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06-13: Providing policy advice through applied research
Governance challenges in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Land Guards and land protection in Ghana
Ghana Revenue Authority, Ghana
Land management policy in many developing nations has been riddled with conflict because of competing land tenure systems. Having transitioned through customary tenure systems to bureaucratic property rights regimes without a complete shift from the former, Ghana’s land management system, over time, has witnessed administrative challenges such that some desperate land protection schemes are taking root, including the use of unregulated security land guards. The fundamental objective of this research, therefore, is to explore and better understand the lengths to which people or groups will go to ensure land rights and protection in a regime of statutory rules and regulations. World Bank-sanctioned Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) framework (2015), underpinned my theoretical argument. Overall, the study found that the land administration system of Ghana has not fully achieved effective land governance and consequently occasions instances where people have the tendency to seek other means of exercising control over land rights.
Assessing institutional governance in balancing food production and environmental protection in urban wetlands of Kigali/Rwanda and tropical Kilombero floodplain/Tanzania. A comparative analysis
World Bank Group, Rwanda
Institutional Governance has been a challenge to balance the food production and environmental protection in wetlands of Rwanda and Tanzania, their peri-urban wetlands are getting more encroached by the population for livelihoods. This paper compares the institutional arrangements in the Nyabugogo- Nyabarongo peri-urban wetlands and kilombero valey floodplain. The major driving forces for alteration of Nyabarongo urban wetland’s functions in reparian urban community in kigali lie in social and economic factors such as policies, markets, demographic trends, and institution governing access to resources and poor enforcement. The Kilombero entire catchment which covers an area of 40,240 km with mountains around Kilombero valley are mainly covered with forest, and land cover in valley itself is dominated by urban areas of Ifakara, some smaller settlements, and agriculture; The area is characterized by diverse land uses, land use intensity gradients, and interactions between large-and small-scale crop farmers, landless herders, and urban populations.
Growth effects of banking development on agriculture and industrial GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa
University of Westminster, United Kingdom
In this study, we show that banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution exert a statistically and economically significant positive impact on local economic growth. This effect becomes more pronounced when the financial sector is more liberalized and deregulated.
The lifting of state controls in the banking sector in the 1980's and 1990's, created a more integrated and competitive financial industry ensuring efficient allocation of bank credits to productive areas.The economic thinking behind all this is that the financial entities, functioning under liberalized monetary regimes operate at higher levels of efficiency and productivity.
Using data from 14 Sub Saharan African Countries, we examined the growth effects of banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution over the period 1990 – 2013. We find evidence of significant growth effects of banking development in SSA on industrial components of GDP. Growth in agricultural GDP is positive but not significant.
Land related human rights in Pakistan: improving land tenancy as a pathway for agriculture development and food security
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Thailand
Secure land tenure rights are crucial for the realization of a number of human rights such as the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being, including food and housing. Land is also a key element for food security and well-being of rural people who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. In Sindh Province in Pakistan, land governance issues hamper tenure security and, consequently, food security and equitable social and economic development. Highlighting human rights principles encompassed in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), this document will outline innovative options for securing rural land access for the poor. Drawing on pilot experiences, the text will elaborate on alternatives to enhance land governance, which has been leading to improved tenure security and agricultural productivity and, ultimately, enjoyment of fundamental human rights.