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09-11: Land as instrument for post-conflict peacebuilding
Housing, land and property (HLP) rights for Syrian women
Norwegian Refugee Council, Syria
Years of warfare in Syria have resulted in mass destruction and a breakdown in essential infrastructure and service provision in major cities, as well as smaller towns and villages. Housing land and property issues are massive and include loss of property documents, secondary occupation, eviction and expropriation. While such challenges apply to all Syrians, the difficulties for women will be particularly acute, especially those who have lost husbands or other male relatives during the conflict.
Based on extensive research and interviews with over 2000 Syrian internally displaced people, this paper describes the particular obstacles and challenges that women face and that prevent their ability to exercise HLP rights. This includes barriers based in both law and custom, as well as the complicating circumstances created by years of war and displacement. The paper provides recommendations to policymakers and practitioners on how to prepare for the immense challenges that lie ahead.
Developing land tenure risk indicators in FCV contexts
The World Bank, United States of America
Access to land is critically important in FCV settings. Land is an important social and economic asset and is often the most considerable asset a household may hold in post-conflict situations. FCV settings can increase land tenure insecurity further through displacement, insecure land tenure, and fraudulent land transfers, land grabbing and the undermining accountability mechanisms. Yet often there is little data available to assess the channels by which land tenure is undermined.
The proposed paper will examine pilot efforts to develop new forms of data collection through GIS and big data (satellite imagery, traditional media, social media, administrative data) that in turn will be used to design land tenure risk indicators. Pilot indicators will include: housing destruction; secondary occupation; land grabbing; implementation of discriminatory regulatory regimes; and fraudulent land transfers. Indicators will be adjusted to fit the local context in several FCV situations.
Technology, policy, national systems and local civil society: using a mobile application to protect the housing, land and property rights of displaced people in Honduras
1UNHCR, The Netherlands; 2UNHCR, Honduras
In Honduras an innovative partnership with parishes and government plus mobile technology is helping to solve displaced people’s problems of housing and land. Many of the nearly 200,000 Hondurans internally displaced by violence and organized crime had little prospect of regaining their homes and land if they returned, because the country’s legal framework and administrative capacity was not adapted to protect forcibly abandoned housing and land. UNHCR supported the government to form a Housing and Land Working Group and mobilized parishes with equipment and training to identify abandoned housing and land and record the data with a mobile application. This data is being incorporated into the national Property Institute’s registration system—thereby strengthening a national system and enabling the government to handle claims for redress efficiently. This fast-tracks a solution to a key impediment to return and empowers government and civil society to handle this aspect of displacement much better.
Environmental peacebuilding through participatory social cartography: land, property and social data mapping of ground zero or most affected area to assist Marawi city recover from violent conflict
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Republic of the Philippines
The Participatory Social Cartography Project is basically land, property and social data mapping of ground zero of the war in Marawi City, Philippines which was recently the site of violent conflict. The project is framed under the ‘Environmental Peacebuilding’ architecture with the strategy of leveraging on land, land resources and the environment to achieve the broader goals of ‘Sustaining Peace’ and ‘Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.’
Marawi City was recently the site of violent conflict waged by extremists that resulted in deaths and destruction of properties in Marawi City. The result of the research conducted by a Committee headed by this author revealed a defective land titling system resulting in thousands of overlapping and misaligned land titles. Land and property data gathering thru PPK/RTK drone mapping, RTK/Total Station land survey and participatory enumeration can address the root causes of the conflict thus, leading to lasting peace.