Common pool resource access rights and wrongs: Insights from Ghana
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Ghana
Common pool resources (CPRs) are resources that are available to more than one person and subject to degradation as a result of overuse. Over the years many studies on CPRs have emerged. However, there are still unanswered questions on how best to manage CPRs while correcting the wrongs of abuse and free riding. Using the case of urban forests in Ghana, the focus of this inquiry was to understand whether resource managers in developing countries employ appropriate tools for the management of CPRs. This article used the theory of access and institutions to examine the broad range of factors including property rights to land and theft that enable people to benefit from CPRs. Our findings suggest that management of CPRs in Ghana is mediated by complex interrelationships between customary and statutory institutions. Different forms of legal (title, leese, deeds) and illegal rights (theft, coercion, violence, deception) characterized access to CPRs.
Spatial planning for land use and protection as an anti-poverty tool in rural areas: case study of innovative approaches on the USAID-funded agriculture and rural development support project
Chemonics International Inc.
The poverty rate among the rural population in Ukraine reinforces the need to change the rural development model. Land reform, reform of power decentralization, and local self-governance are underway in the country. Land is the main resource, but communities lack experience and tools for land resource management. Approaches and tools developed by the USAID-funded Agriculture and Rural Development Support (ARDS) project are feasible for helping newly-established communities set up a system for spatial planning and efficient land use and protection based on modern GIS-technology; and to resolve community development issues of environmental, social, and investment nature. Public discussion of community plans and decisions adopted later by the local authorities are an important component of this system. The proposed methodology has been tested in pilot communities and enables the mitigation of corruption risks in land relations, as well as improves well-being in rural areas.
The official biological killing of productive land under the silence of a class of citizens and applause of others: when all contribute in destroying living land!!!
1Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret (Algeria); 2Abou-Bekr Blekaid University of Tlemcen (Algeria)
All Economists recognize that land is one of the most important factors of production, and one of the decisive determinants of economic growth and development, in any period and country. And most of them agree that rational economic logic invalidates any sense of talking about sustainable economic, human and social development unless it is linked to a strong protection of limited area of agricultural and pastoral land which every rational person must preserve it and support its crucial role as a sustainable source of human food, incomes and also for the accumulation of wealth. But because there are other alternative uses of land, such as those aimed to satisfy many needs of citizens in terms of housing, working, security, shopping, sports, worship, recreation, etc., so the land with high biological productivity is subject to many policies and practices which make them completely and definitively lost its biological spirit and fertility.
Improving governance of tenure: Technology as the enabler
1FAO, Ethiopia; 2FAO, HQ, Italy
Fit-for-purpose enabling technology is an excellent catalyst for improving the governance of tenure in legal pluralistic environments but it requires pragmatic and sustained political will to generate and sustain interests of local communities whose participation is critical for ownership and success. Governments as duty bearers hold responsibility to make the systems sustainable so as to provide secure tenure rights and create the enabling environment for sustained economic development. The paper provides an overview and analysis of the use of technology as the enabler for improving governance of tenure. Four case studies are presented dealing with different tenure contexts. These are clam fisheries tenure in Ghana, Land Administration and community land recording in Angola, Illegal forestry occupation in Tunisia, and tenure administration in private mailo lands in Uganda all within the framework of VGGT. The paper concludes that sustainability is key in using technology as enabler for improved governance of tenure.