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Topics: Commons and natural resource managementKeywords: tragedy of commons, rangeland degradation, collective rangeland management, pasture user groups of herders, rangeland use agreement.
Strengthening traditional institutions of nomadic herders for sustainable management of public rangelands in Mongolia
1National Federation of Pasture user groups of herders, Mongolia; 2National University of Agriculture, Mongolia
According to National rangeland health assessment report released in September 2018, 56% of Mongolian rangelands are degraded. However, about 85% of these degraded rangelands still maintains the natural capacity to regenerate itself provided that animal grazing pressure us reduced. Absence of responsibility mechanism between owner of the land which is the State, and users-herders has been identified as a major cause of rangeland degradation. This paper explores the outcome of combined approach strengthening customary institutions of nomadic herders governing the use of their shared seasonal rangelands and regulatory tools embodied in the Rangeland use agreement between pasture user groups of herders and local government. According to survey carried out among herders adopted Rangeland use agreement, conflicts with access to shared rangelands have declined, planning and enforcement of improved grazing management is in place and investment from local government and herders on sustainable rangeland management practices has increased.
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Topics: Commons and natural resource managementKeywords: Joint-land-use-planning, Tanzania, mapping, rangelands, pastoralists
Landscape approach for addressing land use conflicts in pastoral areas: the case of Tanzania
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries; 3International Livestock Research Institute
Conflicts between farmers and livestock herders are increasingly becoming common place in Tanzania due to a number of different factors. For decades conventional village spatial planning has further restricted pastoral movement within village jurisdiction boundaries. Recently, spatial planners have embarked on developing Joint Village Land Use Plans and Agreements to enable more space and diversity for pastoral mobility, protecting shared grazing areas across village boundaries as part of this. As a starting point for identifying future intervention areas a pastoral landscape stretching from central Tanzania to the northern coastal area was mapped. This paper will provide details on how the landscape approach and mapping was developed and the results of this. It will highlight how such an approach is important for planning development and land-related interventions, as well as providing opportunity for improving local ownership of the process and as and advocacy/lobbying tool.
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Topics: Land markets and structural transformationKeywords: Land, Emerging forms, Livelihoods, Pastoralists, Kenya
Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya
1The University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Sweden
This study aimed to characterize the forms of emerging land market participation and how they impact on pastoralists' livelihoods in Kenya. A sample of 336 agro-pastoralists was used to obtain information on the forms of land market participation and the transactions in place occurring in the counties of West Pokot and Laikipia. From the findings, land sales, and land rentals were the common emerging forms. However, land rental markets were more prevalent since its timeline was only one year and the agreements were mostly oral, based on friendship and trust. Moreover, it equalized land access between the land-rich and those with less land holdings. In addition, they acted as an avenue of income diversification for the households who rented out land for pasture and cultivation. To increase land markets vibrancy, which will stimulate the local economy growth and hence sustainable livelihoods, policies like tenure security should be made a priority.
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Topics: Commons and natural resource managementKeywords: Land, land tenure security
Securing land rights for marginalized communities - Experience from working with Pastoralist, hunter and gathers in Tanzania
Oxfam projects in the Northern part of Tanzania targets marginalized tribes of maasai found in Arusha region and Barbaigs found in Manyara region. Project aim at reinforcing people’s capacity on livelihood restoration, environmental protection and land tenure security for both short term and long term basis.
Customs of majority of tribes in Tanzania, do not allow women to own, manage and control productive assets like land and natural resources. For women living in marginalized community their lives are affected twice, first as communities and second because of being women
Oxfam has been exploring approaches to help communities to secure land rights ensure those rights are protected under the law. This has been done through rough creation of awareness on legal frameworks, facilitation of land registration and linking Citizen with duty bearers.
This paper gives describe the project and give recommendation to different stakeholders working in the land targeting marginalized communities