things, establishing LTS. This culminated in the registration of over 11 million land parcels, a feat considered unprecedented in Africa. The aim of this paper is to examine whether or not land registration assures LTS as well as to holistically assess how the results of the LTR are contributing to urban and agriculture development in Rwanda.