The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Wednesday, 27/Mar/2019|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-01: Private sector roles in Latin America's land administration|
Session Chair: Ivonne Astrid Moreno Horta, WORLD BANK, Colombia
Colombia: The private sector’s roles in land tenure formalization in post-conflict areas
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
Modernizing land information systems in Panama
Ministry of the presidency, Panama
Session Title: The Role of the Private Sector in the Modernization of Land Administration Services.
Before the creation of The National Land Administration Authority “ANATI”, Panama had the National Program for Land Administration, better known as “PRONAT created in 2001, whose purpose was the execution of regularization and massive titling projects.
With Law 59 of October 8, 2010, The National Land Administration Authority is created, subrogating the functions of “PRONAT”.
ANATI, by Law 22 of 2006 regarding Public Contracts of Panama, carries out contracts for cadastral regularization and titling, broadening the radius of action, and seeking not only to know the predial situation, but also to issue property titles to that part of the population that did not have it and that was exposed to suffer social damage in the absence of legal security.
Honduras: improving registry and cadastral service delivery through public and private outsourcing
Instituto de la Propiedad, Honduras
Contracting and direct implementation in systematic land formalization. 25 years of experience in Peru.
Global Land Alliance, Peru
When is contracting out private firms for “systematic registration” preferable to direct implementation by government agencies? Is such outsourcing an appropriate solution for developing countries with limited capacities to manage contracts, monitor performance and quality, and to access the latest technology? The Peruvian urban and rural mass-scale titling programs over the past 25 years have transformed the property system of the country. Most of the titling activities were directly executed by governmental agencies with varied results. Only recently -after a large experience have been accumulated and there exist a local market of private professionals and companies- the first outsourcing experiences are being tried in an ongoing project. A balance of the experiences and conclusions will be presented.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-02: Implementing land readjustment|
Session Chair: Patrick Lamson-Hall, New York University Marron Institute, United States of America
Using land readjustment and FAR bonuses to create high-density development in fringe areas of fast growing cities
Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States of America
Using a unique application of the self-financing land readjustment technique, planners in Ahmadabad, India created an outer ring road to address transportation challenges and to supply developable lands in fringe areas of the city with much-needed infrastructure and developable real estate. This idea is diffusing to other growing cities. This paper presents a case study of an outer ring road project in Surat, India. Surat in addition to the techniques of land pooling (LP) and land readjustment (LR) to create space for the outer ring road’s right-of-way (ROW) and other infrastructure, will also incorporate FAR bonuses -- additional incentive to create greater urban density along the ring road and thus enhance the financing of road. This case study presents opportunities for planning professionals who face the challenge of supplying infrastructure and addressing transportation deficiencies in financially constrained, and rapidly growing cities, especially those in developing countries.
Surrender and re-alienation of land in Johor, Malaysia: a planning tool and mechanism for sustainable property development
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
In Malaysia, land laws are governed by the National Land Code (NLC) 1965. There are rules and restrictions imposed by the NLC 1965 which control and guide the property development. Uniquely, the implementation of the NLC 1965 is different in each state and state has govern on land matters, such as the application of conversion, sub-division, partition or amalgamation. In Johor, the state authority was implementing surrender and re-alienation mechanisms, as part of property development approval. This paper discusses on process and procedures, practices and some key challenges of the mechanism. The unique process has contributes fruitful significance for sustainable property development industry.
Land Assembly through Land Pooling Scheme in Amaravati, Challenges and land value capture for greenfield city development
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA), India
Amaravati, the greenfield capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India undertook one of the largest land pooling schemes in the world, wherein 28,000 farmers voluntarily pooled over 34,000 acres of land to develop a city designed to host a population of 3.5 million by 2050. The land owners received a benefit sharing package comprising of a reconstituted urban plot, social and economic benefits. While in peri-urban areas and redevelopment projects, the land value appreciation is rather directly discernible due to the presence of economic activity in the adjoining urban agglomerations, land value capture in a large land pooling exercise for a greenfield development remains unprecedented. This paper attempts to critically examine the challenges in land value capture and innovative measures adopted by the Authority in aspects of market speculation, density, infrastructure spread, affordability, connectivity and peripheral development.
Community-based feedback to improve land pooling for planned urbanization: a case study of Thimphu, Bhutan
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Land pooling can be an effective strategy for public infrastructure projects, especially in small but growing cities where rural-to-urban transition gives rise to greenfield development. This paper outlines a model comparing outcomes of land acquisition and land pooling; reviews the literature on the negative effects of land acquisition on displaced households; and evaluates land pooling using original data from 1200 households in four Local Area Plans (LAPs) in southern Thimphu, Bhutan. Land prices in the LAPs increased, due in part to additional public services but in large part to a rise in urbanization over time. Land pooling participants benefited from increased land prices but not all were satisfied with the quality of works, particularly in terms of a lack of maintenance, nor with the consultation, planning and building phases. The case study has implications for government and multilateral development bank policy for land pooling and similar mechanisms for planned urbanization.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-03: Towards the registry of the future|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Digital street: Exploring the future of land registration through new technologies
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
Digital Street is the ground-breaking research and development function of Her Majesty’s Land Registry in England and Wales, which aims to transform the way HM Land Registry operates and to stimulate the land and property market.
In collaboration with industry innovators and experts we have created a vision of the future; which demonstrates how the use of data and cutting-edge technologies could positively disrupt the land and property market in the future.
This paper describes the approach that HM Land Registry has taken to explore the use of innovative technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts, and how we have engaged with the wider industry to explore and collaborate over problems such as identity verification and the digitisation of data.
Preventive administration of justice – an economic catalyzer for the future?! – an analysis of the economic relevance of reliable and transparent public registers –
The sustainability of market economies depends on a mutually enabling interrelation of private business activities and infrastructure provided by the State. One of the pillars of social infrastructure is the administration of justice. In most civil law jurisdictions, the administration of curative justice is complemented by preventive justice. The objective of preventive justice is the establishment of legal certainty and to catalyze market exchange; its instruments are the codification of (land) law as well as the authentication of private legal acts and the registration of title and other rights to land. Private persons may unfold their innovative capacity on the market without having to fear that the results of their activity are taken away arbitrarily.
The administration of preventive justice costs time and money. These costs are set off by a significant reduction of litigation as well as the elimination or at least the reduction of other transaction costs.
How to introduce a complete new land registry system in a rapid changing world
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands
Due to daily practice in the real estate market, more and more legal possibilities and structures have been created. Because of densely populated areas, the need of social or medical healthcare and the emerging sharing economy, people start organising and changing the way they live in other ways. This also has an impact on the ‘classic’ land registry system as we used to know it. The Dutch land registry has been working on the renewal of the current land registry system in the Netherlands. The system will be introduced at the end this year (2018). With its implementation so-called legacy (1980`s) and the end-of-life-status of the software will be a thing of the past. The paper describes the changing daily practice, the incremental introduction, the migration of the registered data, the various decision points and the lessons learned.
Land Administration and the role of a Land Registrar Network
The Open Geospatial Consortium, United States of America
Only approximately 40% of nations operate with mature land administration systems of practice. An extremely important goal of the OGC's LandAdmin DWG is to focus on the needs of developing nations to establish “fit for purpose” land administration capabilities leveraging innovative technologies that are sustainable based on a given nation’s infrastructure, capabilities, and policy environment. Accessing the experts on the ground to understand and address practical, real-world requirements in the developing world is paramount to successfully guiding the community towards innovative ways to ensure sustainable basic land administration capabilities. This is well known, and there is a long history of substantial global investment in the developing world at all levels. What is missing is providing a mechanism for land registrars to have a coordinated voice in the process. This paper will report on progress and the importance of creating a global land registrar network.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-04: Land tenure for sustainable rangeland management|
Session Chair: Liz Alden Wily, independent, Kenya
Strengthening traditional institutions of nomadic herders for sustainable management of public rangelands in Mongolia
1National Federation of Pasture user groups of herders, Mongolia; 2National University of Agriculture, Mongolia
According to National rangeland health assessment report released in September 2018, 56% of Mongolian rangelands are degraded. However, about 85% of these degraded rangelands still maintains the natural capacity to regenerate itself provided that animal grazing pressure us reduced. Absence of responsibility mechanism between owner of the land which is the State, and users-herders has been identified as a major cause of rangeland degradation. This paper explores the outcome of combined approach strengthening customary institutions of nomadic herders governing the use of their shared seasonal rangelands and regulatory tools embodied in the Rangeland use agreement between pasture user groups of herders and local government. According to survey carried out among herders adopted Rangeland use agreement, conflicts with access to shared rangelands have declined, planning and enforcement of improved grazing management is in place and investment from local government and herders on sustainable rangeland management practices has increased.
Landscape approach for addressing land use conflicts in pastoral areas: the case of Tanzania
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries; 3International Livestock Research Institute
Conflicts between farmers and livestock herders are increasingly becoming common place in Tanzania due to a number of different factors. For decades conventional village spatial planning has further restricted pastoral movement within village jurisdiction boundaries. Recently, spatial planners have embarked on developing Joint Village Land Use Plans and Agreements to enable more space and diversity for pastoral mobility, protecting shared grazing areas across village boundaries as part of this. As a starting point for identifying future intervention areas a pastoral landscape stretching from central Tanzania to the northern coastal area was mapped. This paper will provide details on how the landscape approach and mapping was developed and the results of this. It will highlight how such an approach is important for planning development and land-related interventions, as well as providing opportunity for improving local ownership of the process and as and advocacy/lobbying tool.
Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya
1The University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Sweden
This study aimed to characterize the forms of emerging land market participation and how they impact on pastoralists' livelihoods in Kenya. A sample of 336 agro-pastoralists was used to obtain information on the forms of land market participation and the transactions in place occurring in the counties of West Pokot and Laikipia. From the findings, land sales, and land rentals were the common emerging forms. However, land rental markets were more prevalent since its timeline was only one year and the agreements were mostly oral, based on friendship and trust. Moreover, it equalized land access between the land-rich and those with less land holdings. In addition, they acted as an avenue of income diversification for the households who rented out land for pasture and cultivation. To increase land markets vibrancy, which will stimulate the local economy growth and hence sustainable livelihoods, policies like tenure security should be made a priority.
Securing land rights for marginalized communities - Experience from working with Pastoralist, hunter and gathers in Tanzania
Oxfam projects in the Northern part of Tanzania targets marginalized tribes of maasai found in Arusha region and Barbaigs found in Manyara region. Project aim at reinforcing people’s capacity on livelihood restoration, environmental protection and land tenure security for both short term and long term basis.
Customs of majority of tribes in Tanzania, do not allow women to own, manage and control productive assets like land and natural resources. For women living in marginalized community their lives are affected twice, first as communities and second because of being women
Oxfam has been exploring approaches to help communities to secure land rights ensure those rights are protected under the law. This has been done through rough creation of awareness on legal frameworks, facilitation of land registration and linking Citizen with duty bearers.
This paper gives describe the project and give recommendation to different stakeholders working in the land targeting marginalized communities
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-05: Impact of informal tenure upgrading|
Session Chair: Remi Jedwab, George Washington University, United States of America
High delinquency rates in Brazil’s Minha Casa Minha Vida housing program: Possible causes and necessary reforms
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2University of Pennsylvania, United States of America; 3Independent, Brazil
Backyarding: theory and evidence for South Africa
1University of California, Irvine, United States of America; 2Independent consultant, South Africa; 3World Bank, United States of America
Impact Evaluations of Informal Settlements Upgrading Interventions: Evidence assessment and new topics for research.
1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina; 2Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina
Measuring housing deprivations in India: an alternative approach to slum enumeration
1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2The World Bank Group, United States of America
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Institutionalizing bottom-up monitoring|
Session Chair: Rueben Lifuka, Transparency International, Germany
Prindex: putting global tenure insecurity into perspective with results from 33 country surveys in 2018
1Global Land Alliance, United States of America; 2ODI, United Kingdom
This paper reviews findings from the initial 33 countries in which data is being collected during 2018 of Prindex (The Global Property Rights Index), a survey designed to measure tenure insecurity on both a global and national basis. With this initial installment of what is planned as a 140-country baseline study by the end of 2019, Prindex will begin providing national policymakers, researchers, entrepreneurs, and non-governmental organizations in the land rights community with a new dataset to assess the scope and nature of tenure insecurity. Based on nationally-representative samples of individuals 18 and older, Prindex measures tenure insecurity in terms of respondents’ perceived likelihood of losing use rights to their home or other property against their will within the next five years. It does so both on an aggregate level, and disaggregated by gender, location, income, age, household size, tenure type, and length of tenure.
Perceived tenure insecurity among renters and its implications for ongoing urbanisation
1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2Global Land Alliance, United States of America
As urbanisation increases, especially in African cities, so too does the number of people living in rented housing. Initial findings from the Prindex survey show that people in rented housing feel 21% more insecure about losing their property than those who own theirs. There are many reasons as to why renters feel so insecure – primarily, they are worried about being evicted by the owner of the property, but lack of money, family disagreements and government seizures also play a part. A lack of land tenure security has large negative impacts on the poor and vulnerable. If managed poorly, settlement of incoming urban migrants can heighten tension and destabilisation, meaning cities are not able to realise all the benefits of urbanisation. To address the situation renters find themselves in, city governments should improve urban land management to ensure that formal sector housing and land markets can respond with adequate supply.
Indigenous data sovereignty
EWMI-Open Development Initiative, Myanmar
The Mekong region is home to over 100 indigenous and ethnically distinct communities who have struggled to retain their autonomy. While each group of indigenous and ethnic minorities (IEM) have unique struggles, a general theme emerges: access to land and natural resources. Despite global recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN General Assembly, 2007), IEM rights have in some cases been rendered meaningless because of the colonization and repatriation of IEM. IEM claims to land and livelihoods based on the related natural resources have suffered, in part because IEM-produced data and knowledge have usually been delegitimized by governing powers.
This paper discusses how open data policies focused on Indigenous Data Sovereignty, applied to create a coordinated network, has contributed to the public provision of data and its use in land claims in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
National land observatories: a tool for transparency, accountability, and informed decision making over land for all
1International Land Coalition, Senegal; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy; 3CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier à Madagascar; 4CIRAD / ISRA-BAME; 5Centre for Development and Environment; 6International Land Coalition, Italy; 7IPAR, Senegal
Data regarding land governance is often considered "inaccurate", "incomplete", "biased". In order to overcome these shortcomings, national land observatories are being developed, as structures, on one hand, of data collection, storage and management, and on the other hand, of production, analysis and reporting of information and knowledge. As such, as they are nationally managed and promoting an eco-system of data, land observatories are privileged instruments for reducing information asymmetries, promoting data transparency and accountability, supporting informed decision-making, strengthening debates on land tenure issues and promoting citizen participation in land governance. This paper presents in detail the results of a study on land observatories in Africa. It identifies four types of land observatories in Africa with different structures, roles and mandates, for which it assesses the factors of success and failure in order to better equip them in view of informed decision-making over land for all.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-07: Improving access to land for urban expansion|
Session Chair: Rebecca Leshinsky, RMIT University, Australia
Urban planning orientation tools implementation in Bamako District
University of Law and Political Science of Bamako, Mali
Growing cities across the globe face a number of changelings and problems which posse threat to their dwellers. In the world today, the fastest growing city in Africa and the sixth in the world, Bamako currently faces huge challenge of implementation urban planning tools which sooner or later might be difficult to be addressed. In attempt to have a holistic view of the challenge, 646 questionnaires were given to its common citizens, 32 questionnaires were given to Neighborhood Development Committee (CDQ) members, and 11 interviews had been conducted in 32 Neighborhoods (quarters) in the 06 Communes of Bamako District. Through the use of simple percentage, this study discovered that planning orientation tools are not implemented and plans are not respected in Bamako District. The city is progressively demolishing and the village is set up for the change of public facilities into dwellings and the residents are not satisfied of that.
Urban planning and land shortcoming in Morocco: Aspects of injustice and perspectives
1National Institute of Urban Planning, Morocco; 2University Qadi ayyad, Morocco; 3Institute of agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Morocco; 4National Council of Licensed Surveyors, Morocco
Urban planning tools in Morocco are a source of land injustice. Urban planning documents continue to reflect a prescriptive and normative urbanism based on a functionalist logic of equipment distribution and zoning, constantly generating spatial divisions and correlative social segregations. Land inequity is a source of social injustice for those who have suffered the consequences of prejudicial planning. The idea discussed by this paper follows three basic frameworks: the first focuses on revealing the scope and limits of the normative and legal framework for urban planning. The second aims to highlight the forms of land injustice arising from urban plans. As for the third axis, it focuses on the principles, rules and prospects for a possible renewal in this area.
Urban planning and land issues in the city of Antananarivo
Ministry of Regional Development, Building, Housing and Public Works - Madagascar
As the Malagasy population is still composed of 75% of farmers and most of them do not yet have their own land, the development of urban areas can not keep pace with the rural exodus which is constantly increasing;
Given this fact, we thought that it would be essential to focus on the study of this phenomenon, in order to know the realities that surround it and in what perspectives they can be improved.
After the ten years of land reform, a new Land Policy Letter has been initiated in 2015.
Land issues involve actors in a perspective of sustainable planning development. The synergy of all stakeholders is therefore essential to resolve the problmes in an urban area, especially local authorities, environmental managers, specialists in urban planning and housing, civil society, land administration and local land offices.
Assessing suitability and acceptability of development plans and town planning schemes in small and medium town: a case of Gujarat
CEPT University, India
The paper focuses on urban plan preparation in Gujarat, which is backed by the robust legislative framework. This two-stage plan preparation process is popularly known as Development Plan (DP) and Town Planning Schemes (TPS). The intention of this plan is to support future growth and develop it in a planned manner. Large cities have comparatively better governance structures and hence are generally able to prepare these plans. However, it has been observed that these urban plans are facing challenges to gain momentum in small and medium towns. Local bodies of these towns are unable to defend urban plans prepared by them. Hence, these plans faced severe resistance and opposition from the community and had to be withdrawn or updated the urban plans. This paper reviews and ascertain the issues faced by urban local bodies and stakeholders during the preparation and implementation of these plans and followed by the recommendations.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-08: New ways of registering customary land|
Session Chair: Janet L. Banda SC., Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Addressing fuzzy boundaries in community delimitations for systematic cadaster in Mozambique
1National Directorate of Lands, Mozambique; 2EXI, Lda, Mozambique; 3Verde Azul, Lda, Mozambique; 4Kadaster, The Netherlands
This article draws from experiences conducted regarding the systematic land tenure registration in Mozambique, both for communities and individual occupants. It is constitutional obligation of the State to recognize these rights. The recognition of land rights involves the definition of limits and boundaries. While boundaries are interpreted as discontinuities in people to land relationships, cases have been found of harmonious joint use of the same area by different communities. Disputes over boundaries have potentially serious consequences for social and economic stability, and must then be avoided.. The proposed solution is the explicit incorporation of the knowledge of these discrepancies, overlaps and uncertainties in the tools for systematic registration of community and individual land rights and its maintenance. Field staff and communities shall be trained to adequately employ such tools. A specific land use category of areas with overlapping community land use rights.
Moving from debate to implementation: Opportunities for Community Land Registration in Kenya
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya
Drawing lessons from the experience in implementing of the European Union (EU) funded Communal Land Governance Programme by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in the 8 ASAL counties of Kenya, this paper highlights opportunities the government (national and county) of Kenya should take advantage of to ensure that registration of community land is participatory, practical and cost-efficient. Additionally, the paper discusses these opportunities with an awareness of the history of inter-community conflict over territory, and forms of elite capture that happen during community engagement on access and use of land and land-based resources. The paper takes into account the realities of communities' nomadic way of life, and the vastness of the land to be registered as well as the limited technical personnel to carry out the registration process.
“Grazing agreements: negotiated resource access and conflict mediation at the private property-common property nexus in Kenya’s rangelands”
Independent Consultant, United States of America
Pastoralist access to private property is increasingly being mediated through formal, contractual arrangements. This paper explores how formalizing access provisions through the grazing agreement contract provides significant benefits to both parties of the arrangement. The engagement of formal access agreements observed in this case study
demonstrates institutional innovation on the part of both ranchers and pastoralists. Drawing on original field work as well as academic reference literature, this paper expands on the grazing agreement concept and explain its benefits from the perspective of private property management, natural resource management, conflict management and prevention, and its contributions to pastoralist rangelands property rights strategy. Grazing agreements can be leveraged to maintain and defend property rights while also creating additional opportunities for the pastoralist production strategy. This arrangement involving resource allocation has implications for resource access in pastoralist production and for rangelands governance.
Social and institutional innovation in land reform: local land charters in Burkina
DID international, Burkina Faso
Customary land right is one of the most challenging issues which need to be adequately addressed if land is to play its proper role in African development. The Burkina land reform adopted a bold innovation known as the “local land charters” (LLCs), inspired by principles of decentralization and empowerment of local communities and aiming at reflecting the diversity of land customs.
While LLCs seem a promising avenue for making the land laws more effective on the ground, the innovation fosters resistances from land administration agencies as it it challenges the dominant perception of land as a set standardized norms applicable at national level. It also questions the short term nature of donor led land projects
The paper discusses the generating factors of LLCs and analyses the conditions under which social and institutional innovation in land can be not just a theoretical construction, but a powerful change factor
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-09: Implementing REDD in practice|
Session Chair: Peter Veit, World Resources Institute, United States of America
Practical guide for the creation and management of conservation space
1National Cooperative Business Association CLUSA International, United States of America; 2Independent Consultant, Burkina Faso; 3World Bank, United States of America
Burkina Faso’s Ministry of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change (MEEVCC) is developing solutions to secure rural commons used by multiple actors. MEEVCC received the support of the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA CLUSA) to design a practical guide to help local governments to secure the sustainable use of forest reserves in Burkina Faos’s effort to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). NCBA CLUSA conducted a field assessment and consultation process in four communes to draw lessons from the resource use and practices at the village level. From this assessment and with local actors involved in NRM and land tenure, the study identified lessons, analyzed institutional constraints and the legal options offered for the securing of commons. 32 communes will use this practical guide to secure their commons, with the objective of reaching impact at scale in the reduction of carbon emissions related to land use change.
Development of a practical guide to support local actors in the development and management of conservation areas in the context of REDD+
NCBA CLUSA International, United States of America
The National Cooperative Business Association drew on experience in natural resources management in West Africa to develop a practical guide to secure the sustainable use of forest reserves in the context of REDD+ objectives for Land Degradation Neutrality. Over an eight-month period, our team in Burkina Faso worked with the World Bank Forest Investment Program, a technical advisory group and ministries. We conducted a literature review, interviews with policy makers, and field assessments of resource use and practices at the commune (the lowest level of political and administrative districts) and village levels in four communes: Gassan, Sapouy, Siby and Zambo. Issues emerging include a diversity of land uses (forest resources, as well as non-timber products including fauna); degraded resources; accommodating private interests, such as traditional hunter associations or across multiple villages with claims; lack of institutional memory and documentation of previous planning efforts; and reconciling legitimate and legally recognized actors.
Rethinking land development and offset mechanisms in cambodia
Heinrich Boell Foundation, Cambodia
This publication is on "Green Growth" and natural Resource Development in Cambodia. In view of this factual situation, the question arises whether member countries of the OECD or the developed countries could expand their influence in Cambodia by means of other actions. The two offset mechanisms (CDM and REDD+) will be explained in detail, which will then be used to investigate environmental projects in Cambodia provinces. In view of the controversial situation, the REDD+ is supposed to help to ensure sustainable forest use. It is particularly clear that this form of land grabbing is justified by the advocates of “Green Growth”, "maximizing sustainability" and "preserving ecosystems". This type of "optimization" as well as the heterogeneity of the very different actors in the face of common interests underline the difference to the phenomenon of land grabbing, also because the exploitation of natural resources such as oil or wood is not directly in their focus.
Environmental justice in the REDD+ frontier: indigenous experiences from the scholarly literature and proposals for a way forward
Center for International Forestry Research, Peru
We present the findings of a systematic search of the scholarly literature dealing with how projects and national processes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) framework have affected, positively or negatively, the rights of indigenous peoples. Our review is intended as a follow-up to early warnings that REDD+ might violate indigenous rights, and to positions held by proponents that REDD+ can be a vehicle to achieve further recognition of indigenous rights. By exploring the question of indigenous rights in the REDD+ frontier — the national and local contexts in which REDD+ is being rolled out — we aim to inform ongoing related discussions in scholarly and practised-based circles.
This presentation engages with Theme 4 of the conference — Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples.
How the climate protection strengthens the indigenous territories in the Amazon: The REDD Early Movers Program (REM) in Mato Grosso - Brazil
1GIZ, Brazil; 2FEPOIMT, Brazil; 3ICV, Brazil
Brazil is a signatory of the Paris Agreement to tackle the Climate Change. The Mato Grosso State, located in the Amazon, commited with the end of the lllegal deforestation which allowed the launch of the REDD Early Movers (REM) Program supported by KfW and GIZ. It rewards pioneers for their success in reducing deforestation, based in payment for results under a stock-flow methodology that rewards several actors, especially the conservationists. The Program, coordinated by the State Government, includes a Subprogram for Indigenous Territories whose consultation process (of 43 ethnicities) fully respected the Convention 169 of ILO. It has the partnership of the brazilian NGO Instituto Centro de Vida (ICV) and has the Federation of Indigenous Peoples of Mato Grosso (FEPOIMT) as the protagonist. The article aims to demonstrate how the REM Program, supported by German Cooperation, has strengthened the Indigenous Territories in Mato Grosso-Brazil,
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-10: Overlapping jurisdictions at the peri-urban fringe|
Session Chair: Shikha Srivastava, Tata Trusts, India
Peri-urban land governance: understanding conflicting and competing interests for peri-urban land in Ethiopia
Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
Understanding the competing and conflicting interests on peri-urban land is crucial for informed land governance decision and well managed urbanization process. However, research on understanding of the conflicting and competing interests for peri-urban land and the role, interaction and power relation among actors and its implication on land governance has not received adequate attention by scholars and policy makers. Thus, this study aimed to identify land governance gaps arising from the roles of different actors, interaction and power relations in Ethiopia. Finally, the key findings of this study show that land governance in the transitional peri-urban areas is twisted by divergent or complimentary roles of formal and informal actors.
The policy incompatibility nexus between urban expansion, land use and land value in Nepal: the case of Pokhara metropolitan city
Pokhara University, Nepal
With the implementation of the federal structure and the reorganization of local governments there have been policy conflicts between urban expansion, land use and land value in Nepal. This study collecting data on land use from the profiles of the Pokhara Metropolitan City (PMC) in the Gandaki Province of Nepal and its 33 wards, PMC guidelines on land values implemented for land registration purposes across the city by streets and lane sites, and primary sample data collection on land use and land value has analyzed the land factor for expansion of urban activities in the predominantly agricultural and rural setting for public establishments and private economic activities. The result of the analyses has brought out various problems on land-based investment in public infrastructure, the establishment of business and economic activities in peri-urban areas of PMC. An integrated, improved and strengthened urban expansion-land use-land value policy nexus is required.
Urban expansion and the emergence of informal land markets in Namibia's communal areas
University of Namibia, Namibia
Fifteen years ago, access to land in Namibia's communal areas has only been in the confinement of traditional authorities, as the main institutions through which land can be accessed. Today, land can be accessed through existing individual landholders through the emerging informal land markets. The informal land markets are found in highly populated demographic zones, and mostly villages adjacent to the local authorities areas. According to the Communal Land Reform Act, 2002, trading of communal land is prohibited, however even with this legal prohibition land markets are rampant. This paper presents the dynamics around the emerging informal land markets in Namibia's communal areas, the drivers, and its long-term implications and structural transformations in the landscapes once considered confines of subsistence agriculture.
Who owns the land? Legal pluralism and conflicts over land rights in Ghana
Appalachian State University, United States of America
This paper examines contemporary contestations over ascertaining the ownership of land in Northern Ghana. Presently land in Ghana is characterized by a plural legal system where customary and statutory systems overlap. The 1979 Constitution handed back land in the North to its “traditional owners,” opening up possibilities for earth priests, chiefs, families, and individuals to re-interpret the language of the Constitution and claim ownership. In the North, the hierarchies of land tenure interests are commonly enshrined in contesting oral histories. Drawing on field research in Ghana, I view these contestations not merely as struggles over access to “resources” and land but also as conflicts over competing models of political authority and governance. By elucidating how traditional authorities and state land agencies draw on, revise, and add to these models, this project aims to contribute to broader policy and scholarly debates about land rights and governance in Africa.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-11: Implementing NSDI: From guidelines to practice|
Session Chair: Kathrine Kelm, World Bank, United States of America
Research on access and use of geographic information in Moldova
1Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova, Moldova; 2Kartverket - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
Norwegian support to the land sector in Moldova has started in 2006. During the last twelve years, Norway has assisted Moldova with production and delivery of geospatial information: Orthophoto, Digital Terrain Model and Base map. The assistance from Norway has significantly contributed to improvement of public services providing open access to geospatial data on the Internet. Norway as a donor was concerned that the geospatial data produced with Norwegian funding used and maintained effectively. In 2017, Norwegian Mapping Authority and Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova have executed a research on the access and use of the geospatial information funded by Norway. This paper describes the findings of the study with emphases on the measures to improve the use of available geodata by a wider range of users in Moldova, as well as to indicate the target areas for potential support from Norway and other donors.
UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework towards achieving the 2030 Agenda – from global to national. Guyana experience.
1UNFAO, Italy; 2Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission, Guyana; 3ConsultingWhere Ltd., United Kingdom
In August 2018, the United Nations endorsed an Integrated Geospatial Information Framework (IGIF), which provides a strategic guidance that enables country specific action plans to be prepared and implemented. The Cooperative Republic of Guyana is one of the first countries in the world, which is taking actions to align its national policy on geospatial information management to the newly endorsed UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework and to develop an Action Plan that can serve as an example to other countries and regions. The Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission in cooperation with the FAO will present how the IGIF coupled with an SDI Analysis methodology developed by the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM), World Bank and FAO is being applied in Guyana to help rapidly accelerate delivery of a fit for purpose infrastructure.
Integration of Crowdsourcing and digital platform of National Spatial Data Infrastructure for efficient decision-making
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Digital transformation of the national economy and public administration are among the key priorities of Serbian Government. Government of Republic of Serbia and Republic geodetic authority works together on the development of framework for the crowdsourcing technology utilization, combined with the National Spatial Data Infrastructure digital platform. Objective is to provide credible, quality and effective data acquisition, to provide both local and national government with a framework for making decisions needed for a more efficient decision making and achieving the objectives of the Sustainable Development Strategy and Agenda 2030. For this purpose, a mobile application has been developed which, using the crowdsourcing technology, provides for creating and updating the official registers. The evaluation of the proposed approach shows the efficiency of the implementation and assuring interoperability between the crowdsourcing system and the NSDI digital platform, thus providing for the authoritative data usage in a completely new context, and new level.
Additional considerations for the successful implementation of a CORS GNSS Network in Developing Countries
Leica Geosystems, France
A Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) GNSS Network is essential to provide a regional positioning service that can provide fit-for-purpose positioning. In developing countries, this represents significant challenges, but offers significant benefits. This paper is mainly dedicated to National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations and focus on some key benefits dependent of specific related tasks for land parcel and utility mapping which are often under-estimated or ignored, hence leading to an incomplete implementation missing a fundamental foundation for a successful use of the CORS GNSS Network.
This paper will present best practice for GNSS surveys within a CORS infrastructure, deliver recommendations to compute and publish new local or national transformations to maximize sustainable development of the system and explain how to implement Quality Controls to evaluate and reject any survey which will not fit to standards defined and published by the beneficiaries like National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-12: Protecting land rights in the course of land acquisition|
Session Chair: Joan Kagwanja, UNECA, Ethiopia
Land rights protection in the pulp and paper production system
University of São Paulo, Brazil
This article explores how the quality of institutions influence the strategic choice of agents in the pulp and paper production system based on planted forests sector.
In order to proceed with the study, we employ the Economic Analysis of Property Rights (Barzel, 1982, 1989, 2002) as foundation and test the proposition: in federative states where the institutional environment is fragile and therefore the State has a high cost to enforcement property rights, private mechanisms stand out in the protection of property rights
The analysis of three business cases of companies with plantations in more than one federative units revealed the broad range of private mechanism in place to cope with insecure land rights in Brazil. In the federative units where government fails to be a good ruler, we found a multi stakeholder platform under use to define and enforce land rights.
Land acquisition in Malaysia: Policy context and praxis for oil and gas hub project in Eastern Johor.
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 3Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Land acquisition involves the compulsory taking of land. In Malaysia, land acquisition can be a complex and time-sensitive process. The land acquisition process in Peninsular Malaysia is governed by the Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 1960 (Act 486). Even though all states in the Peninsular Malaysia are adopting the law, however the way of how it is implemented would be different according to each state. The Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) is one big project in creating value to the downstream oil and gas value chain in Johor, Malaysia. Sited in Pengerang, it is involves largest scales of investments and compulsorily acquire villagers land. The acquisition process for the PIPC project is in compliance with the LAA 1960 (Act 486). This paper discusses the action taken, best approach and success story associated with or derived from land acquisition of the project.
LSLA in Mozambique: impact on rural and urban communities
Centro Terra Viva, Mozambique
Since 2010, the Mozambican economy has experienced significant increase in investment projects that require large tracts of land for extraction of minerals, large agriculture projects, and development of physical infrastructure. The increase in demand for land acquisition was significant enough that in 2012, the laws and procedures governing ‘resettlement caused by economic activities’ were revised and made more stringent, with clear guidelines on how to compensate and resettle affected communities. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences in the resettlement process in the rural and urban communities, and in the infrastructure and extractive projects, how the affected communities were consulted, the extent to which legal procedures and guidelines were carried out and the impact of the processes of large scale land acquisition on rural ( Afungi Penninsula of Palma in Cabo Delgado Province) and urban (Malanga neighborhood, Maputo City, resettled as a result of the construction of the Maputo-Katembe bridge) communities.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-13: Providing policy advice through applied research|
Session Chair: Ammar Alhamadi, Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Beyond climate change: how tenure reform aggravated grassland degradation in north china
1University of California Davis, United States of America; 2Renmin University of China, China
Grassland plays a vital role in human society and in the ecosystem. Maintaining the vulnerable natural assets---grassland resources, though challengeable, is very significant. However, comprehensive studies on the detailed process of and mechanisms leading to the degradation are still to be presented. This paper will combine the environmental monitoring data with the policy impacts, then arrange them along the timeline to explore how the tenure reform aggravated the grassland degradation in North China. The results illustrated that despite the climate change, tenure reform could be a strong driver of grassland degradation through two mechanisms - “livestock distribution - livestock increase – Tragedy of Commons” and “grassland distribution - grassland fragmentation - Fence Trap”. This finding reminds countries/regions undergoing grassland tenure reform to be aware of both the Tragedy of Commons and the Fence Trap which have taken place in North China.
Unrecognized opportunities for pastoral tenure: Re-framing variability, mobility, and flexibility
University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America
Among scholars and practitioners involved with land tenure in pastoral areas, there has existed a tension between the benefits of clearly established property rights and the dynamic land access needs of pastoralist communities. In describing the institutional demands of pastoral mobility, those advocating for pastoralist communities often explain that the climatic variability of pastoral areas necessitates flexible property arrangements. The seemingly inherent incompatibility of formal registration and clear boundaries, on the one hand, with flexible access rights, on the other, is the crux of the problem of pastoral property rights. This paper clarifies the often conflated concepts of unpredictability vs. variability and mobility vs. flexibility. While climatic variability and livestock mobility are intrinsic to pastoral systems, the relevance of “uncertainty” and flexibility are context specific. Looking for predictability can help form the basis of institutionally viable tenure arrangements that meet the livelihood demands of pastoralists.
An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to understanding the correlation of land use regulations on residential property values in Windhoek, Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Windhoek city in Namibia continues to experience an acute shortage of affordable housing, a situation that has reached a socio-economic crisis proportion with an estimated housing backlog of 21,000 units out of the national backlog of 100,000 units. The aim of the study investigates the impact of the newly introduced urban land use regulation on single-family residential properties in Windhoek. Using mixed methods approach, the study combined survey interviews and observational checklist to develop a hedonic pricing model in understanding the variables that significantly contribute to residential property values in the study area from 2005 to 2017. Hedonic pricing analysis revealed that proximity to commercial or office uses has a positive correlation in the short run. Further, as distance from non-residential uses increased, the positive effect on property values increases. The results also indicate that being too close to commercial or office uses yield negative effects because of nuisance factors.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-14: Research on land markets in Ukraine|
Session Chair: Oleg Nivievskyi, Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
Do land rental markets contribute to efficient land allocations? Ukrainian experience
Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), Germany
This study analyses how agricultural land rental market contributes to efficient land allocation in Ukrainian agricultural production. Ukraine has been struggling to introduce land sales market for the last two decade. Nevertheless, agricultural production has grown substantially in the recent years. We assess how current land relations in Ukraine have contributed to agricultural growth. In particular, we examine whether agricultural land tends to flow towards better skilled agricultural producers, thus, improving agricultural efficiency. Utilizing a rich panel of Ukrainian commercial agricultural producers for 2006-2017, we examine the determinants of participation in the land rental market. We show that the likelihood of renting in land does not depend on proxies for agricultural ability. Furthermore, exit-entry of farms seems to be associated with their agricultural ability but less so in regions with predominant large-scale production. We examine the factors that may contribute land rental markets failing to facilitate efficient land allocations.
Implications of land market imperfections on policy design
Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
The evidence on welfare implications of land market imperfections is relatively scarce in academic literature. Partial equilibrium models currently available consider welfare implications and land redistribution in presence of significant market power and credit market imperfections in rental land markets. However, land and credit market imperfections are treated separately.
Moreover, only rental markets are discussed in the literature in this regard, leaving sales markets out, thereby leading to a major and important simplification, as rental markets have different weights in the total volume of land market transactions.
In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework that integrates land and credit market imperfections, and explore an interplay between rental and sales land markets. This model can be used to provide innovative insights for welfare implications and distributional impact of various policy design options, which would come in handy for carrying out land reforms in developing and transition countries.
Land market institutions and agricultural productivity in Ukraine
Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
All over the world, institutionalization of property rights and its impact on economic growth have become of high importance. New institutional economists contrast institutions and organizations (including individuals), indicating that a market comprised of individuals requires institutions to avoid inefficiency and failures.
In Ukraine, agricultural sector is responsible for a significant share of GDP. In addition, there is a moratorium on land sales still in place, and therefore agricultural producers almost completely cultivate the rental land. However, institutions behind land tenure are still in the nascent stage of formation, which is why it is important to analyze the impact of property rights institutionalization on achieving political goals mentioned above.
The main contribution of this paper is thus to establish a theoretical model of relationships between the agricultural productivity and development of institutionalization, check existence of correlation between these phenomena, and try to explain possible cause-effect relationships.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-01: Simplified planning for systematic tenure regularization|
Session Chair: Anne Odic, AFD, France
Opportunities and challenges of planning to provide tenure security to existing dwellers and ensure effective service delivery in the course of urban expansion
Ministry of Land and Physical Planning, Kenya
Applying Simplified planning to facilitate title issuance in Lusaka
City Hall Lusaka, Zambia
Scope for simplifying planning procedures in Zimbabwe
Harare City Municipality, Zimbabwe
Addressing physical urban planning to speed up tenure regularization
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-02: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy|
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The
Modern technology in land administration - a call for governance and structuring data in view of privatising land administration processes
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
The Emirates` (legal) framework and governance model for using emerging technologies in Land Administration
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Digital assets & data to be published on a blockchain / What should we do (or not do) with the land administration data?
Union Internationale des Huissiers de Justice (UIHJ), Netherlands
The Irish challenges to be prepared for future Land Registry
Property Registration Authority, Ireland
British Columbia's land titles: private, public or somewhere in-between?
Land Title & Survey Authority of British Columbia, Canada
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-03: How to realize the potential of blockchain for land administration?|
Session Chair: John Reynolds, BLOCKCHAIN DIGITAL, United Kingdom
Blockchain property titles and land use recording – is it only about trust, or is there space for compliance and enforcement?
RMIT University, Australia
Blockchain can provide for an immutable recording of land ownership and land use interests. To date there are no accepted global standards for blockchain land transfers or recordings. The paper argues that guidance is available from traditional land management compliance and enforcement processes, and this is situated in the space where blockchain land recordings are shifting the paradigm from property law to the realm of private company participation with contract law establishing a need for good governance and global standards for blockchain transactions. The paper discusses global experiences to date of blockchain land recordings, with an emphasis on the need not to forget how compliance and enforcement processes have operated to date.
Smart contracts and land administration: a new framework for property conveyance
1ChromaWay, Sweden and United States of America; 2Land Title and Survey Authority, British Columbia, Canada; 3Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia
Smart contracts on the blockchain can provide a secure, auditable, more easily distributable solution to support property record changes among buyers, sellers, the land registry, financial institutions, attorneys, and other parties connected to property transactions.
In the longer term, the approach supports reduction in transaction friction (including cost) overall and could lead to other ownership models potentially allowing citizens to participate in derivative markets including fractional property ownership and other unbundled property rights, restrictions, and responsibilities.
Built around active research, and utilizing multiple case studies, this paper reports on findings from pilot projects on the use of smart contracts on the blockchain in Sweden, Australia, and Canada. The paper explores models of trust, centralization vs. decentralization, data security, and cost and business dimensions of different implementation approaches
Blockchain for Land Administration: Smart Land Registries - a tangible model seeking value for all parties
1Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom; 2Trimble Land Administration Solutions Group, USA; 3IBM, United Kingdom
There has been much media excitement about blockchain’s potential to revolutionize commerce, trade, supply chains, and, indeed, Land Administration. But, is it real, and where is the value to our citizens, economy and society?
Trimble, Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, and IBM have come together to provide insight into the upsides, and into the risks associated with this technology-lead transformation. This partnership combines land administration domain experience, government technology and guardianship, and technology leadership to bring a measured perspective to the topic.
This paper will give decision-makers insight to 1) assist with understanding the value of blockchain for their particular jurisdiction, 2) place blockchain among the arsenal of other potential technical approaches that could be leveraged, and 3) put these technologies, a.k.a. Smart Land Registries, into the context of the problems that society and government need to solve.
Furthermore, we will propose a value-focused and achievable roadmap to their adoption.
Catalyzing innovation: Dubai real estate blockchain
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Blockchain is one of the latest innovations that has been implemented in Dubai. The abstract illustrates many benefits to government sectors as well as private sectors in enhancing user experience when conducting procedures related to property, not only procedures related to registration or regulation in real estate sector, but also other procedures and services that are around real estate, Such as utilities, survey, furniture and moving to a new house. The term" Real Estate journey" is term we call when providing a unique experience to real estate services in Dubai. The abstract shows how Dubai is catalyzing blockchain technology to enroll property developers, managers, brokers and service provides to the new technology platform, and to how to address many challenges that face all entities, such as payments, Single-sign-on and laws related to real estate and transactions.
An example of the use of the Blockchain by the French Notariat: enforceable copies
International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
Presentation of the “proof of concept” established and validated by the French Notariat in 2018 to find a solution for processing enforceable copies of loans’ contracts in digital format, collateralized by land and real estate. These copies are not intended to be in digital format unless there is a means of demonstrating the authenticity, integrity and uniqueness of the enforceable copy held by a creditor who wants to assert his rights and compel a debtor to pay his debt.
This POC made it possible to approve the launch of an operational implementation project for this consortium blockchain, which will be used by notaries, banks and bailiffs.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-04: Gender and land policy|
Session Chair: Renee Giovarelli, Resource Equity, United States of America
Evaluation results of a program aimed at reducing property grabbing among widows in Uganda
International Justice Mission
This paper discusses the research results and evaluation findings of a program aimed at combatting property (land) grabbing from widows in Mukono County, Uganda. Unlike many other ongoing efforts, this program focused on capacity building of local government actors, particularly within the criminal justice system, as the primary approach to ending this overlooked form of violence against women. In 2012, baseline prevalence and justice system performance data were collected. Endline data collected in 2017 provided impact and outcome-level data for a summative evaluation of the program conducted in late 2017/early 2018. The program contributed to approximately a 50% reduction in the prevalence of property grabbing. While challenges remain in the formal justice system’s response and sustainability of program gains, government actors substantially improved in their performance addressing property grabbing. Learning outcomes for attendees include applications for local, national, and international actors implementing similar programs affected by culturally-embedded gender norms.
Women's tenure rights across the rural urban continuum: implications for a gender responsive urban land reform in Namibia.
1Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia; 2GIZ Office Namibia
Namibia is considered as one of the unequal societies where poverty is prevalent. The land question and its role in development remains a pivotal source of livelihood to get people out of poverty. The country is also fast urbanizing with issues of urban informality and security of tenure becoming a concern as one million people are residing in informal settlements. In the absence of concrete interventions the informal settlements could become the dominant form of housing by 2025. Consequently, at the recent Land Conference the President declared the housing needs a “national emergency”. The Flexible Land Tenure Act is targeted to provide security of tenure in informal settlements. This paper will provide an overview of the land reform agenda, the purposive policy and legal framework adopted by the Government to promote gender equality. An investigation of the impact of urbanization on gender issues in urban areas is undertaken.
Community land titling: a contextual analysis of women’s land rights in Kenya
Namati, United States of America
Over the past decade, several African countries have introduced new legislative protections for community land rights. Ensuring that group title sufficiently protects the rights of women and minorities presents significant challenges. Based on a case study analysis of women’s land and resource rights in pastoral communities, we identify the opportunities and potential threats that registering land under Kenya’s 2016 Community Land Act creates for women’s tenure security. This includes considering challenges associated with customary norms around women’s land use, participation in collective decision-making, and inheritance rights. Data collection included 30 focus groups and nearly 70 individual interviews with women and key informants in six communities across three counties in Kenya (Kajiado, Laikipia, and Isiolo). The study sites fall into two categories: (1) communal grazing land held in “trusts” by county governments and (2) former group ranches that must be converted into community land.
Innovations to secure women's land rights and build resilience
1Huairou Commission, United States of America; 2UCOBAC, Uganda
Although the precise magnitude of climate change is subject of debate, there is growing consensus of its impact on access to resources and livelihoods. Globally, its grassroots women who face the worst effects of climate change on agriculture, with socioeconomic impacts due to lack of coping mechanisms. Tools and processes have been developed to support grassroots women resilience work through securing their access to and control over land, such as the Community Resilience Fund which is a mechanism through which grassroots women invest in collective actions to reduce disaster and climate related risks and vulnerabilities highlighting the importance of local adaptations. Drawing from the country experiences, this paper will provide insights into how these tools could be applied more globally to help mitigate the effects of climate change and foster local adaptation through improving grassroots’ women access to and control over land which is considered as perquisite for building resilience.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-05: Land markets at the rural-urban fringe|
Session Chair: Songqing Jin, Michigan State Univ./Zhejiang Univ., China, People's Republic of
Land transactions in the rural-urban fringes of Dar es Salaam and Nairobi: driving forces, stakeholders and challenges for land governance
Sciences Po Bordeaux, France
Land market determinants and outcomes in Rwanda: an econometric analysis
1University of Rwanda, Rwanda; 2iLand Consulting; 3RLMUA; 4DFID
How horizontal integration affects transaction costs of rural collective construction land market? An empirical analysis in Nanhai District, Guangdong Province, China
Huazhong Agricultural University, China, People's Republic of
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: National Land Policy Documents: Potential & Challenges|
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa
Zambia’s Land Policy formulation pitfalls-points of divergence
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia
Zambia’s attempts to land policy formulation after the return to multi-party politics started in 1993 with a National Conference on Land Policy Reform in the Third Republic which led to the enactment of the Lands Act of 1995. Ever since then attempts to formulate an overarching and consistent Land Policy for the country have proved futile. This has largely been because of divergent views from traditional authorities and other stakeholders who have perceived government intention in the policy to be one of usurping all powers over land to itself.
This paper will discuss the points of divergence especially from the chiefs and the current state of play in the draft land policy with the view to see how these can be harmonized in order to reach consensus.
Demarcation of traditional land management areas in Malawi
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
The Government of the Republic of Malawi, through MLHUD, enacted 10 land related Laws in 2016 and were assented to by the State President in January 2017. One of the new laws is the Customary Land Act 2016.The Act provides for the creation of customary estates through adjudication, demarcation and registration of Traditional Land Management Area (TLMAs) followed by adjudication, demarcation and registration of Group Village Areas GVAs and individual land parcels belonging to the local communities. The Ministry undertook the TLMA demarcation and created a Geodatabase of captured geo-spatial information for TLMAs for 280 out of 293 TLMAs. The work is to be completed soon
The Namibian 2nd National Land Conference has passed, how the resolutions taken will influence the politics and reluctance to register tenure rights in the Kavango West and Kavango East regions.
Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia
Lack of tenure security has negative effects of land grabbing by elites, eviction of the poor and vulnerable communities. This paper researched and analyzed the resolutions taken at the just ended Namibia’s 2nd National Land Conference that took place from 01-05 October 2018 to determine if such resolutions will influence the registration of tenure rights for the rural communities of both Kavango West and Kavango East regions.
The current impasse between the government of the Republic of Namibia and the Traditional Authorities affects the communities. It is estimated that a total of 12032 households are without tenure security.
Such communities are exposed to eviction, while the rights of women and vulnerable communities are affected.
The study suggests, interventions to entice demand for the registration of tenure rights, the establishment of Registration Committees, recruitment of Agents of Change etc.
Tenure security promotes sustainable development, reduces land grabbing and avoid evictions.
Land rights as an imperative for sustainable land and resources management in Kenya.
National Land Commission, Kenya
Key land reforms in Kenya were postulated in the land policy of 2009, and subsequently in the Kenya Constitution 2010. However, failure to fully implement the intentions of the policy and the Constitution has put the goals of sustainable land and land resources management in jeopardy. A major contributor of this phenomenon has been the political economy in the country. Vested political and economic interests have ensured that radical reforms in the land sector do not see the light of the day. without these reforms land rights of the minorities a nd other weaker sections of the community may not be realized.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-07: Regulations for urban planning|
Session Chair: Peter Mwangi, Walker Kontos, Kenya
Spatial planning, urban expansion and land use conversion: a study on urban form of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnamese-German University, Vietnam
This paper aims to present the transformation of urban form and identify challenges of spatial development and planning in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The paper starts with an overview on the Geographical Information System (GIS) dataset developed from various data provided by technical departments of HCMC such as street network, population time-series, topography, land use, housing and infrastructure. After that, using equidistant concentric annulus analysis and overlaying techniques, the paper attempts to (i) understand urban expansion process and associated risks for sustainable development, (ii) analyze population distribution by direction and by distance to city centre, (iii) identify land use factors influencing population distribution in HCMC, especially the development of industrial parks. The findings point out significant differences between spatial development directions in the city’s Master Plans and actual development directions during 1999-2015 period. In the conclusion, policy implications for sustainable urban development of HCMC will be discussed.
Exploring options for leaseholds in the Mukuru special planning area
1Cardiff University, United Kingdom; 2Akiba Mashinani Trust, Kenya; 3Katiba Institute, Nairobi
The declaration of the informal settlements of Mukuru Kwa Njenga, Kwa Reuben and Viwandani slums as a Special Planning Area (SPA) was momentous given the numerous challenges that have been occasioned by lack of, or poor planning in the area. Extensive discussions have been held with the aim of finding solutions to the longstanding concerns of inadequate access to sanitation and lack of proper housing within these areas. Actualization of proposed solutions in the past have however stalled as a result of the unresolved question of land ownership within the slums. It has been noted with concern that the land question in the slums continues to be a barrier to planning imperatives that may be beneficial to these settlements. This paper explores some possible options available to Nairobi City County Government to deal with the leaseholds in the Mukuru SPA to enable proper planning and upgrading of Mukuru.
Aligning land use policies to community vision in regulating land beyond urban: an initiative in Odisha, India
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, India
The paper brings in the need for a community vision-led landuse policy that governs land beyond urban. As per Census of India 2011, 68.84 percent of India is rural. Except for few states, land in rural areas is not governed through spatial tools and policies. The state of Odisha, located in the south-eastern part of India being 83.32 percent rural (Census 2011), lacks a landuse policy and spatial regulation tool for all rural areas and many of its urban areas. Due to absence or inadequacy of a comprehensive policy for landuse development, investments are not guided to villages and small or medium towns. To make the denied areas thrive as productive and livable territories, it becomes essential to distribute land development benefits equitably over space. The paper examines how formulation of a state specific land use policy for Odisha, can integrate the aspirations of local communities for better decision-making.
Spatial Planning as an instrument for the sustainability of investment and efficient provision of services - Comayagua Case
1Property Institute, Honduras; 2World Bank, United Stated; 3Comayagua, Honduras
Honduras is a country located in Central America and its territorial extension is 112,492 km², with a political division composed of 18 departments and 298 municipalities. The municipality of Comayagua is located in the department of the same name, which is located in the central part of the country.
Comayagua is the municipality with the most complete and up-to-date Cadastre in the country, and several initiatives have been developed for it to become an Associated Center of the property registry of the Property Institute. Therefore, the municipality of Comayagua administers the National Cadastre within its territorial scope, making use of the Unified System of Registries (SURE), which is the official tool of the Government for the subject of Cadastre-Registry.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-08: Providing low-cost housing|
Session Chair: Rajan Samuel, Habitat for Humanity India, India
Understanding multiplicity of urban governance and planning regulations for a metropolitan region with focus on land and private development – Case study NCR – Delhi, India
University of Tokyo, Japan
Through this research we like to bring forth the urban land use pattern and Urban morphology created in absence of a comprehensive land and private development regulation within a metropolitan region. The aim for this study is to identify the actors/agents and their corresponding network within the governance framework of land and private development.
Wrong-Headed policies in the name of the poor: Case of Mumbai’s Cessed-Buildings
Mumbai School of Economics and Public Policy (MSE-PP), University of Mumbai, India
This paper is based on the premise that good governance and policy design must be informed by sound economic principles since, policies create incentives that influence behavior of the agents and agencies leading to take actions that in turn lead to outcomes. Such outcomes, when undesired, can distort the respective markets. Indeed, policies in the name of the poor have often led to repositioning of the ‘agents and agencies’ that lead to situations that ultimately harm the interests of the poor. Hence, we believe that, upon noticing the undesired outcomes, a critical evaluation of the underlying policy framework is paramount to deal with the root cause instead of symptomatic treatment. As an illustration of the above argument, we scrutinize the case of an important segment of housing market in Mumbai viz., cessed- buildings that came about as an outcome of the Rent Control Act 1947 and its surrounding offshoots/ tributaries.
Community resource mobilization for informal settlements regularization: impact of private community partnership in Tanzania
Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) Company Limited, Tanzania
The need to mobilize resources from alternative sources beyond government revenues and donor grants is very critical towards achieving not only Tanzania urban development, but also the global goal of ensuring inclusive and sustainable cities and communities by 2030.
This Paper offers practical approaches from a Private Community Partnership that strategically addressed resource gap for financing sustainable urban planning, development and management with a special focus on Informal Settlements Regularization. It presents best practices from the Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) – a private Urban Planning firm that mobilized over 1.5 Billion TZS (equivalent to 639, 577.02 USD) from informally developed communities in Dar-Es-Salaam city. The ongoing Partnership has so far put in regularization over 30,404 land parcels that benefit over 148,979 lives in a span of 8 months.
It concludes that there is a huge potential of resources at community level that, if well tapped, can finance public developmental projects.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-09: Enhancing tenure security for forest land|
Session Chair: Jintao Xu, Peking University, China, People's Republic of
Multi-stakeholder forums as innovation for natural resource management? Results from a Realist Synthesis Review of the scholarly literature
1CIFOR, Peru; 2University of Maryland, College Park, United States of America; 3PUCP, Peru
This article presents the results of a Realist Synthesis Review (RSR) of global scholarly literature on Multi-Stakeholder Forums (MSFs) set up to address land use and land use change (LULUC) at the subnational level. The article contributes not only empirically to the study of MSFs and similar participatory processes, but also methodologically to the social sciences more generally, through the application of the RSR over the more common systematic reviews. The review is a timely examination because MSFs –an integral part of ‘landscape approaches’ and ‘multi-stakeholder initiatives’– have received renewed attention from policy makers and development and conservation practitioners, in light of the growing perception of urgency to address climate change and transform development trajectories.
Examining relationships in forest governance quality: Insights from forest frontier communities in Zambia´s Miombo ecoregion
1Thünen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics, Hamburg, Germany; 2Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Good forest governance is considered a prerequisite for combating deforestation. Several countries including Zambia have formulated policies taking this into account. Several methodologies have been developed to track progress of forest governance. We apply the Governance of Forests Initiatives (GFI) indicator framework by the World Resource Institute to compare governance performance of different arrangements, with differing tenure and restriction to forest access and use in Zambia´s Miombo. Additionally, we test the applicability of the GFI indicators, on basis of community perceptions. Results reveal that: forest governance quality is low in all arrangements. However, tenure security and use restrictions are scoring relatively high in the non-restricted and culturally restricted arrangements, respectively. Implying the opportunity for strategies that build on existing customary tenure rights and cultural use restriction to improve forest governance. Concerning its methodological applicability, preliminary results show that some underlying governance factors cannot be exclusively summarized by the GFI thematic indicators.
Land Tenure Regularization in the Brazilian Amazon: perspectives on identifying social, economic and environmental variables for assessing its impacts
1Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM); 2Consulting for Sustainable Development GITEC-IGIP GmbH; 3Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Amsterdam; 4Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH; 5National Colonization and Agrarian Reform Institute (INCRA); 6Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp)
Land tenure regularization and occupation have been a longstanding challenge in the Brazilian Amazon where land grabbing and land conflicts have been present for centuries. Few studies have been able to identify how much influence effective land tenure regularization can have on socioeconomic and environmental factors for the local population in the Amazon region.
The research proposed here builds on existing literature, field visits and geospatial analysis to identify a set of variables which can contribute to the creation of a methodology to understand social, economic and environmental impacts of land tenure regularization in the context of Brazil’s Terra Legal program, created in 2009 to regularize 57 million hectares of federal public lands in the Amazon as one of the main governmental strategies to combat deforestation.
Local perception of indigenous titling programs in the Peruvian Amazon
Center for International Forestry Research, Peru
This paper analyzes local perceptions of communal land titling programs for Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. It is based on field research conducted in the regions of San Martin and Ucayali by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in collaboration with the GIZ project ProTierras Comunales. This research assessed the progress made by land titling programs to provide information for decision makers that could improve tenure security and livelihood outcomes for indigenous people in the selected regions. In general, participating Indigenous people viewed land titling programs positively and believed these initiatives increased property rights security, however gaps in government support and confusion over land zoning are areas of concern.
Governance structures of native forests' management policy in North Argentina: the role of policy forums in mediating between conservation and production
1University of Bern, Switzerland; 2Modul University, Austria; 3Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
Native forests are complex systems and the institutions governing them affect their ecosystem.
The forest policy in Argentina aims to achieve a compromise between production and conservation objectives. Furthermore, there are efforts promoting mediation between forests’ conservation and cattle production, aboriginal peoples’ rights, family farming survival and large estate land titles. It is therefore at the crossroad between different visions of sustainable development and of land tenure systems.
There is gap in the understanding of social mechanisms that drive collaboration among forest governance stakeholders. This paper aims to develop the understanding of the role of policy forums in connecting stakeholders with different core beliefs on forest management.
We study this complex policy arena via a mixed methods research design, which integrates social network analysis with stakeholder analysis, combining quantitative and qualitative analytic techniques. We combine the study of the policy networks topology, with the analysis of stakeholders’ core beliefs systems.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-10: Ensuring use of public land for public good|
Session Chair: Jorge Espinoza, GIZ, Brazil
Social and human rights impact assessment for development project within Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Sahmakum Teang Tnaut, Cambodia
The reclassification of a public space within Phnom Penh in order for it to be sold as part of a larger land package to a Chinese company has sparked concerns for the rights of the public to the commons and the possible impacts of its loss and re-development. A Social and Human Rights Impact Assessment was conducted and found the project could have a variety of negative social impacts, such as loss of livelihood for informal sector workers, and that human rights could be impacted upon through relocation of boat operators. The paper also outlines mitigation strategies to limit impacts, such as the relocation of boats to a nearby dock rather than a faraway location. An additional significance is that this research contributes to ownership of the city through proper public consultation, which is provided through consultation within the research and its subsequent publication.
The right of use on non-awarding state lands, an innovative tool for legal certainty regarding land tenure.
COLOMBIA RURAL SAS, Colombia
There is a new model of access to lands in Colombia by means of rights of use on non-awarding state lands; legal security is important to legitimize the state lands tenure located in this area for the development of legal activities. Those are the Forest Reserve Zones; playones and communal lands; and state lands located within a 1.500 miles ratio around the zone where non-renewable natural resources exploitation is being carried out.
The state set restrictions to ownership access, without making an appropriate management on these areas, without awareness of the territorial reality, without informing or socializing the actors, or proposing relocation or land titling before the restriction which generated social unrest among the inhabitants.
The agreement 058 of 2018 was created to address this situation allowing the state lands located in those areas to be awarded to its occupants by means of rights of use.
Stimulus for land grabbing and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon
1Imazon, Brazil; 2University of Wisconsin, United States of America
We assessed the impact in the Brazilian Amazon of a 2017 land law that reinforces a mechanism for acquiring land rights historically linked to deforestation, since land grabbers clear the forest to signal land occupation and claim land rights. In particular, we assessed two significant potential impacts: i) the loss of government revenue due to the sale of public land below market prices and ii) the risk of future deforestation in 29.2 million hectares allocated to expand land privatization. The short term revenue loss ranges from U$ 5 to 8 billion for 8.6 million hectares; the future revenue loss ranges from U$ 23 to 34.1 billion for 29.2 million hectares; and between 1.3 to 2 million hectares would risk being deforested until 2027. The Brazilian government should review the decision about this area allocation; prioritize land allocation for conservation and, if selling part of this area, charge market prices.
Allocation of public land and the terra legal regularization program in the Brazilian Amazon
1Universidade Estadual de Campinas; 2SERFAL, Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4Nexucs; 5GITEC-IGIP GmbH
The Terra Legal Program was established in 2009 to address the problems related to the large amount of unallocated federal public lands in the legal Amazon, mostly through land tenure regularization for rural and urban families and allocation of land for specific purposes of public interest.
Since its beginning, Terra Legal has been subject of criticism claiming that the program may promote land grabbing and land concentration on the hands of big landlords.
This article shows that the beneficiaries have in fact been primarily small-scale farmers, through regularization of their tenure situation, the creation of settlements and the creation of protected areas.
In addition, the article compares the rules and mechanisms for the allocation of federal public lands with those adopted by the Federal States, showing that the federal legislation (Laws 11.952 and 13.465) is in fact more robust and comprehensive than the legislation used by the state land institutes.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-11: Land administration: Cases from Asia|
Session Chair: Suzuka Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
Land registration innovation and decentralised administrative reform: Success stories from the State of Johor, Malaysia
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Land title is the evidence of ownership on land. The purpose of registration is to recognise property rights, which includes information pertaining to land area, location, boundaries, as well as ownership and title of immovable property. However, interestingly in Malaysia,land is exclusively a state matter and there are differences over state land policies implementation on the process of registration. The kind of situation provides further challenges in the forming of uniform land policies to be practiced by the different states. This paper will discuss the innovations and reform of land registration and administrative in Malaysia, lesson learned from the State of Johor. It is include the successful and challenges on law and regulation implementation, accrual practices and reform experiences, decentralised organizational arrangements and harmonization, and new technology and computerisation adoption.
Land registration authority's linkages through the land titling computerization project
Land Registration Authority, Philippines
The Philippines’ Land Registration Authority is the central repository of records on original registration of land titles and the public repository of records affecting registered/unregistered lands and chattel mortgages. It is implementing the Land Titling Computerization Project through a public-private partnership.
With LTCP, following were established: Database of titled/registered land, Database of transactions affecting titled/registered land; Database of transactions affecting lands under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program; Database of transactions affecting Chattel Mortgage and Personal Properties; and Geographic Information System.
Several Government Agencies are connected to LRA Network and LRA continues to talk with other agencies involved in management and disposition of lands to ensure seamless processing of transactions across agencies. Significantly, it is implementing the Title Upgrade Program, where manually-issued titles are converted into System-generated titles for allowing LRA and Titleholders to come up with better and more convenient ways in transacting and verifying land titles.
A step to grow collateral markets through one window
Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab Land Records Management & Information System turned out to be one of the success stories for the Province of Punjab. Project has scanned more than 10 million pages of old records, digitized over 5.5 million landowners’ records, addressed more than 5 million inconsistencies of manual record and more than 23,000 revenue estates of overall 25,600 revenue estates across the province.
Project has now introduced a new one window intervention through this all banks / financial institutions have been linked through a secured link with central database of digital Land records. This has enabled all banks to instantly verify the current / up-to date status of land. Banks can generate copy of record of rights and initiate mutation for loan at their own. This intervention has greatly reduced time for loan processing and improved collateral resulting in enhanced productivity of agriculture markets.
Interoperability and land administration in Nepal
Department of Land Management & Archive, Nepal
Department of Land Management and Archive (DoLMA) is a central level agency in Nepal which is responsible for land administration. It delivers public service related to land through its 131 field-level offices. The department has successfully developed and implemented centralized web based software called Land Records Information Management System (LRIMS) on 54 Land Revenue Offices (LROs) to enhance quality of service delivery. The implementation of the system has shown positive impact on security of land records, revenue collections and e-governance.
Various government agencies are directly related with LROs and its data. The agencies have also their own computer systems but no provision to communicate with LRIMS now. The interoperability between LRIMS and agencies’ systems will reduce service delivery time, enhance the quality of service and reduce the operational cost. Service Oriented Architecture based system of LROs (i.e. LRIMS) can be made interoperable with their systems for data sharing among them.
Registering deeds in Delhi: challenges, innovations and prospects
Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India
This paper examines the institutional process of registering conveyance deeds in Delhi, the capital of India. This is in the context of administering one of the largest urban centres of the world; within a peculiar governance system as well as a very fragmented institutional apparatus. The paper will delineate in precise sequence, eight steps for registration. It will look at the current practices in each of these steps, identify the good practices within them, recent initiatives, as well as persistent gaps. Recent interventions in Delhi include institutional initiatives, interlinked databases and improved infrastructure. Associated agencies have also initiated digitisation of land records and allotment of unique property identification numbers, including the use of geospatial techniques. In such light, the paper will explore ways in which Delhi could create better urban land records, drawing from its own initiatives as well as from other innovations across India.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-12: Dealing with the impacts of failed land acquisition|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
Doomed to fail? Why some land-based investment projects fail and others succeed
Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
In recent years, an increased interest in farmland globally has led to the emergence of many land-based investment projects. Although most projects enter the production stage, a significant number also end in failure. This paper asks why land-based investment projects fail or succeed. This is a crucial question, as failed investment projects are unlikely to have any positive impacts on the host regions. I find that failure occurs globally but is concentrated on the African continent, with some countries exhibiting a particularly high risk of project failure. In addition, larger projects, projects growing agrofuels, and projects targeting land formerly used by smallholders or pastoralists are more likely to fail. In contrast, projects that involve domestic investors or take place in countries with better infrastructure are less likely to fail. The findings on the impact of host-country institutions on project failure are ambiguous.
Why we need a human right to land – empirical evidence from large-scale land investment deals in Sierra Leone and the Philippines
University of Tuebingen, Germany
A human right to land has now been codified in the ‘United Nations declaration on the rights of peasants and other people working in rural areas’, which has been adopted by the UN Human Rights Council in September 2018. This paper welcomes this development and argues that a human right to land can potentially close gaps in the regulation of large-scale land deals – if interpreted through the lens of the principle of free, prior and informed consent. Simultaneously, I do not deny that international public and private initiatives to regulate foreign land based investments can have positive effects for locally affected people. Through discussing under which conditions these instruments can help local actors in achieving their goals vis-à-vis investors, I show the potential as well as the gaps of the current global governance regime. My considerations are supported by empirical findings from Sierra Leone and the Philippines.
When good innovations go bad
Stratigos Consulting, United Arab Emirates
In the last decade, impact investing is a concept that has spurred innovative financing mechanisms in emerging economies. Many believe that impact investing is one sure way pool private sector funds to help solve some of the most pressing challenges facing our world today.
In many economies that are land reliant, this is good news and we have seen impressive private sector dollars in sectors like agriculture and renewable energy. But it is not all good news.
This paper discusses potential negative effects that land-reliant impact investments could have on host communities. Regardless of good intentions of innovations, sometimes these investments have the unintended consequence of exacerbating conflict, insecurity and poverty. This paper therefore advocates for a triple-bottom line approach where people, planet and profit are given equal stakes in transactions, so as to produce more responsible land-based investments.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-13: Providing policy advice through applied research|
Session Chair: Anna Locke, Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom
Governance challenges in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Land Guards and land protection in Ghana
Ghana Revenue Authority, Ghana
Land management policy in many developing nations has been riddled with conflict because of competing land tenure systems. Having transitioned through customary tenure systems to bureaucratic property rights regimes without a complete shift from the former, Ghana’s land management system, over time, has witnessed administrative challenges such that some desperate land protection schemes are taking root, including the use of unregulated security land guards. The fundamental objective of this research, therefore, is to explore and better understand the lengths to which people or groups will go to ensure land rights and protection in a regime of statutory rules and regulations. World Bank-sanctioned Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) framework (2015), underpinned my theoretical argument. Overall, the study found that the land administration system of Ghana has not fully achieved effective land governance and consequently occasions instances where people have the tendency to seek other means of exercising control over land rights.
Assessing institutional governance in balancing food production and environmental protection in urban wetlands of Kigali/Rwanda and tropical Kilombero floodplain/Tanzania. A comparative analysis
World Bank Group, Rwanda
Institutional Governance has been a challenge to balance the food production and environmental protection in wetlands of Rwanda and Tanzania, their peri-urban wetlands are getting more encroached by the population for livelihoods. This paper compares the institutional arrangements in the Nyabugogo- Nyabarongo peri-urban wetlands and kilombero valey floodplain. The major driving forces for alteration of Nyabarongo urban wetland’s functions in reparian urban community in kigali lie in social and economic factors such as policies, markets, demographic trends, and institution governing access to resources and poor enforcement. The Kilombero entire catchment which covers an area of 40,240 km with mountains around Kilombero valley are mainly covered with forest, and land cover in valley itself is dominated by urban areas of Ifakara, some smaller settlements, and agriculture; The area is characterized by diverse land uses, land use intensity gradients, and interactions between large-and small-scale crop farmers, landless herders, and urban populations.
Growth effects of banking development on agriculture and industrial GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa
University of Westminster, United Kingdom
In this study, we show that banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution exert a statistically and economically significant positive impact on local economic growth. This effect becomes more pronounced when the financial sector is more liberalized and deregulated.
The lifting of state controls in the banking sector in the 1980's and 1990's, created a more integrated and competitive financial industry ensuring efficient allocation of bank credits to productive areas.The economic thinking behind all this is that the financial entities, functioning under liberalized monetary regimes operate at higher levels of efficiency and productivity.
Using data from 14 Sub Saharan African Countries, we examined the growth effects of banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution over the period 1990 – 2013. We find evidence of significant growth effects of banking development in SSA on industrial components of GDP. Growth in agricultural GDP is positive but not significant.
Land related human rights in Pakistan: improving land tenancy as a pathway for agriculture development and food security
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Thailand
Secure land tenure rights are crucial for the realization of a number of human rights such as the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being, including food and housing. Land is also a key element for food security and well-being of rural people who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. In Sindh Province in Pakistan, land governance issues hamper tenure security and, consequently, food security and equitable social and economic development. Highlighting human rights principles encompassed in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), this document will outline innovative options for securing rural land access for the poor. Drawing on pilot experiences, the text will elaborate on alternatives to enhance land governance, which has been leading to improved tenure security and agricultural productivity and, ultimately, enjoyment of fundamental human rights.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-14: Mapping land rights for better socio-economic outcomes|
Session Chair: Jorge Munoz, World Bank, United States of America
Mapping for Peace and Prosperity: Applying participatory mapping in conflict-affected settings.
1ZOA, Netherlands, The; 2Cadasta Foundation, United States
The authors describe the process of setting up and implementing participatory land demarcation in a conflict-affected setting in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The necessary conditions for success are highlighted and particularly difficult aspects of the work are traced and underlined. These relate among others to the diversity of interests that need to be accommodated and the history of violent conflict in the area. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that locally oriented interventions need to be linked to the larger political-economic context in a dialogical way that allows for input from and towards higher levels of governance and policy-making. In this way, the paper combines discussions of very practical grass-roots experience with larger efforts at coordinating and improving land governance at the regional level.
Protecting rights to clan-based land in Acholi, Northern Uganda: Follow-up report on a research project of the Joint Acholi Sub-Region Leaders’ Forum (JASLF) and Trόcaire
University of South Carolina, United States of America
Following the 1986-2006 northern Uganda war, most Acholi returned to their customary, clan-based land. Because of multiple threats to this land, a consortium of Acholi leaders – the Joint Acholi Sub-Region Leaders' Forum (JASLF) – initiated a research and advocacy project to document the current organization and management of Acholi land and to help secure and protect it.
In partnership with the NGO Trócaire, the resulting 2016-17 project included a research sample of 141 land-holding clans from across Acholi, producing an unprecedented trove of primary, field-based data on the principles and practices regulating Acholi clan-based land. Hindered by numerous obstacles, project funding regretfully ended before researched clans were provided sufficient practical information and assistance to enable them to legally protect their land.
This paper will discuss the JASLF land project, outline the many challenging steps necessary for official clan-based land registration, and describe any subsequent efforts to help clans navigate those steps.
Flexible land information system as driver for change, peace and development: The case of post conflict DRC
1Private Consultant, Kenya; 2Christian Bilingual University Democratic Republic of Congo; 3Global Land Tool Network/ UN Habitat, Kenya
The importance of building land information systems cannot be underestimated in support of land reform, public service provision and promotion of social economic development especially in post conflict areas. There are many opportunities for their applications particularly in context such as enabling access to land, resolving disputes, raising revenue, service delivery as well as providing information services for private investment and local economic development. They provide an elaborate framework for creating inclusive and integrated system thus facilitating collaboration and participation of many actors. The systems are more acceptable (and sustainable in the long term) if they adopt bottom up and participatory processes for gathering information and if they use affordable and appropriate systems as advocated for by the principles of fit-for-purpose land administration. The paper highlights the need for a flexible and affordable system coupled with participatory approaches for promoting stakeholder engagement, coordination, inclusive development, and effective land information management.
Putting forest communities on the map: Participatory land-use planning in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Rainforest Foundation UK, United Kingdom
By devolving greater powers to decentralized administrations, land-use planning reforms underway in the Democratic Republic of Congo present an opportunity to integrate community tenure rights and local development needs into wider planning processes. Yet there remain significant barriers to effective community participation in these processes including the lack of available geospatial data on their existing use and possession of forests, weak political representation as well as different technical and logistical constraints. The Rainforest Foundation UK’s land-use planning initiative in DRC seeks to overcome these barriers through participatory approaches and the use of simple, low-cost technologies to enable forest peoples to proactively engage in and shape land-use planning. This paper describes the methodology and results from two different pilot experiences to date, and considers some of the challenges for doing this at scale.
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-13: New initiatives in urban land policy|
Session Chair: Sameh Naguib Wahba, World Bank, United States of America
Expanding urban land access and housing in Ethiopia
Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, Ethiopia
Land as a key enabler for delivering affordable housing in Kenya
Ministry of Transport, Infrastructure, Housing and Urban Development
‘Chile Propietario’ program to regularize informal properties
Ministry of National Assets, Chile
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||Discussing on the Latin-American land administration ecosystem (light lunch, in Spanish only)|
Session Chair: Mike Mora, Organization of American States, United States of America
In this networking session participants will have an opportunity to hear an introductory lighting talk aimed at sparking informal conversations among the attendees about the state of the Latin-American land administration ecosystem. Also, participants will have the opportunity to contribute with their ideas to strengthen this ecosystem by adding thoughts to a wall dedicated to generate a narrative for the strengthening of the ecosystem in areas of regulation, technologies and institutional arrangements.
|MC 13-121 Lounge|
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-01: Land governance in the Arab states|
Session Chair: Wael Zakout, World Bank, United States of America
Setting the scene
World Bank, United States of America
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Saudi Arabia
.In Saudi Arabia as in other countries, the management of land is a core function of government. As a consequence, the process of creation and maintenance of land registration and land information systems is, necessarily, administratively-driven. However, the benefits of improved of land registration and land information systems accrue overwhelming to citizens and private-sector companies in a range of forms, with potential for
• Increase in economic efficiency
• Expansion of economic opportunity
• Promotion of urban vitality
• Nurturing of citizen well-being
• Contribution to environmental sustainability
This paper describes the socio-economic impact of implementing improved land registration and land information systems in Saudi Arabia, with a focus on the contribution of this work to accomplishing urgent national objectives as defined in the Kingdom’s National Transformation Plan 2020 and Vision 2030 documents.
Ministry of Finance, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)
Georges Maarrawi is the Director General of the Lebanese General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre.
He holds an MBA from UQAM - ESIG and an honorary doctorate from the Lebanese Canadian University. Prior to his appointment as Director General, he was the head of Mount Lebanon regional tax office at the Ministry of Finance.
His career at MoF involved also the design phase of the VAT system and in developing strategies and policies. He was a short term Tax Expert for the IMF and the WBG, and as such conducted several missions pertaining to the modernization of tax administrations in the MENA region.
He has been teaching IAS / IFRS and Public Finance at the Lebanese University since 2001.
darfur land commission, Sudan
مفوضية أراضي دافور
اﻟﺳودان ھو ﺛﺎﻟث أﻛﺑر ﺑﻠد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎرة اﻷﻓرﯾﻘﯾﺔ بمساحة ﻗدرھﺎ 1,882,000 ﻣرﺑﻊ ﻛم .
- ﯾﻌﯾش اﻟﺳودان ﺣﺎﻟﯾﺎ ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﻼم ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌد اﻟﺻراع وﯾطﻣﺢ إﻟﻰ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ واﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻼم اﻟﻣﺳﺗدام ﻣﻊ وﺟود ﺗدﻓﻘﺎت اﻟﺿﺧﻣﺔ ﻣن اﻟﮭﺟرة ﻣن اﻟرﯾف إﻟﻰ اﻟﺣﺿر و اﻟﻧزوح ﺑﺳﺑب اﻟﺻراﻋﺎت اﻟطوﯾﻠﺔ وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ دارﻓور.
- لطالما كانت الأرض سبب رئيسي لاندلاع وتصاعد هذه الصراعات، لذلك أﻧﺷﺋت المفوضية ﻛﺟزء ﻣن اﺗﻔﺎق ﺳﻼم دارﻓورلتحقيق الأهداف التالية:
o اﻟﺗﺣﻛﯾم ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺎزﻋﺎت ﺣﻘوق اﻷراﺿﻲ
o ﺗﻘدﯾم ﺗوﺻﯾﺎت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ ﻣوﺿوع اﻻﻋﺗراف ﺑﺎﻟﺣﻘوق اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷرض.
o ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺗﻌوﯾض اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ اﻟطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﻣﻘدﻣﺔ إﻟﯾﮭﺎ .
o إنشاء ﻗﺎﻋدة ﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت رﺳم ﺧراﺋط اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷراﺿﻲ ؛ و إﻧﺷﺎء وﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺳﺟﻼت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷراﺿﻲ.
- ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن أن دﻋم GLTN وUNHbaitat للمفوضية ﯾﺳﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ ﺿﻣﺎن ﻧﺟﺎح ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﻌودة وإﻋﺎدة اﻹدﻣﺎج، ﻣﺎ زال ھﻧﺎك اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﮫ ﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن إدارة وﺣوﻛﻣﺔ اﻷراﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳودان ، ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام ﻧﮭﺞ إدارة اﻷراﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﻼﺋم ﻟﻠﻐرض
Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, NELGA NA Coordinator, Morocco
The core conceptual model to be designed for capacity building shall be in harmony with the priorities of the Arab Region needs. It will improve the efficiency and quality of land management and strengthen capacities of land use, land administration, and land development that will lead to a more effective land market. A well-functioning land market together with high security of land ownership will lead to stronger economies, which contribute finally to the stability, prosperity and democracy in the region. In MENA region, the land tenure systems are very similar because the countries share common religion, culture, and history. Multiple informal land rights are inherited and are mixed with Islamic rules and colonial legislations. In the current situation, the formal and informal land rights coexist. The model will be a key for sustainable development by focusing on land information and land administration improvement, which are the base of any reforms.
Land & Water Settlement Commission, Palestinian Territories
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
DFID, United Kingdom
Conclusions and next steps
1World Bank, United States of America; 2UN Habitat, Kenya
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-02: Farm size & productivity in Africa|
Session Chair: Keith Fuglie, USAID, United States of America
Revisiting the farm size-productivity relationship based on a relatively wide range of farm sizes: evidence from Kenya
Michigan State University, United States of America
This paper revisits the inverse farm size-productivity relationship in Kenya. The study makes two contributions. First, the relationship is examined over a much wider range of farm sizes than most studies, which is particularly relevant in Africa given the recent rise of medium- and large-scale farms. Second, we test the inverse relationship hypothesis using three different measures of productivity including profits per hectare and total factor productivity, which are arguably more meaningful than standard measures of productivity such as yield or gross output per hectare. We find a U-shaped relationship between farm size and all three measures of farm productivity. The inverse relationship hypothesis holds on farms between zero and 3 hectares. The relationship between farm size and productivity is relatively flat between 3 and 5 hectares. A strong positive relationship between farm size and productivity emerges within the 5 to 70 hectare range of farm sizes.
Does mechanization reverse the farm-size productivity relationship? Evidence from Ethiopia
World Bank, United States of America
Although inverse farm-size productivity relationship is a recurring evidence in the literature of agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa, almost all the empirical applications use data from smallholder agriculture. This paper aims at contributing to the ongoing debate by investigating the relationship over a large variation of farm sizes for major crops commonly grown by small, medium and large farms in Ethiopia. The analysis is further expanded to value of output and some measure of “profit” depending on availability of input prices (e.g., for family labor). The wide variation in farm size allows us to assess the effect of farm heterogeneity arising from level of mechanization which requires contiguous piece of land. We use data from two rounds (2014 and 2016) of smallholder panel household survey (less than 10 ha) and two rounds (2014 and 2015) large and medium panel commercial farm survey (10 ha and above).
Can large farm spillovers foster smallholders structural transformation? Evidence from Zambia
1World Bank, United States of America; 2IAPRI
A decade after the global commodity price boom led to a wave of land acquisition in developing countries (and foreigners have given way to locals), the extent to which such investment can act as a catalyst for structural transformation (and by implication policies to maximize such effects) remain poorly understood. Combining a smallholder survey with data on ‘emergent’ farmers shows that mechanization and substitution of purchased inputs for labor allows the latter to outperform small producers. Smallholder farmers located close to emergent farmers who provide traction services to neighbors benefit from spillovers in terms of access to traction, fertilizer use and land productivity. Policy implications of the fact that positive spillovers remain local and limited to ‘small’ emergent farmers are drawn out.
Does sample truncation affect assess the inverse farm size-productivity relationship? Evidence from Malawi
1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
To explore if the focus on household-based samples characteristic of most studies of the inverse farm-size productivity relationship (IR) affects results and policy recommendations, we complement household survey data from Malawi with a representative survey of estates. For a wide range of specifications, a strong IR between area operated and yield disappears if profits valuing family labor at market rates are used. An IR at farm level holds irrespectively of the sample but disappears at plot level for estates, supporting the notion of imperfections in labor market that affect smallholders disproportionately being at the root of the relationship. For corporate estates, the IR for yield disappears and a significant negative relationship between farm size and labor use per ha emerges.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-03: Applications of earth observation in rural areas|
Session Chair: Thomas Esch, DLR, Germany
Large-scale land acquisition monitoring with high resolution imagery retrieval and profiling in the ASAP platform
1Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany; 3GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Germany; 4European Space Agency, United States of America
Detailed geographic information on Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA) in developing countries is generally not easily available due to several reasons, including low transparency of such deals, remoteness of the areas concerned and conflicts about tenure rights. In such a situation remote sensing is one of the most promising means for mapping and monitoring LSLAs during their implementation, by detecting land cover and land management changes visible from space. The high resolution viewer of the ASAP (Anomaly Hotspots of Agricultural Production) platform is a recently developed example of such an application. High resolution image time series visualization and analysis provides the geographic evidence allowing detection of phenological crop stages, large open fires, vegetation clearing, flooded areas or new infrastructure (eg. irrigation, greenhouse, roads) implemented in each parcel of an LSLA. This ideally complements non geographic information collected by other projects such a for example the Land Matrix and facilitates impact monitoring.
Geospatial big data platform for water for all in Indus basin
1University of Punjab, Pakistan; 2Member Water, Planning and Development Department, Govt of Punjab, India; 3Executive Engineer, Irrigation department, Govt of Punjab, India; 4Assistant Chief (Coordination), Planning and Development Department, Govt of Punjab, India
Indus Basin is the backbone of Pakistan water resources and it plays important role in providing water for drinking and agriculture purpose. Although this basin along with its major rivers and glaciers provide rich resources pertaining to water availability, the lack of water governance turns this blessing to a disaster like flooding and drought. An important step towards attaining water governance is to obtain better water information and sharing. The government has taken a step in the direction of use of "Big Data" with data clearinghouse for hydro-meteorological applications at Indus basin level. Big data is helpful in storing and extracting useful information about water resources which is achieved by analyzing data statistically in the temporal and spatial domain. The platform also uses hydraulic and hydrological modeling and socioeconomic data to analyze vulnerability and risk especially for the marginalized area within the river basin.
Realtime digital soil fertility data for fact-based fertilizer selection by smallholder farmers
1AgroCares, Netherlands, The; 2SoilCares Foundation, The Netherlands
Recent technological innovations in IT, sensor technology and machine learning have opened the possibility to use Near InfraRed (NIR) sensors for on-the-spot, real-time and affordable soil tests within 10 minutes using a Bluetooth connection between the NIR sensor and a software application for data interpretation on a smartphone. Within 10 minutes the farmer receives a soil status report and a fertilizer recommendation for his specific crop selection. This innovation was first released in Kenya in 2017 and has rapidly expanded to 15 countries, and growing. In this paper, the innovation and experiences and new developments since the introduction of the innovation are presented. Within 1 year about 25000 farmers were reached of which more than 50% imported significant yield increases, about 75% changed their farming practices and more than 80% requested soil tests for the next season. By integrating soil data into data platforms more holistic interventions can be developed.
New ways to use remote sensing based phenology and machine learning for mapping irrigated and rainfed agriculture in Africa
1Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH, Germany; 2Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany; 3University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
In spite of the need for consistent, explicit and large-scale cropland/farmland information at high spatial resolution for land management decision making and food production estimates, these data sets are not yet readily available for Africa. The cropland layers that are currently available in Africa do not provide thematic detail beyond cropland and non-cropland at a fine spatial scale and essentially do not exploit the wealth of information extractable from longer time-series data (now available from well-processed 30-meter Landsat or 10-20-meter Sentinel time-series data). In our approach, we showed how better thematic detail and mapping accuracies can be attained in mapping irrigated versus rainfed agriculture in Africa using only the function parameters from best fit harmonics, derived from long-term 30-meter Landsat vegetation index observations. We are confident that the current method can be employed for effective and accurate land use mapping and as such complement future land use policy plans.
Use of Remote sensing technology in small holder supply chains in Asia
International Finance Corporation, India
Majority of farmers in Asian countries like India and Vietnam are smallholders, farming on less than two hectares of land. As food demand increases by 20% and arable land keeps getting scarce, yield improvements through smart land-water use management has the potential to increase food availability. Yield gaps exceed 50% in many Asian countries owing to technology gap. New business models in agriculture, leveraging technology through data analytics and artificial intelligence, can help farmers access information related to their land, agri-inputs, weather, finance, and markets, thereby helping them increase yields, improve incomes,resilience and traceability. In this scenario, IFC MAS advisory is working with CropIN and Farm Force in sugar and coffee value-chains of DSCL (India) and Simexco (Vietnam) to deliver:
• GIS and remote sensing solutions for digital monitoring and digital management of 5000 sugarcane and 5000 coffee farms
• Smart weather-risk digital solutions to farmers providing real-time weather forecast and crop-advisory
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-04: Beyond joint titling: Making land institutions gender-sensitive|
Session Chair: Bina Agarwal, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Implementing Uganda's gender strategy on land through issuance of certificates of customary ownership : A case of Kabale and Adjumani districts in Uganda
1Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Uganda; 2UN-Habitat/Global Land Tool Network, Kenya
Land is a critical resource for both women and men in Uganda. It has multiple values and functions, thus making it more critical for people’s livelihoods.Land is not only a material and productive resource that enables survival,production but is also a symbolic resource that heavily influences status and identity.
Across Uganda, many women tell a similar tale: they use the land to produce food, yet lack secure rights to land,and largely remain mere laborers on land. With secure rights to land,women can improve food security, and economic development for their families. Improving women’s access to and control over land has a positive effect on poverty reduction and economic growth. Ensuring the security of tenure for women on Customary tenure in Uganda by including the woman's name on the certificate of customary ownership has yielded such results issued to over 2000 households in the districts of Kabale and Adjumani in Uganda.
When joint ownership is not sufficient to ensure joint registration: Lessons from Cabo Verde
1Resource Equity, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
This paper identifies and summarizes lessons learned regarding gender and social integration for the MCC Compact in Cabo Verde’s Land Management Investment Project (LMIP). It is especially relevant to the question of what is required to ensure that legal rights – such as marital property rights that are established in the Family Code - are fully realized in the context of land administration reforms. In this example, the law provides clear property rights to people in relationships (marriage, de facto unions, etc.) but the law alone was not sufficient to ensure that the implementation of the project could address entrenched social and cultural norms that tend to favor men’s interests in property over those of women.
Inclusive and gender-aware participatory land registration in Indonesia
1Meridia, The Netherlands; 2Kadaster International, The Netherlands; 3ATR / BPN, Indonesia
Utilising a participatory land registration approach, this paper argues how inclusive and gender aware land titling, involving local community teams, can lead to faster, affordable and more socially anchored land registration.
Coupled with building support across authorities such as village chiefs, district heads and government agencies, allows for a both bottom up and top down approach, capturing interest and concerns of all key stakeholders in the process. The paper also demonstrates, that if not taken seriously, these stakeholders can pose serious risks to the success of the project.
By using a local village community land rights committee that with strong representation of women, the land registration process had a high acceptance rate and support in the communities worked in.
We also show that developing a software application that guides such a process, being easy to use for village members, while compliant with government regulations and requirements, is essential.
Promoting women’s right to land inheritance through agriculture incentivization
1Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2Independent Consultant
This paper offers an economic development-driven and empirically-grounded approach to the acquisition and strengthening of land rights for women in Burundi. This involves valuing their contribution to the agricultural sector seen as a cornerstone for the overall development of the country. Based on existing data and realistic projections, we will explore some functional relationships between improving women's access to land and their potential to boost agricultural production and hence open a new perspective on how the Burundian Government and its partners can use current and future incentives in the agriculture sector to improve women’s access to land.
There is an increasing need for activists and policy makers to move beyond legal formalism and articulate the current policy debate and actions aimed at alleviating poverty and development at country level with strategies that promote and secure women’s land rights.
Storytelling: a powerful strategy to increase women’s access to land/property rights in Uganda and beyond
1IHC Global, United States of America; 2Makerere University
World Bank data from 2013 shows that 142 countries have laws granting equal property ownership rights to women and men, and 116 countries have laws providing equal inheritance rights to daughters and sons. Unfortunately, laws are insufficient. In Uganda, data from a recent study of property ownership (IHC Global, 2017) highlighted discrepancies between the intent of the laws and exercise of women’s property rights. These discrepancies are largely rooted in conflicts between customary traditions and the laws, coupled with lack of awareness of women’s rights they enshrine. In September 2018, IHC Global piloted a “theater for development” approach that raised issues about women’s ability to exercise their property rights in an accessible, relatable, and non-confrontational way. A community forum followed the production which allowed audience members to discuss the issues raised. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the pilot through an evaluation of event survey data and key informant interviews.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-05: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy|
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The
The importance and nature of (land administration) data when using emerging technologies
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Reflections on the possible privatization of Land Registries by making use of emerging technologies
Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
Embracing emerging technologies; preconditions, threshold, possibilities and guarantees
International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
East-African perspectives and experiences, using modern technology while building up Land Administration systems in the region.
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
A brief introduction about the experiences in Brazil, Peru and other countries in South America
Global Land Alliance, Peru
The experience in Australia with privatising land registries
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-06: Challenges of redistributive land reform|
Session Chair: Arno Schaefer, European Commission, Belgium
Valuer general of South Africa; rights, responsibilities, and land reform
Greenfield Advisors, Inc., United States of America
The South African Property Valuation Act, 17 of 2014 provides for the establishment, functions and powers of the Office of the Valuer-General. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides for the protection of property, expropriation of property for public purposes or in the public interest where said expropriation of property is subject to equitable compensation by the government. The government will also take reasonable legislative measures in order to facilitate land reform and restitution of land by which a person or community was dispossessed as a result of past discriminatory laws or practices. This paper will outline how the newly formed office of the Valuer-General is designed to help the government manage its assets. This includes both land reform valuations as well as government property targeted for acquisition or disposal.
The implications of incomplete restorative justice in South African land restitution: lessons from the Moletele case.
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Since 2005, South Africa’s post-apartheid state has opted to impose inclusive business model arrangements between land claimant communities and private sector partners to ensure the ‘successful’ resolution of land restitution claims in the country. The inclusive business model approach was therefore deemed compatible in achieving both, social justice imperatives and capacitation or entrepreneurial objectives framed by the country’s Black economic empowerment (BEE) objectives. In this context however, I argue that the role of the state and private agribusiness partners are substantial but also recalibrated, with private partners and communal land holding institutions increasingly being tasked with functions that have historically been linked to the public sector. Findings from the analyses to date, raises questions regarding the potential of these types of partnerships arrangements to achieve acceptable levels of restorative justice imperatives whilst the entrepreneurial/capacitation potential of these types of partnership arrangements seems equally questionable.
Towards addressing the new land reform policy paradigm in South Africa
University of Venda, South Africa
The study was conducted in South Africa to assess challengers confronting the land restitution programme using qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. The general study findings were that when introduced, there was a general lack of knowledge of the claim process and also that land occupiers have developed strategies to retain the land to themselves. The study recommended for either reopening the land claim window that will be proceeded by a thorough engagement with potential claimants around the claim process and the ultimate intention of the land claim.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-07: How to regulate expropriation for large-scale investments?|
Session Chair: Leon Verstappen, University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
Drawing insights from a global comparison of legal safeguards for expropriation
World Bank, United States of America
Arbitrary dispossession or expropriation is often considered one of the greatest threats to land tenure security. We discuss insights gained from a novel cross-country dataset which records legal safeguards on protecting land rights from arbitrary expropriation in 80 countries around the world. Our study provides a comparative assessment on laws and regulations, aiming to spark a constructive debate among policy-makers on how to facilitate legal safeguards and tenure security.
Acquiring land compulsorily at any cost? Policy recommendations for improved resettlement outcomes.
1Ellen De Keyser, Belgium; 2Consultant Surveyors and Planners, Uganda
Large-scale land acquisitions forcefully displace thousands of people to make way for renewable energy projects, mines, agribusinesses, roads and other infrastructure, and changes in land use among other purposes often deemed to be in the public interest or for public use. In order to obtain land for such purposes expropriation is often applied. Research demonstrates that people displaced by such projects often face significant challenges in re-establishing their living standards and livelihood strategies, leading to impoverishment, food insecurity, social disarticulation, among other impacts. Based on a review of resettlement outcomes of projects in Africa this paper argues that, in line with the VGGTs, a comprehensive, transparent and participatory expropriation procedure with checks and balances built in is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of compensation, reforms of the policy and legal frameworks governing land acquisition and resettlement and improved resettlement outcomes. This paper outlines the key elements of such procedure.
Assessment of community involvement and compensation money utilization in Ethiopia: Case studies from Bahir Dar and DebreMarkosPeri-urban areas
1Debre Markos University, Ethiopia; 2University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Austria
This article focuses on the involvement of the community during expropriation and the use of compensation money of expropriated farmers in Ethiopia, based on two case studies outlined in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar and DebreMarkos. The data are collected by using survey research methods and analysed by means of descriptive statistics. The studies gave evidence about the high land tenure transformation in the peri-urban areas during the last decades. Though the majority of the expropriated farmers got compensation payments, most farmers did not use the received money for alternative income generating businesses. The payment of compensation has not to be the end in an expropriation process. Technical and administrative support is detrimental for the proper utilization of the compensation money. Besides, communities affected with expropriation should effectively participate in the processes of expropriation and compensation to mitigate externalities of the process.
The question of compensation in the large-scale land acquisition and redistribution in Southern Africa
Parliament of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
The single most consequential political act of Zimbabwe’s post-independence history was the wholesale re-distribution of land of the late nineties under the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. Though mythically perceived as an exercise that solely dispossessed the settler minority only to enhance the concentration of ownership amongst the indigenous elite, data has proven broad-base benefit. Many smallholders in the post-land reform resettlement areas have thrived and concrete reconfiguration of the agrarian economy has been achieved. The global political fallout that ensued as was predominantly related to the question of compensation for dispossessed farmers. With a new administration determined to reclaim relations with the global community, the question of compensation to close to 4,000 farmer arises again, and in the face of a challenging economic environment. With South Africa and Namibia undertaking similarly problematic, but equally necessary processes, we must ask what lessons can be learnt from the Zimbabwe experience.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-08: Improving housing delivery|
Session Chair: Shishir Ranjan Dash, Tata Trusts, India
Social mix and social cohesion using housing mix: a review of the Chilean and British experience
1University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
This paper explores the evolution of housing policies in the UK and Chile, and takes into consideration the political and cultural context in which policies were developed. In both states and over time governments using conservative and more neo-liberal political discourses have prevailed. The blueprint of the policies set on the early 1980’s have changed little since favouring home-ownership over any other form of tenure via the ABC approach in Chile and the RTB and HTB in the UK. While Chile pursued a strategy of segregation by creating socially homogeneous neighbourhoods, the UK has always aimed to achieve social mix via tenure mix. However, with decreasing tenure types and wide criticism to ‘forced’ social mix, the UK approach is facing challenging times. The Chilean system in particular is reviewed here with the aim of furthering the debate on homogeneous vs socially mixed neighbourhoods in property-ownership democracies.
Affordable housing: a land suitability perspective
1World Bank, Indonesia; 2CAPSUS, Mexico
Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization rates, which have caused an increased demand for housing, especially in central urban areas. There, the supply of land and housing is becoming increasingly limited, causing prices to rise. While centric urban regions become more expensive, low-income families seek for accommodation in the outskirts of the cities, where land is cheaper, but access to services, infrastructure, and economic opportunities decreases, causing a great disadvantage. In this work, the locations of existing social housing projects Semarang city, Indonesia were analyzed according to their implications on: human well-being, distance to central urban areas, and cost of land. Considering these indicators and with the help of the urban planning tool -Suitability- areas to develop future housing projects were proposed. The results of this analysis show that a significant improvement in service accessibility and well-being for urban dwellers does not necessarily implicate high investment costs regarding land acquisition.
Harnessing the real estate market for equitable affordable housing provision through land value capture: Insights from San Francisco City, California
University of Salford, United Kingdom
Affordable housing remains a serious problem in many countries. Even as the housing affordability crisis deepens, most cities continue to exhibit robust real estate markets with high property prices. The low-income and poor households are unable to access affordable housing and remain excluded. This paper draws from empirical research conducted in the city of San Francisco and focusses on the application of Land Value Capture (LVC) through increased Inclusionary Housing (IH) requirements after rezoning San Francisco’s Eastern Neighbourhoods to evaluate its effects on the goals of increasing both affordable housing and social inclusion. Findings reveal that the increased inclusionary requirements used as LVC mechanism enabled 76.2% of all the affordable housing units produced in the eastern neighbourhoods to be financed through the market. The study demonstrates that upzoning underutilized land coupled with a well-planned LVC mechanism can help harness the strength of the real estate market and increase affordable housing
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-09: Enhancing tenure security for forest land|
Session Chair: Dietmar Stoian, ICRAF, France
Gender gaps and actions being taken to address them in forest landscapes
World Bank, United States of America
Closing the gender gap in natural resource management programs in Mexico
1World Bank; 2CIDE; 3Cornell University
Innovation of locally-led adaptive programming in Natural Resource Governance Change in Myanmar
Pyoe Pin Institute, Myanmar
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-10: Using public lands as a catalyst for equitable development|
Session Chair: Devie Chilonga, Mnistry of Lands, housing and urban development, Malawi
La privatisation des terres collectives au Maroc: une voie de dynamisation du marché foncier agricole
Les terres collectives revêtent une grande importance dans la vie sociale et économique du pays mais leur potentiel agro-sylvo-pastoral n’est que partiellement valorisé, à cause principalement de leurs exploitations dans l’indivision par les ayants droit.
L’activité Foncier rural du programme financé par Millennium Challenge Corporation(MCC) vise à lutter contre la pauvreté à travers l’amélioration de la productivité agricole caractérisée par de faibles niveaux d’investissement et par la faible dynamique du marché foncier, conséquences directes de leur statut.
Le projet d’article propose de partager l’expérience du gouvernement du Maroc quant à l’approche adoptée dans le développement et la mise en œuvre de l’opération de privatisation de quelques terres collectives, tant dans ses dimensions de politique gouvernementale, par les réformes pensées et appliquées, que dans ses dimensions économiques, sociales et environnementales. Le tout est appuyé par la mise en place des mesures d’accompagnement pour assurer au mieux la réussite du projet.
Institutional reform of the public administration system and its effect on land administration (case study: Republic of Moldova)
Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of the Republic of Moldova, Moldova
The public administration reform currently underway in Moldova covers all ministries, departments and agencies, including the central public authority for land administration, geodetic surveying and cadastre. Although the Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre (ALRC) has been established in particular on the World Bank’s recommendation as an optimal structure enabling integrated development of a number of economic segments and activity types to ensure effective land administration, it will be reorganized and its tasks to develop policies and strategies in the spheres it used to regulate will be allocated to several separate ministries.
The paper discusses and attempts to assess possible effects and consequences of the ALRC reorganization and its influence on further development of the real estate market and its infrastructure, on the quality and state of the multi-purpose real estate cadastre; it also presents the recommendations developed to improve the land administration system in the Republic of Moldova.
An examination of spatial planning impact on development of the agricultural land in Kosovo
1Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Republic of Kosovo; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Kosovo
This paper aims to identify some of the main findings on the impact of spatial planning, towards the development of agricultural land as a national priority in Kosovo. The process of protection, regulation, and development of agricultural land through the use of spatial planning instruments is by no means new – in fact, the core idea of planning for future urban expansions and developments is based on the reasoning that key national and local resources necessitate an sustainable approach.
Agriculture has been a key national priority for Kosovo institutions in the last decade or so, taking into consideration that Kosovo’s population living in rural areas is about 62%. Though, the productivity in this sector is severely hampered by unclear land ownership, fragmented and inaccessible plots of land, and especially from the loss of prime agricultural land due to uncontrolled spatial developments.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-11: Land administration: Cases from South America|
Session Chair: Maria Elena Garcia Flores, CINDER, Mexico
CADASTRE and access to land
1Cons Fed del Catastro, Argentine Republic; 2Dirección Provincial de Catastro e Información Territorial; 3Dirección de Catastro Municipio Vista Alegre
Aligned with the motto of the conference on Land and Poverty, the meaning of the word catalyst is assumed as the action of favoring the development of a process. In our case, we will address the way in which an up-to-date, modern cadastre, on a regimen, provides the basic elements to favor the process of access to the land of the most vulnerable sectors, the most vulnerable social actors.
As for the most unprotected sectors, it refers to marginal social sectors that due to the high values of urban land and land policies, are forced to live together with their family group, on land taken under the informal "settlements" mode . Although they access a portion of land in which to develop family life, they are deprived of elementary basic services (water, lighting, sewers, gas, social infrastructure).
It is also proposed analyze two cases visible in the province of residence, Neuquén.
Integrating data for land tenure regularization in the State of Piauí, Brazil
1Piauí State Land Institute; 2The World Bank
In Brazil, the State of Piauí implements a land tenure regularization program through which small-scale farmers can acquire the ownership of state land. Efforts have been made to strengthen the capacity of the Piauí State Land Institute (INTERPI) to implement this program. Yet, progress remains limited with approximately 4,000 requests received, 2,500 titles issued, and 258 titles registered over the last three years. In this paper, the authors explain that these modest achievements are in part due to INTERPI’s limited capacity and difficulties in obtaining the supporting documents from other public entities. The authors explain how Piauí is addressing this issue through additional investments in the modernization of INTERPI, the creation of a Center for Geotechnology, the reengineering land tenure regularization procedures and the strengthening of partnership with public entities such as the Land Tenure Regularization Center and the Special Unit for Land Tenure Regularization and Fight Against Land Grabs.
Types of land tenure in Brazil: the first estimate from available geo-referenced information
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2GeoLab- Esalq – USP; 3Imaflora; 4SEI; 5Oxfam; 6IFSP; 7IPAM
The Brazilian efforts to create a unified land cadaster that can improve its land Governance are quite large. The land Management System – SIGEF, created in 2013, is contributing to the formation of a georeferenced cadaster of rural land, comprising public and private areas, already showing significant quantitative results of rural, public and private property. The CAR, a self-supplied georeferenced mapping for environmental management has a large coverage of the private land ownership and possession around the country.
The main aim of this article is to present a portrait of the Brazilian land tenure, based on the different kinds of ownership, adverse possession and others, but also on public cadasters, integrating its information, mostly to exclude the overlapping. This is to facilitate the understanding of where, what, how much, who and how land is owned or possessed in Brazil.
A new approach for the establishment of a regional multipurpose cadastre in La Mojana, Colombia – how to overcome large-scale cadastral operations challenges through technological and methodological innovations
1GEOFIT, France; 2IGNFI France
In a post conflict recovery program context and as part of a development strategy, Colombia has launched a major national cadastral modernization program. Various pilot projects have been defined. Among these, La Mojana, a vast wetland region affected by economical and post-conflict issues, has been selected as a model of cadastral operations at regional scale.
To establish a multipurpose cadastre, IGNFI–GEOFIT has been tasked by the AFD and the DNP to elaborate a methodology with emphasis on social regularization of rural land rights. For this purpose, we proposed a new model of massive cadastral operation, strongly relying on the use of innovative technologies and methods transferred from large scale industrial manufacturing processes. We will show how the catalysation of these innovative factors into an integrated methodology give acces to a new level of efficiency, quality and user satisfaction at a lower cost of operation than current models.
Standardization and integration of the electronic real estate registry system of Brazil (SREI): the national operator of SREI (ONR).
Brazilian Federal Law 13.465 of the year 2017 created an entity called "ONR – Operador Nacional do Sistema de Registro Eletrônico de Imóveis” (National Operator of the Electronic Property Registry System), a private non-profit legal entity, which was committed to the implementation and operation, in national level, of the Electronic Property Registration System. The model envisaged for the entity is based on the so-called "Consensual Administration", in which public interest activities that do not require the exercise of public law prerogatives are decentralized to the private sector. The ONR will be of great value for the exercise of land governance by the Public Administration, as well as to the proper functioning of the real estate market, approximating registry, financial intermediaries, notaries and the buyer of property. The new entity has not yet been formally constituted; even so, its technical aspects are already in full development.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-12: Enforcing adherence to standards for large land-based investment|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Emerging Practice from the Field: Private sector action on land rights in the upstream
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2International Finance Corporation
The Interlaken Group is the leading multi-stakeholder effort to coordinate action between private sector, CSO, government, and community stakeholders towards transforming the supply chains of companies and investors in land-based sectors to support secure community land tenure. This presentation will describe some of the emerging lessons from Interlaken Group engagement with local companies, governments, CSOs, and IP organizations in Kenya, Malawi, Cameroon, and Indonesia to facilitate implementation of corporate commitments to support community land tenure and reform processes.
Etranger et accès a la terre en afrique de l'ouest
Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal
Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous allons, à partir d’une analyse des politiques et législations foncières des pays situés dans les espaces intégrés comme la Communauté Economique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) et l’Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA), aborder la problématique du traitement de l’étranger en termes d’accès et de contrôle des ressources foncières, surtout dans un contexte d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle ou d’accaparement des terres en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle mettra en évidence le dilemme des Etats qui, d’un côté, tiennent à la consolidation des espaces intégrés en promouvant des principes de libre circulation des biens et des personnes et en misant sur le foncier comme un facteur d’intégration et de l’autre côté, à cause de l’ampleur du phénomène de la prédation foncière, certains Etats en sont revenus à limiter leurs engagements en restreignant les droits des étrangers à accéder ou à contrôler les ressources foncières.
Due diligence in land acquisition - Lawyers and their responsibilities
1FAO, Italy; 2Matrix Chambers, UK
Lawyers have responsibilities both to respect human rights and to advise their clients on respecting human rights under the UN Guiding Principles on Human Rights, IBA human rights guidance. The human rights implications of tenure mean that human rights due diligence should also include tenure due diligence and take full account of the standards set out in the VGGT, CFS-RAI and the OECD FAO Agricultural Supply Chains Guidance. Among key issues to consider in due diligence processes is the identification of holders of legitimate tenure rights and other persons potentially affected by an investment, the establishment of a thorough and ongoing process of consultation and engagement, to avoid adverse impacts on the right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food and housing.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-13: Linking global issue to local reality on the commons|
Session Chair: Gerardo Segura Warnholtz, World Bank, United States of America
Consequential trends in global recognition of community-based forest tenure from 2002-2017
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
Tenure reforms recognizing the rights of Indigenous Peoples, local communities, rural women, and smallholders are a prerequisite for the realization of global climate and development objectives. A new analysis on the distribution of global forest tenure in 58 countries over fifteen years finds that while the forest area legally recognized for Indigenous Peoples and local communities has grown nearly 40 percent since 2002—to a total of 15 percent of forests globally—the rate of recognition has remained slow since 2008. Despite limited progress, forests that were legally recognized between 2013-2017 have much stronger protections for community rights than those recognized during the previous 5 years, signaling an emerging upswing in recognition of community forest ownership. To take full advantage of the opportunities offered by recent legislative advancements that could robustly secure Indigenous Peoples’, communities’, and rural women’s forest tenure rights, more nuanced and appropriately disaggregated data is urgently needed.
From lessons learnt to future options for global forest governance
European Forest Institute (EFI), Germany
Deforestation remains one of the biggest global environmental challenges. Over the past 25 years a large variety of forest governance initiatives and institutions have evolved at global level, stemming from fields such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, forest management, as well as human rights and trade. Taking stock of lessons learned on these initiatives in a systematic way, and drawing on the insights of both, policy practitioners and academia is a step yet to be undertaken. Against this background, and building on a qualitative, transdisciplinary Delphi methodology, this article aims at (i) drawing lessons from past initiatives, and at (ii) identifying promising forest governance approaches. The findings include rankings of most important challenges and drivers of global forest governance, promising initiatives, influential actors, main effects thus far, ideal and most likely developments until 2030, underexplored research topics as well as key aspects for successful future initiatives on global forest governance.
Evidence on biodiversity conservation impacts: assessing theories, approaches, and outcomes from community engagement
1Arizona State University, United States of America; 2Chemonics, International
Community engagement is widely assumed to facilitate and enhance environmental and human well-being outcomes of conservation interventions. However, while community engagement is broadly applied, empirical evidence of their impact remains unclear. We sought to examine the connections between the dimensions of engagement, governance/land tenure, and outcomes via a systematic assessment of peer-reviewed literature. Our study illustrated that the current evidence base is insufficient to carry out such an analysis, and uncovered clear deficiencies in research on this topic. Community engagement approaches are not coherently defined such that they can be compared and evaluated, research efforts are widely focused on a few regions and lack longevity and robustness, and there is an overall trend towards surface-level community participation and continued state control of land. Our results suggest that increased cross-sector and historical learning is required in order to test rigorously test current assumed pathways to impact.
Producing useable knowledge for sustainable land governance: Potential contributions from land systems science
1Global Land Programme/University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland; 2University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland
Land systems lie at the intersection of diverse interests and claims concerning societies’ needs for sustainable development. Thus, implementation of the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may ultimately translate, in many contexts, into competing claims on scarce land resources. Land system scientists are not oblivious to this: since 2015, the scientific community of Future Earth’s Global Land Programme (GLP) has produced over 5000 scientific publications (data from Scopus), many of which address aspects that are relevant to land governance.
With this in mind, we screened the 380 highest ranked articles published since 2015 by GLP’s scientific community to identify references on interactions between different SDG targets, assuming that the latter are representative of the development claims placed on land. Further, we surveyed 50 practitioners to assess their perception about the most important development goals related to land governance.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-14: Demarcation of indigenous lands|
Session Chair: Raelene Webb, Murray Chambers, Australia
Jurisprudence of the Supreme Federal court of Brazil in the process of demarcation of the indigenous reserve Raposa Serra do Sol
1Secretary of the association of Notaries and regisrars of te State of Mato Grosso- Brazil; 2Lowyer; 3Notary, Brazil; 4UNICAMP
JURISPRUDENCE AND LAND CONFLICT IN THE PROCESS OF DEMARCATION OF THE INDIGENOUS RESERVE RAPOSA SERRA DO SOL
The Raposa Serra do Sol is an indigenous territory located in the extreme north of the Brazil, in the state of Roraima, specifically in the Normandia, Pacaraima and Uiramutã districts, between the Tacutu, Maú Surumu Miang and the Venezuelan and Guyana frontiers. The main objective of this article is to understand the complexity involved in the demarcation of the Raposa Serra do Sol Indian Reservation, considering the need to bring to the discussion the peculiarities of the Amazonian biome, the question of national sovereignty, which in this case was strongly contested by international agents working in the region, and the debate on indigenous law. These discussions have returned with force in the last months, seen diverse declarations on the unconstitutionality of the present demarcation.
Assessing implementers’ perspective on reform processes: Progress and challenges in formalizing the rights of native communities in Peru
Since 1974, the Peruvian government has formally recognized the collective rights of more than 1,300 native communities with titles to over 12 million hectares. Despite this progress, the Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon (AIDESEP) calculates that there are outstanding claims to 20 million ha of land and forest. The context surrounding implementation is complex, with different interests shaping the priorities of each respective government administration. This paper analyses the process of formalizing collective rights to native communities in Peru, from the perspective of government agents involved in implementation procedures, activities and the outcomes derived from this. The analysis is based on a mixed method approach that combines legal and institutional analysis of the implementation framework. It provides lessons on the barriers and limitations to promote more effective processes around the formalization of collective rights to forests and lands in Peru.
Case study: a model for securing the legal recognition of indigenous lands rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
1World Bank, United States of America; 2REPALEF, Réseau de populations autochtones pour la gestion durable des écosystèmes forestiers de la RDC; 3LINAPYCO, Ligue nationale des associations autochtones pygmées du Congo
The forests of the DRC support millions, including 700,000 to 1,000,000 indigenous peoples (IP) for whom identity and survival are intrinsically linked to their land. In a backdrop of ongoing land related reforms and legal revisions, IP communities, depending on their geographic location and history, prioritize different land rights (access, use, withdrawal, management, exclusion, alienation, due process and just compensation). This case study will present a model process followed by the national level governance structure of IP organizations in the DRC to elaborate a coherent strategy to secure an array of land related rights, through the development of a set of guiding principles; and of a strategy for securing 1) traditional IP lands, held collectively; and 2) new settlement lands, held by IP individuals and IP families, enabling them to settle at their own pace and integrate into existing communities in a fair and sustainable way.
|3:30pm - 3:45pm||Coffee Break|
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-01: Land records completion and modernization in Asia|
Session Chair: Mika-Petteri Törhönen, The World Bank, United States of America
Indonesia: systematic land regularization and electronic land administration
The Indonesia Ministry of Spatial Planning and Agrarian Reform, Indonesia
Land policy and administration reform in Nepal
Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Nepal
Uzbekistan real property register and cadastre modernization
Property registration in India – Delhi perspective
Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India
Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
The University of Melbourne, Australia
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-02: Strengthening professional ethics in the land sector|
Session Chair: Maurice Barbieri, CLGE (Council of European Geodetic Surveyors), Switzerland
Worldwide, Regional and local initiatives to regulate professional ethics
National Society of Professional Surveyors, United States of America
Professional ethics under pressure, how to cope with technical developments
CLGE (Council of European Geodetic Surveyors), Switzerland
The CLGE, NSPS and FIG proposes to intensify the efforts amongst their members in the field of professional ethics.
We recommend to emphasize the professional ethics during the whole of 2019. One pertinent action would be to organize the World Bank Round Table in this field.
CLGE suggests three short papers about the subject with the aim to spark the discussion during a subsequent Round Table:
- Worldwide, Regional and local initiatives to regulate professional ethics
- Professional ethics under pressure, how to cope with technical developments
- Ethics, from theory to practice
Curtis Sumner, NSPS executive director, USA
Jean-Yves Pirlot, CLGE director general, European Union
Maurice Barbieri, CLGE president, Switzerland
Ethics, from theory to practice
CLGE (Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens), Belgium
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-03: Applications of earth observation to assess urban service delivery|
Session Chair: Moses Musinguzi, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Catalyzing innovation for global urban monitoring from a holistic utilization of big earth data, artificial intelligence and open knowledge
1German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany; 2GISAT s.r.o., Prague, Czech Republic; 3Brockmann Consult GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany; 4Terradue Srl, Rome, Italy; 5European Space Agency (ESA), Frascati, Italy; 6IT4Innovations – VSB Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
To facilitate the exploration of new opportunities arising from the digital transformation of our society, the Urban Thematic Exploitation Platform (U-TEP) has been set-up. This enabling instrument represents a virtual environment that combines open access to multi-source data repositories (in particular from earth observation) with dedicated data processing, analysis and visualisation functionalities. Moreover, it includes mechanisms for the development and sharing of technology and knowledge. This contribution provides a detailed introduction to and demonstration of the U-TEP system and functionalities, along with a presentation of ‘best-practice” use cases. So far, more than 330 institutions from over 40 countries have requested U-TEP products, services and platform access. Thereby the user feedback indicates that U-TEP can help to implement more effective concepts and strategies towards sustainable urban and spatial development by unlocking the understanding of the complex processes, interdependencies, and effects related to the grand challenge of global urbanization and rural transformation.
Earth Observation for supporting urban land use policy implementation
GAF AG, Germany
The National Urban Planning process is comprised of several stages from Feasibility, to Diagnostics, Formulation, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation. In order to implement these steps evidence-based approaches for decision making are needed. Geo-spatial data play a major role in evidence based urban planning; the paper presents case studies from a European Space Agency project collaborating with the Multi-Lateral Development Banks on the application of such products for urban planning in sixteen global Cities. The satellite based land use and derived products such as green areas, transport provided Cities with information on urban growth patterns, urban densification and the development of unplanned settlements. Specific case studies in Africa and Asia will be presented to illustrate the utility of the geo-spatial data for effective and improved urban planning and policy development processes
Earth Observation – A support for the distributed energy sector
IABG mbH, Germany
A sustainable planning of affordable distributed energy installations considers many factors, requires draft but up-to-date analysis of settlements potentially effected, in combination with their surroundings. It provides a picture of the actual situation, its potential effect on local development, and with this can support a well-balanced improvement in line with the UN SDG 7.
This presentation will show, on how Earth Observation Services can support site identification and assessment by providing up-to-date information layer, such as urban extent, infrastructural and agricultural elements as well as information related to relief and potential hazards, among others. The significant qualitative increase in site identification accuracy will be shown exemplarily and is based on intense stakeholder engagement within the African context.
The outcomeis to provide ready-to-run cost-efficient, standardized solutions suitable for a scalable site identification process following different aspects, such as remoteness of a region, economic viability, vulnerability regarding natural hazards or other.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-04: Ways to secure women's tenure in practice|
Session Chair: Janet Edeme, African Union Commission, Ethiopia
The impact of land regularization in rural Tanzania; gender, rights and anti- poverty case: the civil society organization’s parallel support to the land tenure support programme
1We Effect, Tanzania; 2Tanzania Women Lawyers Association, Tanzania
Land Tenure Regularization is a priority for both rural and urban Land Tenure Regularization is a priority for both rural and urban Tanzania. The main drive is security of tenure and subsequent economic benefits including access to financial services. Rural Tanzania (approximated at 80%) is categorized as village land. While the government of Tanzania prioritize land formalization to promote and guarantee security of tenure, and ultimately economic benefits to citizens, several other factors must be considered in order to cement on the real security of tenure and thus contribute effectively to poverty reduction. This paper discusses Gender, land formalization as a human right issue, and a tool for poverty reduction. Specific lessons are drawn from the parallel CSO support project which focuses on fostering equitable engagement, consultation and representation in the land regularization process being undertaken by the government of Tanzania under the Land Tenure Support programme (2014-2018).
A multi-stakeholder approach to advancing women’s land rights using the SDGs framework: experience from Tanzania
The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 has inspired actors to use the SDGs to advance specific agendas of interest at the national and global level. The actors who are working on the land sector have, in the spirit of leaving no one behind, organized themselves in advocating for data collection on tenure security, land law reforms, re-classifications of indicators, as well as localization of the indictors in national development plans. In Tanzania, Landesa in collaboration with the Ministry responsible for Gender established a Multi-stakeholder Platform on Women’s Land Rights in order to generate discussions and exchanges that encourage and support the government to take responsibility and to act more effectively and quickly to support women’s land rights. This paper highlights the milestones and lessons one year on since the platform was created.
Women’s tenure rights and land reform in Angola
Development Workshop, Angola
Current Angolan municipalisation reforms present a unique opportunity to affect local practice on how community and individual land-holder tenure is administered and to protect women's equitable rights to land. Angola is a post-war country, with weak land tenure legislation and limited local government management capacity. Customary traditions are practiced in the various regions a of the country do not respect women’s rights of ownership and inheritance. More than 62 percent of the population live in informal settlements with insecure land tenure under the threat of forced evictions. Families living in poor communities affected by the expansion of cities and towns are particularly vulnerable. Of these, families lead by women are the most at risk. Securing rights to land and housing assets are important to livelihoods of women headed households by permitting access to financing that they require to grow their enterprises as well as for incrementally upgrading their housing.
Using institutional cooperation, focusing on Capacity Building, to secure Gender Equality
1Lantmäteriet, Sweden; 2Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda
Rwanda has a unique position in the world of land administration, achieving extraordinary results in limited time with limited resources and limited land available. We might be able to find other successful examples, such as Botswana, but how do you continue to develop and take the next step?
Land data is best served fresh and together with other data it can provide a basis for development of any country but without reliable data any country’s economy could collapse.
Sweden is supporting Rwanda via Sida and an institutional cooperation between Lantmäteriet and RLMUA, focusing on capacity building “Capacity Development in Land Administration”.
Women’s rights are vital to reach the SDG's, including No Poverty, Gender Equality and Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. How can innovation help making actual progress for the poor and vulnerable women living on and from the land?
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-05: Urban land research, land assembly and land markets in China|
Session Chair: Fang Xia, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
Land-constrain-induced poverty and land-capitalization-supported poverty alleviation strategy in China: A case study of Shaanxi Province
Xi'an Jiaotong University, United States of America
Impact of land certification on land and labor allocation in China
1Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of; 2Australia National University, Australia; 3Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Science, China, People's Republic of
Reduction of industrial land beyond Urban Development Boundary in Shanghai
Renmin University of China, China, People's Republic of China
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-06: The political economy of land tenure reform|
Session Chair: Caleb Stevens, USAID, United States of America
State of land in the Mekong region
1University of Bern, Lao PDR; 2Mekong Region Land Governance Project, Lao PDR; 3McGill University, Canada; 4Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development, Thailand; 5Independent; 6Hanoi University, Vietnam; 7World Bank, Vietnam; 8Institute for Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam; 9Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao PDR; 10Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Lao PDR; 11UN Habitat, The Netherlands
The Mekong region—comprised of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam—is exceptional for its social and ecological richness. Over the last decade, the region has undergone rapid transformation in land and its agricultural sector. Key data and information to inform effective decision-making necessary to understand and navigate this transformation are limited. The State of Land in the Mekong Region seeks address this gap by presenting key data and information with regard to status and change in socioeconomic conditions of agriculture and the rural population, the land resource base upon which this population depends, and the ways in which land resources are distributed across society. We evaluate tenure security and governance conditions that shape rural land relations, and assess the ways in which large-scale land acquisitions, the trade in land-intensive commodities, and regional and global investment flows articular with sustainable development in the Mekong region.
New innovations-old problems: the case of the flexible land tenure system and communal land registration in Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
The development of new institutional innovations in Namibia to improve tenure security for informal settlement residents as well as communal land residents has been fraught with problems and has not had the expected impact. It is argued that this is due to the fact that these innovations are not sufficiently embedded in the registration functions, or society, but are driven from the top. Instead the FLTS and the NCLAS have created an innovation architecture that is parralel to the existing systems, rather than building on the current parcel registration system. The research concludes that innovations that are incremental in nature, and that is embedded on the functions it serves to improve upon, is more likely to succeed. Such an approach is more likely to gain support with the private sector to help establish a land market and leverage investment in land and agriculture.
"A limited contribution to a complex development problem"? Land titling and land tenure in the Mekong region
1Forest Trends, United States of America; 2University of Colorado, United States of America; 3Australian National University, Australia; 4Centre for Policy Studies, Cambodia; 5National University of Laos, Lao PDR; 6Mekong Regional Land Governance Project, Lao PDR
Using a comparative analysis of agribusiness models and associated land tenure in the Mekong region, this paper speaks to current debates about land titling in the Mekong region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam) and elsewhere. Over the past three years, we examined cases in these four countries in which titling and other property formalization intersected with land-based investments. We found that while formalization fundamentally changes how smallholders fare in the face of agricultural expansion, the details depend heavily on a range of other contextual factors. Specifically, we argue that that: 1) titling can enhance security, but can just as easily undermine it; 2) titling should prioritize rural livelihoods and the needs of marginalized groups; 3) titling is a “modular” process that should be tailored to design socially optimal forms of recognition; and, 4) better regulation of land investment is badly needed to complement existing and future titling initiatives.
What policy lessons can we learn from stalled land reforms? Insights from Senegal
1University of Toronto, Canada; 2Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale (IPAR), Senegal
In the last 20 years, the Senegalese government started a land reform process on three occasions but interrupted it each time. What does this pattern of stalled land reforms reveal about state-society relations in Senegal? What policy lessons can we draw from these inconclusive efforts? In this paper, we identify the constellations of actors and interests that have led the Senegalese government to shelve land reform proposals, with a focus on the latest attempt started in 2012. We argue that the reasons explaining the reluctance of the Senegalese state to bring successive land reforms to completion oscillate between avoidance in the face of a strong civil society and strategic accommodation to the status quo through piecemeal, incremental changes to the current legal system. Our findings are based on a careful analysis of institutional documents, interviews with experts, and participant observations in meetings of the 2012 National Commission on Land Reform.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-07: Can building regulations be designed properly?|
Session Chair: Richard Grover, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
Process of buildings legalization in Republic of Macedonia from the perspective of the real estate cadastre
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Objects constructed without licenses are generally known as illegal constructions, and are phenomenon that has occurred immediately after the Republic of Macedonia declared its independence. The obstructions pertaining to legal trade of the land under the influence of socialism (state ownership), typical for the period before the declaration of the independence (1991), accompanied by the accelerating migration of the population from rural to urban areas, high expenses associated with the regular construction of buildings, as well as the weak economic power of the population, to name but a few of the reasons contributing to the phenomenon of objects constructed without licenses, i.e. illegal constructions. In accordance with the legal regulations, objects that have been built without construction permission, or objects built contrary to the construction permit and beyond the planning scope, shall be considered as objects constructed without licenses.
Guidelines for formalization of informal constructions
1FIG International Federation of Surveyors, Greece; 2FIG, United States of America; 3UNECE WPLA, The Netherlands
UNECE and FIG recognize the need for guidelines to address informal development and to reduce the phenomenon. This paper deals with the terminology, provides a rational about the impact of no formalization, the concept underlying the need for formalization, explains why we need guidelines and who can benefit from these, as well as how these guidelines should be used. It then describes a global process for formalization that includes the cost-analysis of the problem, the preparation of a strategy, a communication plan, and of the framework for formalization. The framework includes guidelines for the definition of the various categories of informal constructions, the preparation of all legal and regulatory issues, the process to be followed for formalization, registration and monitoring, the penalties and fees, the involved institutions and the administration system. It also deals with the actions that should be taken in parallel and after the formalization and provides conclusions.
Between informal and illegal: comparative analysis of non-compliance with planning and building laws
Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
The degree of illegal / informal/ irregular development varies across counties, and most strikingly between the global north and global south. In the south, the reasons are often basic human needs for food or shelter. Land occupancy is often informal and tenure rights may be customary. Among the advanced economies, illegal construction usually occurs on one’s legally owned land. Why is it so difficult for governments to achieve compliance with planning laws, even where land right are not an issue?
The discussion of noncompliance usually neglects a key player: the structure of the planning laws and institutions. I will argue that planning laws are not “innocent” or neutral regarding degrees of compliance. Their format and contents may be contributing factors in the degree of non-compliance. The paper will provide a cross-national comparative analysis of different types and degrees of non-compliance and the response (or non response) of enforcement measures.
Modernizing planning and development regulations in the Gaza Strip, Palestine
1UN-Habitat, Palestinian Territories; 2Palestinian Housing Council, Palestinian Territories
The current planning and building regulations and by-laws prevailing in the West Bank and Gaza Strip do not fit the existing and the future Urban Development needs, hence reviewing and amending the existing planning by-laws becomes a must to achieve sustainable urban development in Palestine. The current building regulations depends mostly on determining the minimum setbacks and the maximum height limit the ability of architects to shape the urban form. This paper sheds light on new experiences to develop new set of regulations that the municipal councils have the ability to endorse in order to improve resilience of Palestinian communities through sustainable local development, building rights and access to basic services. These new attempts to update building and construction laws in the Palestinian territories will boost the efforts in the future to adopt regulations and standards that will achieve improved housing affordability, housing quality and sustainable human settlements.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-08: Land tenure insecurity and land-related investment|
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
Customary tenure and agricultural investment in Uganda
University of California Davis, United States of America
In customary tenure systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, multiple actors hold different rights over a given parcel. Distributing rights influences (perceived) tenure security: anticipating another's actions can cause insecurity. I incorporate this strategic interaction in a model of agricultural investment, predicting how farmers under different tenure regimes respond to an intervention in different land value environments. Rising land values may lead local elites to assert their historic sales rights to outsiders. The farmer, anticipating this, makes fewer investments on customary land as land values rise.
I bring qualitative insights to an economic framework, modeling how farmers respond to incentives, and quantitatively documenting effects of elite capture. I propose an empirical test, in the context of an RCT in Uganda. I use household fixed effects, as many Ugandan farmers operate under multiple tenure regimes. Rather than using tenure type as a (poor) proxy for tenure security, I consider tenure type throughout.
Rural land in Mauritania facing the challenge of development
Université de Nouakchott, Mauritania
In all countries of the world, the redistribution of wealth poses serious problems. Natural resources and especially land are a major issue in most underdeveloped countries. In Mauritania, for example, "after the Diama anti-salt dam" has triggered a wave of claims of all kinds. The old farmers, strong in the theory of autochthony, consider themselves the most legitimate; other citizens want, as taxpayers, to participate in the development of newly developed land through public investment. Both are encouraged by the state, which wants to develop an important potential for food self-sufficiency. Public funds are injected for the benefit of the operators, which further exacerbates the competition.
We will report specific facts where investor intervention is considered grabbing. The public argument will be explained thus the forms of claims of the former owners or so-called owners.
Going for hybrid maize: the importance of land for the success of maize crop insurance in Tanzania
Erasmus university Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Increased drought contribute to farmers' problems in Tanzania, but the core problem is low agricultural productivity. Local extension services are not functioning properly, while farmers need to move from traditional to hybrid seeds to assure food security. A non-commercial private sector initiative is helping them by providing crop insurance. The Swiss Capacity Building Facility, a non-governmental organization (NGO) financed by ten Swiss insurance companies, funded four projects in Tanzania aiming to introduce crop insurances for maize farmers in the Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions. Land is an important asset for these farmers and our study analyzes the role of land, owned or leased and the prices paid for land. The impact of the size of the holdings was analyzed, showing that there is something like a land market in Tanzania and that the bigger farmers benefit relatively more of the opportunity to get inputs and insure themselves for crop failure.
Land rights and livelihoods in rural South Africa – a gendered perspective
University of Johannesburg, South Africa
The global food price and financial challenges that emerged towards the end of the third quarter of the decade beginning 2000 witnessed a wave of studies located in the land grabbing phenomenon. The analytic gaze of academics and civil society in Africa subsequently shifted towards conceptualisations of land grabs somewhat pushing micro-level analyses to the peripheries of mainstream agrarian research. To ensure that ‘the micro’ retains a meaningful spot in mainstream debates, this article goes beyond land grabbing discourses to explore gendered and classed institutions – marriage and kinship among others – that shape and legitimise longstanding labour structures and hierarchised agrarian and social relations in rural South Africa. Through a contextual and gendered analysis, this article concludes that women from Mtubatuba – a local Municipality north-east of South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province – challenge intersecting socially produced institutions and structures that regulate access to (non-)agricultural resources key to rural livelihoods.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-09: Expanding land markets and investments|
Session Chair: Cornelis de Zeeuw, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
“A Land Market is the strategy for access to land for development”. Which land market? For whose benefit? An analysis of the Ugandan case
Land and Equity Movement in Uganda - LEMU, Uganda
Land governance and urban development find a challenges in the perspective of social safeguards
Asian Development Bank (ADB), Bangladesh, People's Republic of
Ghana: Collateralizing land use rights on customary land. Lessons and challenges for growing the mortgage market
1DAI, United States of America; 2BenBen, Ghana
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-10: Community empowerment to ensure a fair investor negotiations|
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Legal empowerment in commercial agriculture: can small-scale producers secure their fair share?
IIED, United Kingdom
Increased private sector investment in commercial agriculture can create both risks and opportunities for rural livelihoods in low and middle-income countries. The ability of rural people to make informed choices, exercise rights and have their voices heard when dealing with the government or the private sector is a key factor in enabling investments that deliver positive sustainable development outcomes. Yet interactions between governments, agribusinesses and rural people usually involve major asymmetries in capacity, resources, influence and negotiating power.
This paper shares findings from the scoping study for a new project to empower rural producers in commercial agriculture. The paper examines the value chain relations that link small-scale rural producers, their organisations and their wider communities on the one hand, and agribusiness actors on the other. It also takes stock of experience with legal empowerment to support producers in their relations with agribusinesses and public authorities.
Innovative financing solutions for community support in the context of land investments
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
As investor companies seek to use community lands and resources, affected communities often struggle to access the legal and technical support needed to protect their interests. Host governments rarely dedicate funding to community legal support and foundations and donors cannot meet the legal support needs of every affected community.
Where, then, might we find new sources of capital to finance community legal support? Who, apart from governments and institutional donors can help to meet this need? And what innovative solutions exist to mobilize and scale-up available resources to better meet the legal support needs of affected communities?
This paper explores these questions focusing on government marshaling of funds, independently administered basket funds, and the potential for impact investment. Other approaches, such as third party funding, crowd funding, and affordable user fees are also considered.
Rural development, dynamic political economy and social license: a case study in renewable energy project governance missteps and lessons learned.
Acorn International, LLC, United States of America
Extractive energy companies frequently rely on social performance elements—including impact assessment; stakeholder identification, analysis, and engagement; community social investments; consultative approaches to livelihood restoration and enhancement, etc.—as a means of establishing themselves as a ‘good neighbor’.
Alternative energy companies are increasingly looking to the experience of ‘traditional’ energy projects as they attempt to manage non-technical risks. Alternative energy sponsors may view their investments as ‘win-win’, offering economic opportunity—but also governance ‘gains’ associated with transparent implementation of good international practice social performance.
Yet project implementation is often far from straightforward; in some cases what is catalyzed by a new project is conflict, rather than innovation. Anticipating land-related governance challenges associated with developing country and agrarian contexts is far from a simple calculation. In this paper, the authors consider a recent solar power project in Nigeria, and present lessons learned regarding the difficult challenges and choices facing project investors.
Assessing community capacity to respond to external threats to land tenure
Namati, United States of America
In 2018 Namati undertook research to understand how communities who had completed community land protection efforts (drafting bylaws for responsible land governance and sustainable natural resources management, mapping community lands, etc.) responded when government officials, elites, and investors arrived seeking community lands. The central question explored was: “How do community land protection efforts effect communities’ tenure security, when faced with external threats to their land and natural resources claims? The study systematically gathered stories of community-outsider interactions from sixty communities across Mozambique, Uganda and Liberia, then analyzed the anecdotes as a coherent group. The findings indicate that although communities' experiences illustrated legal empowerment and commitment to good governance of their lands and natural resources, the communities had difficulty successfully advocating for their interests when potential investors were accompanied by powerful government officials and when significant economic benefits were promised.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-11: Land administration: Cases from Eastern Europe|
Session Chair: Mihai Taus, Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
Jointly towards improvement of land administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina
1Republic Authority for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Federal Administration for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 3Capacity Building for Improvement of Land Administration and Procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina - CILAP project
Strengthening of the land administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina is recognized as an important goal that can significantly contribute to the secured tenure rights, an efficient property market, the European Union accession and consequently to overall economic and social development and growth.
Joint efforts of geodetic authorities with the support of various carefully coordinated projects are leading to the fulfillment of ultimate goals, improvement of land administration system and facilitation of public service provision. The dedicated work on the establishment of accurate and up to date property registers, address registers and sales price registers has attracted many stakeholders enabling continuous activities on data integration and interoperability.
Exchange of data via web services with other authorities and local governments raising efficiency of work in land administration for user benefits. This prevents data duplication, issuance of incorrect data from unauthorized sources, helps in clear definition of roles and jurisdictions among public institutions.
Innovative technology combat for still pending privatization, legalization challenges, rooted in the communist regime
1NIRAS OY; 2Independent
Is there a light at the end of the tunnel?
Comparative study on ease Kosovo and Albania burning property rights problems, as a key topic for progress in EU-Albania relations.
Property issues are very complex in the region; the countries still struggle with a mixture of issues such as compensation of former owners, illegal constructions and legalizations. Corruption, organized crime and lack of capacity of the state to protect the rightfulness of legal owners still exist; causing serious social conflicts and unrest in the last two decades. The paper assesses how modern innovative technologies, transparent systems, centralized, harmonized databases are the ultimate tools for fighting old problems, how technology would assist most effectively to solve complex legal situations.
The still unregistered properties, due to the pending dispute cases, the remaining restitution and compensation issues, the slow legalization of unpermitted constructions all rooted in the unharmonized and incorrect property related databases.
Innovative approaches in Georgian land registration reform
National Agency of Public Registry (NAPR), Georgia
The new land reform aimed resolving several overarching challenges to land registration in Georgia. It ultimately ensured centralization of registration process through “one-stop-shop” principle, time and effort saving, use of alternative dispute resolution mechanism, free-of-charge services, regulation of non-standardized surveying activities, avoid “overlapping” of boundaries of land parcels, security of ownership rights and reach full coverage of the country. successful implementation of reform has, follow-on benefits for the country, resulted in a more effective and efficient public administration. For example, the complete inventory of land parcels introduced the opportunity to develop appropriate land administration and land use policies that promotes continual economic growth in the agriculture and agribusiness sectors, the contribution was not only to economic growth but also to the improvement of the livelihoods of the general public The new land reform also added transparency and accountability of Georgian land governance and improved investment attractiveness of the country.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-12: Improving decision-making on common lands|
Session Chair: Steven Lawry, Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America
Responding to the global agenda: valuation of undocumented lands to promote responsible land governance and human rights recognition
1UN-Habitat/GLTN, Kenya; 2Independent Consultant, Kenya
The paper highlights the challenges associated with valuation of unregistered lands given their complexities and magnitude. It highlights the guiding principles for the valuation of unregistered land supporting the SDGs and global commitments including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Likewise, it features the critical importance on the implementation of these and other human rights approaches to achieve fair and accountable methodologies in implementing valuations of unregistered lands, ensure responsible land governance and the domestication of these principles at country level is emphasized.
It further recommends adoption of fit for purpose principles to decrease cost of valuation and helping countries to identify the key principles and practices needed to incrementally build their valuation policies, industries and systems and to manage capacity development challenges.
Securing forest tenure for rural development: an integrated assessment tool
1The Equator Group, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Alliance, United States of America; 4Independent, United States of America
This Integrated Assessment Tool is the second product of the Securing Forest Tenure Program for Rural Development Program implemented by the World Bank under the Program on Forests (PROFOR). It is a companion piece of an Analytical Framework previously developed to highlight the relevance of secure tenure to sustainable development goals and to identify key elements from evidence and best practice for ensuring that community-based tenure is secured. This new contribution integrates a set of methodologies for assessing both why it is important to secure community-based forest tenure in a specific national or sub-national context, and what needs to be done to strengthen forest tenure in that context. This work includes an overview of the two-part assessment methodology for understanding the different dimensions of community-based forest tenure, reflecting on points of entry for conducting assessments; and step-by-step process guidelines for conducting assessments.
Whose land is it anyway? Exploring new ways for consensus building in policy making
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Navigating the politics of land policy making presents a challenge many countries are yet to surmount. This paper uses evidence from interviews and archival research to trace the land policy making process in Zambia. Using the analogy of a game, actors are scrutinized in relation to their position in the game and their influence on the process. The paper finds that the dominant playmaker, the government, influences the pace and direction of policy making. However, a key player, the traditional leader and defender, is not accorded the necessary game time and space, thus tension is rife in negotiations. The paper concludes with a call for referees, international observers, to play a more pivotal role in directing the pace of the game. Other key players such as civil society and non-governmental organizations are called to co-coordinate the game in the interest of the poor and marginalized.
Land rights progress a participatory land governance tool for Cameroon
1Centre pour l'Environment et Development, Cameroon; 2International Institute for Environment and Development, Cameroon; 3Network to Fight Against Hunger
Cameroon faces several land governance issues, which can be explained by the weaknesses of the land laws, adopted in the mid-70s, demographic growth and the increase of land related investments, creating a growing land scarcity on the territory. The European Union-funded project LandCam aims to generate lessons for the land law reform, through a combination of tools and approach, including field and national level dialogue and using a land governance tracking tool designed specifically for Cameroon, but easily replicable in other African countries. The tool focuses on four points and results will be publish in an annual flagship report: (1) Action research in pilot sites; (2) Yearly in-depth research on a specific land-related theme; (3) National level tracking of land policy changes based on a set of criteria extracted from the international commitments of the State; (4) Remote sensing, used to complement field data, especially participatory maps
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-13: Land and post-conflict: the case of Colombia|
Session Chair: Mike Mora, Organization of American States, United States of America
First social then legal: what 902 decree – law changed. Follow-up on the Colombian Peace Agreements and land tenure issues II
Colombia Rural, Colombia
Decree Law 902 was signed by the Colombian Government after 1.5 years of preliminary discussion and was recently ratified by the Constitutional Court as a valid agrarian law issued in compliance of Point No. 1 of the Peace Agreements. This paper studies the extent to which the decree complies with the compromises, how they address land tenure policy and what is still missing.
One of the main features of Decree-Law 902 is the design of the legal process as a dependent product of the interaction between rural inhabitants and authorities and the informal institutions currently operating. Properly implementation of Decree 902 implies intrusion of the social perspective over the formalities of the traditional legal approach and requires the development of a new way to create and apply law. Decree-Law 902 creates the basis for what could be a new rural justice still pending for a legal development: the agrarian court.
Between over-innovation and business as usual: another look at the reasons for delay in the implementation of the rural dimension of the Final Agreement in two departments of Colombia (Caquetá and Putumayo).
1CIRAD, France; Network for applied research on Transitions in Latinamerica and the Caribbean; 2Foundation CERSUR, Colombia, Network for applied research on Transitions in Latinamerica and the Caribbean
The “Final Agreement" signed on 24 November 2016 has been presented as being innovative with respect to other peace agreements. However the first evaluations on implementation point at shortcomings, specifically regarding those measures involving the rural dimension of the agreement. The authors argue that the low rate of implementation of the rural dimension observed in Caqueta and Putumayo, should be sought, firstly, in the quality of the formulation of the text of the agreement itself and the process through which it was produced; secondly, in the way in which the national government steadily added financial, institutional and organizational arrangements for implementation, into the existing State apparatus, without questioning and rethinking its functioning thus far; finally in the way the international “community" managed external resources for support of the implementation. The authors then suggest alternative paths, with a focus on the future managing of land issues in the two departments.
Land markets, social networks and land-grabbing in Colombia.
George Mason University, United States of America
During the past three decades Colombia witnessed what can be cataloged as the most recent chapter in its history of agrarian conflicts, when massive extensions of land were abandoned by internally displaced populations and their property rights were affected during their absence. Simply put, large tracts of land were stolen while people were running for their lives. In the Colombian context this has been labeled as land-grabbing.
Social Network Analysis techniques are used to analyze the context following intense armed conflict in the municipality of El Carmen de Bolivar, where large extensions of land were purchased by a few individuals foreign to the region from local owners forced to leave as a consequence of mass violence. Based on information contained in judicial decisions, it proposes an alternative, network-based explanation for the mass land-theft that occurred in the country in the past thirty years.
Effects of land tenure formalization on illicit crop production in Colombia
WORLD BANK, Colombia
Colombia must address longstanding structural deficiencies that have disproportionately affected rural communities, including illegal crops (171.000 hectares. UNODC/2018). Addressing the conditions of poverty that drove thousands of smallholder farmers to illicit crop cultivation, includes securing their land tenure rights. The average land tenure informality is 60%; while in areas with illicit crops, can reach up to 80% (National Land Agency/2017).
Land titling in drugs-affected contexts increases the sustainability of substitution programs. Municipalities with higher levels of formal property rights witnessed a greater reduction in illicit crops; in fact, the formalization of one hectare of land is associated with a decrease of approximately 1.4 hectares of coca crops (Ministry of Justice and UNODC/2017).
In this sense, in the illicit crops affected areas, the rural cadastre and land tenure formalization measures, should be strengthened. This along with productive projects, affordable housing solutions, improvement of public goods and security conditions.
Extended models from the Colombian LADM Profile as support of Territorial Planning
1IGAC, Colombia; 2BSF Swissphoto, Colombia; 3BSF Swissphoto, Spain
Colombia faces transcendental changes to define public policies related to land governance because of the Peace Process between the FARC and the Colombian Government. Among other initiatives, Colombia has been working on the construction of the Multipurpose Cadastral Data Model. This will help to define the expansion phase to the entire country, where the inter-institutional participation will be crucial.
The Project “Modernization of Land Administration in Colombia”, funded by SECO, has supported the Government in developing a Colombian profile of the norm (LADM-COL) and the building of the extended models for land administration, focusing on the land-use planning one (LADM-COL-OT).
The document presents the stages that have been identified and the tools that have been developed to define and put into operation the LADM-COL models based on INTERLIS and the challenges that Colombia will face to consolidate the concept of the modularity through definition, building and implementation of new models.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-14: Recognizing indigenous rights|
Session Chair: Hubert M. G. Ouedraogo, DID international, Burkina Faso
The rights of indigenous people to the enjoyment of Human Rights to Land and Natural Resources in Uganda.
1Trocaie Uganda, Uganda; 2Landnet Uganda; 3Land Justice Network; 4Uganda Land Alliance
The indigenous people in Uganda comprise of former hunters/gatherer communities such as the Bennet and the Batwa also known as Twa. They also include minority groups who include the Irk, the Karamojong and the Basongora. Ancient communities of hunters and gatherers, living in forested areas and practicing their cultural and economic way of life.The above group of people do not enjoy fundamental human rights like other Ugandans. The suffer discrimination,severe poverty and exclusion. The discrimination and marginalisation experienced by the indigenous communities range from lack of security of tenure, marginalisation in terms of political representation, poor education and provision of social services, negative stereotyping and segregation. They have common experience of state-induced landlessness and historical injustices caused by the creation of conservation areas. Their right to both land and other natural resources are well established under international and national legislation yet ignored and not implemented thus human rights violation
Understanding the key Drivers of Land use and Livelihood dynamics in the Drylands of Kenya: The Case of Fodder production in Isiolo County
University of Nairobi, Kenya
In the face of increasing pressure on land and natural resources, combating land degradation in arid rangelands of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is essential to ensure sustainable productivity of these environments. The successive droughts coupled with environmental and demographic factors remain a threat to livestock-based livelihoods, hence limiting the livelihood opportunities available to millions of resource-poor pastoralists. This study assessed the influence of adopting fodder production on land use and livelihood changes in Isiolo County of Kenya. Data was collected using key informant consultations, focus group discussions and individual household survey. The findings showed that adoption of fodder production promotes productive land uses and pastoralists’ participation in diversified income-earning activities. Therefore, resilience focused interventions through asset creation are vital pathways that facilitate pastoralists’ access to resources, and opportunities towards self-reliance, hence aiding the achievement of a sustainable socio-economic development in line with Kenya’s vision 2030 and global development agenda.
Land and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa: lessons learned
Open Society Initiative for Eastern Africa (OSIEA), Uganda
This paper presents lessons learned, experiences of OSIEA and her partners working with pastoralists in securing land rights using both traditional and modern systems. We believe that it is the extent to which pastoralists are able to mobilize amongst themselves that will ensure to enable them positively influence policy processes.
|5:45pm - 7:15pm||Spec-21: Launch of publication: “Securing Forest Tenure Rights for Rural Development: An Analytical Framework”.|
By invitation only. Please contact: Gsegura@worldbank.org - see also
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-01|
Cyber security for Fintech and their role in sustainable development goals
TLF Tech Private Limited
Handbook for geospatial best practices for land administration
GIS/Transport, United States of America
Exploring UAS mapping to improve land and resource management in a Native American community
1University of Florida Geomatics Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States of America; 2University of Florida Geomatics Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Gainsville, FL, United States of America; 3Land And Natural Resources Division, Forest County Potawatomi, United States of America; 4Global Land Alliance
SOLA open source for improving tenure governance - way forward
1UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, Italy; 2COWI A/S, Denmark
Blockchain revolution in Georgia
National Agency of Public Registry (NAPR), Georgia
Masterclass on designing smart contracts for land administration
ChromaWay, Sweden and United States of America
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-02|
AI-powered spatio-temporal analytics to detect electricity theft from public road lighting infrastructures and support the efficient use of energy in degraded areas
1NTUA, School of Surveying Engineering, Spatial Intelligence Research Group; 2Public Power Corporation S.A; 3The World Bank
National security integrated land data bank for Nigeria
OGIS Consult Limited, Nigeria
Perceived tenure (in)security in the era of rural transformation: a gender-disaggregated analysis from mozambique
1International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia
Adopting data integration and interoperability as a tool for optimizing land and water governance
University of Nairobi, Kenya
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-03|
India’s de-urbanization of manufacturing sector
World Bank, United States of America
Financial accessibility and private investment in developing countries
1Pan African University, Cameroon; 2Ecole Supérieure Multinationale des Télécommunications (ESMT)
Land access and perceived tenure security in the era of social, economic and environmental dynamics/ transformation in Africa
1International Food Policy Research Institute; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia
Centralized traffic control (CTC) for greater Gaborone city
NAMA S.A., Greece
Neighbor to neighbor: detroit's first property tax delinquency census
Quicken Loans Community Fund, United States of America
The complementarity of education and use of productive inputs on economic outcomes among smallholder farmers in Africa
Center for Development Research, Germany
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-04|
Socioeconomic indices for townships in Myanmar
Curtin University, Australia
Integrating evaluation into program cycle – opportunities and challenges in land policy reform programs
International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
NGOs roles in cross-sector collaborations with SMEs and impact investors in developing countries: a values creation approach
FAST Finance Alliance for Sustainable Trade, France
Land Rights – an investment worth it? Case study from Ghana
Does tenure security influences soil quality and household resilience? Evidence from Senegal
1Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA)/ Commission nationale de réforme foncière (CNRF),Senegal; 2L'Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agriculture, Université de Thiès, Senegal; 3Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA)/ Le Conseil national de régulation de l'audiovisuel (CNRA), Senegal; 4Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA)/ Centre de Recherches Agricoles de Saint-Louis (CRA), Senegal; 5Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-05|
Innovation for meeting investments and traditional landrights
Payments for environmental services on agricultural land: evidence from a choice experiment with tree planting contracts in Ethiopia
UNU-MERIT, The Netherlands
Digital commodification of agriculture in Colombia: enclosures or collaborative land control mechanisms
Lancaster University, Colombia
Corporate social responsibility and poverty alleviation: a case study of Wanda Danzhai village
1University of Southern California, United States of America; 2Tsinghua University, People's Republic of China
Urban land governance and secure tenure in Latin America and the Caribbean: status and actions
The New School, United States of America
Land governance “AmBisyon 2040” : up-valuing Carp investments, millennial rural-urban inclusive growth
Department of Agrarian Reform-Support Services Office, Phillipines
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-06|
Participatory and ecological aspects of rural revitalization in China
1Hanns Seidel Foundation, Germany; 2Planungsbüro Spindler, Germany; 3International Consultant, Germany
Innovation in land administration to aid agro-business investment, diversification of the Nigerian economy – Kano approach
Kano State Bureau for Land Management, Nigeria
Private sector responsibility in supporting sustainable development
Gender parity via digital land systems
1IoTask, Zilla Global, EQUALS- United Nations; 2George Mason University, Zilla Global; 3UTec, Peru, Zilla Global; 4Landesa, Zilla Global
Land predation, climate change and poverty in Burkina Faso: a computable general equilibrium analysis
Pan-African Research Center for Economic and Social Development (CARDES), Burkina Faso
The Brazilian Forest Service strategic for conservation, restoration, social and economic local involvement: The Arboretum Program
1Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 2Public Prosecutor`s Office of the State of Bahia, Brazil
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-07|
Mainstreaming Earth observation in agricultural development – preliminary demonstration results of the EO4SD initiative’s dedicated activity cluster on agriculture and rural development
1eLEAF, The Netherlands; 2Nelen & Schuurmans, The Netherlands; 3GeoVille, Austria; 4DHI GRAS, Denmark; 5SpaceTec, Belgium; 6Satelligence, The Netherlands; 7ITC, The Netherlands
How disruptive innovation can be incubated in any NGO or large business with minimal change to the procurement process
IMGeospatial, United Kingdom
Innovative private sector initiatives to incentivise public buy-in to land administration services – examples from Ethiopia
1DAI, United Kingdom; 2Nathan Associates, United Kingdom
Smallholder land registration with the value chain, increasing productivity
1Meridia, Netherlands; 2ITC, Netherlands
Effects of investment decisions on land formalization for rural households in Colombia
Banco de la República, Colombia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-08|
Land policy and political economy in Nigeria
Arconstruct Limited, Nigeria
Reforming land registration and administration through innovation in Kenya
1Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya; 3Technical University of Kenya, Kenya
Effects of investment decisions on land formalization for rural households in Colombia
Banco de la República, Colombia
Land invasion and urban development in Zambian cities: form, causes, effects and possible solutions
1Copperbelt University, Zambia; 2Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Linking land tenure and use, catalyzing land use innovation for grassroots women
Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment, Uganda
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-09|
Do farmers really like farming? Indian farmers in transition
1University of Manchester, United Kingdom; 2Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India
From ministry to farm house - building trust in post conflict rural Colombia by a multilevel and participative approach of land administration
1Kadaster, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands; 2Administracion del Territorio Consultores, Lima, Peru; 3Universidad Distrital, Bogota, Colombia; 4Esri, Washington DC, United States of America
Mismanagement of diversity as bane to effective land administration in Nigeria: the way forward
The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Nigeria
Land governance in Namibia: challenges and opportunities
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
The confluence of land administration and land policy as determinants of formal land accessibility in Nigeria
The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Nigeria
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-10|
Land policy distortions, credit constraints, and agricultural productivity: evidence from China’s apple growers
Northwest A&F University, People's Republic of China
Are farmers really reluctant to land paid withdraw in China?
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China
Land tenure dynamics and contributions to livelihood diversification in Baringo County, Kenya
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Access to land and poverty reduction in a rural north western part of Cameroon
1Cyprus International University, Cyprus; 2University of Yaounde II, Cameroon
Impact of overseas farmland investment on grain import based on difference-in-difference model
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China
Integrated development and land planning in rural areas in kenya for improved livelihoods
Car Design Research Limited, United Kingdom
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-11|
Rural indebtedness and land tenure-pre colonial, colonial and post colonial legacies
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States of America
Sustainable land reforms as a comprehensive migration management agenda: a perspective of social inclusion in postcolonial Africa
Tübingen University, Germany
Land management in Brazil
The World Bank, Brazil
Assessment of policy frameworks guiding preparation and implementation of resettlement action plans for extractive projects in Kenya
Land Development and Governance Institute, Kenya
Registration of forgotten lands, publicly owned land
Ministry of Lands, Tanzania
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-12|
Achieving fair and equitable tax valuations with fit-for-purpose data strategies
IAAO, United States of America
Agriculture under conflict – satellite earth observation to measure impact on food security
eLEAF, The Netherlands
Positioning-as-a-service for fit-for-purpose applications
Trimble Inc, United States of America
Improving paddy rice statistics in Southeast Asia using area frames
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
The use of machine learning processes in the deployment of satellite image data
The Icon Group Ltd, Ireland
Citizens’perceptions on land security: evidences from Senegal
Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-13|
Going beyond capturing and analyzing data: effective and inclusive methods of communicating spatial data
1Land Portal, Canada; 2Plan B; 3University of Twente; 4Kadaster International
Preparing and using satellite images as a mapping tool in difficult tropical environments
Niras Consulting AB, Sweden
Cadastral mapping using low-cost inertial navigation system
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
Integration of land tenure monitoring in agricultural development projects in Malawi using geospatial technologies
Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Malawi
Experiences in the application of participatory land information tools for improving tenure security in developing countries
United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Kenya
Land Electronic Card. Using the Palm Vein system to curb land fraud and forgeries
Buganda Land Board, Uganda
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-14|
Monitoring drought and crop loss using satellite imagery on the cloud
Radiant Earth Foundation, United States of America
Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data for Citrus crop management support and water monitoring.
1Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II, Morocco; 2National Institute for Agricultural Research, Morocco; 3National School for Forest Engineering, Morocco
Remote sensing and GIS in land use and cover analysis of the northwest zone, Nigeria. Problem identification through change detection
1University of Lagos, Nigeria; 2The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Nigeria
Remote sensing based monitoring of fenced area dynamics around the Dadaab Refugee Camp in Kenya
1Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy; 2The Rainforest Foundation UK; 3Global Governance Programme - European University; 4University of Nairobi; 5Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea
Integrated geospatial information framework – partnerships for implementation
1UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, Italy; 2World Bank group, USA
Speed-up sustainable energy for the Amazonian – remote sensing and participatory mapping as support tool for the global development agenda
1Center for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL), University of Bonn, Germany; 2Tratural, Cuenca, Ecuador; 3AmazonGISnet, Quito, Ecuador
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-15|
Smallholder oil palm intensification, where do we start?
World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia
The link between land markets and sustainable land administration
1iLand Consulting, United Kingdom; 2University of Rwanda, Rwanda; 3Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda; 4DAI Europe, United Kingdom; 5DFID Rwanda
Formalization of rural land rights transactions; the search for an innovative approach in Ethiopia
1DAI, Ethiopia; 2Niras; 3Ethiopian Economic Association, Ethiopia
Fit for purpose in Brazil: a successful test case of fast and affordable land administration in Mato Grosso
1Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil; 2Kadaster International - Netherlands, The Netherlands
|7:00pm||Poster Board 02-16|