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10-07: New aspects of land reform in Africa
Using remote-sensed data and machine learning to measure the impact of Zimbabwe's Fast Track Land Reform Programme on crop cultivation and vegetation quality
1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn, Germany
Zimbabwe carried out agrarian reform in 2000 to correct colonial land imbalances. Dubbed the Fast Track Land Reform Program (FTLRP), the program is widely considered as the single most important trigger to the country’s economic misfortunes. We estimate the effects of the program on crop cultivation areas and vegetation quality. The unavailability of nationwide survey data confined earlier empirical work to localised studies, limiting the extent to which existing results can contribute to the debate. We use remote sensed data that covers the whole country and estimate the effects on welfare using semi-parametric differences-in-differences with genetic matching. Specifically, we employ Night Lights Data (NLD), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and machine learning-generated land cover changes in crop hectorage. We find a high correlation between these indicators and ward level poverty estimates for the 2012 Population Census. Land reform had large negative impacts on crop production, but not on light luminosity.
Land reform policy-induced access to agricultural land and nutritional outcomes in Zimbabwe
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
One of the major constraints to increased rural agricultural economic activity and better nutrition outcomes is linked to the availability of land. In this paper, we use Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data to examine the impact of increasing access to land (through a reform policy) on nutritional outcomes. The results suggest that resource access policy such as land reform improves child nutrition. In particular, the findings indicate that increasing the production of domesticated birds, goats and pigs directly linked to increased access to land is crucial for improving nutrition. However, Zimbabwe’s current livestock policy thrust emphasizes support to cattle production, although the results show no association between cattle ownership and nutrition. The study, thus, recommends increased access to agricultural land in rural areas for improving child nutrition and suggests a land policy review for support to also be aligned with chicken, goat and pig production for increased nutritional outcomes.
Building a National Spatial Data Infrastructure one step at a time- the case for Zambia
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia
The Government of Zambia has established the National Spatial Data Infrastructure starting in 2014. NSDI has been implemented through a project entitled “Provision of and Processing of Aerial Photography and Satellite Imagery and Development of National Spatial Data Infrastructure”. The main focus of the project was to establish the technological infrastructure of the NSDI. This has involved the capturing of aerial and satellite imagery for the whole country, development of a centralized database and the development of web-portal for citizen access to the spatial data that has been collected and assembled in the centralized database. Apart from the development of the technological foundation of the infrastructure there is a lot more that needs to be done to achieve a semblance of an effective NSDI.
There is now need to establish the framework for an institutionalized NSDI and governance structure for sharing spatial information
Assessing communal land use management related policy /legislative setting and applications in Bir-Temicha watershed, upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
GiZ, Africa Union, Ethiopia
Communal land tenure system has been a controversial and politicized issue in Ethiopian. This study was aiming to assess the communal land administration and use policy setting and applications.The study deploys household survey, key informant interview, focus group discussions & document analysis method. Content analysis technique, load factor ratio and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the findings. Legislative instruments to govern communal land administration were adequately set and placement of stable state structure that goes down to the lowest administration level to implement communal land administration was found encouraging. However, absence of national land use policy, weaker policy and legislative application weak updating of communal land adjudication process, low level community participation & involvement in decision making was found as a gap.This needs further research on socioeconomic and political dimensions. Besides, policy and legislation evaluation and revision has to be considered with correction measure to bring a sustainable communal land use management.