The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Thursday, 28/Mar/2019|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-01: Redistributive land reform in the 21st century|
Session Chair: Michael Taylor, International Land Coalition, Italy
From fragmentation and elite capture to building new bridges in partnership: repurposing agrarian reform in South Africa in a new era
AFRA, South Africa
Land reform policy in Indonesia
Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Management/National Land Agency, Indonesia
Land reform debate in Indonesia
Consortium for Agrarian Reform (KPA), Indonesia
Land reform policy in Colombia
Colombia Rural, Colombia
Land reform policy in Colombia
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-02: Land tenure security and deforestation|
Session Chair: Michael Toman, World Bank, United States of America
Indigenous land rights and deforestation: evidence from the Brazilian Amazon
The World Bank, United States of America
The impacts of a land tenure clarification project on deforestation and forest degradation in Guatemala
1Boston University, United States of America; 2Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-03: Potential and pitfalls of using drone imagery|
Session Chair: Edward Anderson, World Bank group, Tanzania
Governance frameworks for the sustainable implementation of UAVs in Rwanda.
KU Leuven, Belgium
Conventional systematic survey approaches adapted from western perspectives have been found to be of limited value in supporting vulnerable communities in East Africa. At this pace, it would take centuries to deliver adequate coverage. To respond to this challenge, an alternative approach entitled ‘fit-for-purpose’ (FFP) approach has been developed. Within this context unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are increasingly gaining importance. The aim of this paper is therefore to introduce the application of a new developed framework named the ‘Fit-for-purpose governance assessment framework. This framework is an attempt to develop further the FFP approach from a governance perspective. To do so, we have conducted 37 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders from the government, private companies and NGO’s. By applying the FFP elements, we found that the Rwandan governance system is not yet flexible and upgradable, rather not inclusive and participatory, partly affordable but already attainable and reliable.
Smart cadaster. Coupling imagery from drones and street-view with proper incentives to promote sustainable urban cadasters in developing countries.
1Global Land Alliance, Peru; 2World Bank, USA
Cadasters are broadly recognized as the core of land information systems and a key tool for land administration towards sustainable development. However, many developing countries are unable to address the institutional hurdles and financial constraints to build cadasters and more important, to maintain the land information current over time. This paper, through the analysis of specific case studies, provides a framework to overcome the institutional barriers that typically affect developing countries and a methodology to combine high-resolution imagery taken from the sky and from the street with algorithms to extract pertinent information that reduces the cost of cadastral surveys.
A study on supporting reservoir management using spatial information for preparations for drought
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Global warming is causing various disasters and drought is one of them. Drought is a big issue not only in Korea but also in the whole world. As the drought continues, huge budgets are being spent every year, but the effect is insufficient. Countermeasures against agricultural drought are focused on the development of new water resources such as constructing a new reservoir. In order to solve agricultural drought, it is necessary to systematically investigate and manage the existing reservoirs.
Therefore, in this study, the purpose is to investigate the reservoirs, and to calculate the beneficiary areas receiving the water from the reservoirs on a monthly basis.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-04: Harnessing benefits from urban planning|
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
Contribution of urban green infrastructure to achieve sustainable development goals: an innovative mechanism to bring different actors together
World Bank, Ethiopia
Cities around the world are responsible for 70% of CO2 emission globally. Hence, the Paris Agreement cannot be achieved without action by mega-cities to limit GHG emissions. Similarly, achieving the 17 SDGs will be difficult since SDG-13 is all about climate action. Many Sub-Saharan African cities are not yet taking decisions likely to set stage for the adoption of a model of urban development that can support economic prosperity and manage the rate of growth of carbon emissions. Green Infrastructure (GI) is an innovative concept which refers to interconnected networks of multifunctional features of different land uses having environmental, social and economic benefits. The objective of the review was to assess current state of Green Infrastructure in Ethiopia and make recommendations for policy makers regarding the benefits if fully implemented. The concept is recommended to be captured at the national policy levels. Actions to Catalyze the innovation are recommended.
Inclusive development? Paradox of state-led land development in India
1Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom; 2Architecture, Planning and Environment LTD, United Kingdom
Urban land development in India is changing under the auspices of economic liberalisation. India has been in the forefront of this transformation through distinctive state-led land development model. The paper uses New Town, Kolkata (also known as Rajarhat) to articulate the ways in which the state is implementing its neoliberal agenda in land development. There are inherent contradictions within the state-led model due to aiming to foster capitalist interest while fulfilling welfarist principles. Interesting insights have emerged that point to a policy paradox. On one hand, the process follows market principles of efficacy and efficiency; on the other hand, state's keenness to extend control persists, thereby creating a highly uneven terrain for state—market interaction. It reflects a typical quasi-market condition shaped by the monopolistic state, the poorly structured role of the private sector, an absence of civic bodies, and minimal land and housing provision for the poor.
Assessment of urban upgrading interventions in mekong delta region in Vietnam
1World Bank, United States of America; 2National Economics University, Vietnam
To improve living conditions of the urban poor, the World Bank has supported two urban upgrading projects in Vietnam, including Vietnam Urban Upgrading Project (VUUP) (2004 – 2014) and Mekong Delta Region Urban Upgrading Project (MDR-UUP) (2012 – 2018). The two projects covered nine cities, including 6 in Mekong Delta areas, with a total budget of $926 million. In order to learn from the accumulated experiences in the implementation of VUUP and MDR-UUP, we conducted a study to assess key dimensions of living conditions and dynamics of land and property values within upgraded and resettlement sites from these urban upgrading projects in two cities Can Tho and Tra Vinh, identify achievements as well as limitations in the projects’ designs and implementation, and offer recommendations for future projects. This paper presents the methodology, key findings and lessons learnt from the study.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-05: SDGs on land: Methodology and reporting|
Session Chair: Sydney Gourlay, World Bank, United States of America
Reporting on SDG indicator 1.4.2 for high income countries: the case of the U.S.
1Landesa, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America; 3USAID, United States of America
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include a process of identifying globally comparable targets, indicators and harmonized data to measure progress towards each goal. One of these, SDG indicator 1.4.2, measures the percentage of the population with secure tenure rights to land, where security of tenure rights is proxied by whether people (a) have documented rights to land and (b) perceived their rights as secure.
While much attention has been devoted to data collection efforts for the SDGs in developing countries, it is also vital for European, North American, and other high income countries to report. These higher income countries can still face considerable challenges in establishing and institutionalizing data collection efforts sufficient to fully report on the indicator. This paper presents some of the challenges and potential options for the U.S. Government to report on indicator 1.4.2, which may have important lessons for other high income countries.
Considering the multidimensional nature of tenure security in land policies
University of East Anglia, UK
This paper considers tenure security through the politics and policies of land tenure. The key argument is that seeing tenure security solely through one lens, for instance that of securing tenure through land registration, hides some of its more dynamic aspects related to political, social and cultural relations defining tenure, and to interaction between actors located at different levels. This omission can be detrimental for the success of land policies which instead of enhancing tenure security can reinforce existing and/or create new sources of tenure insecurity. The paper hence invites to consider tenure security from a multidimensional perspective and throughout a policy process. To build the argument, the paper builds on literature on the politics of land and examines the land policy process in Madagascar.
Measuring perceived tenure insecurity: issues, challenges, and recommendations
Landesa, United States of America
An important outcome in land tenure programming and research that has been receiving increasing attention is perceived tenure security- that is, the extent to which individuals perceive their tenure to be protected against threats and risks. Perceived tenure security is a component of SDG indicator 1.4.2., while impact evaluations of land tenure interventions increasingly seek to incorporate perceived tenure insecurity as an outcome.
However, measuring perceived tenure security presents some important conceptual and methodological challenges. To date, a systematic assessment of these challenges and recommendations on addressing them has been lacking. The purpose of this paper is to help address this gap. The paper discusses conceptual and methodological issues in defining and measuring perceived tenure security, reviews existing attempts at measurement, and provides recommendations and sample modules. The paper aims to promote the use of more analytically and conceptually rigorous perceived tenure security measures in future data collection and research.
Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy
Discussant based on experience with SDG data collection
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-06: Monitoring global commitments on land tenure|
Session Chair: Astrid Jakobs de Padua, World Bank, United States of America
The Global Land Rights Index: a new methodology to measure human rights frameworks for land
Abt Associates, United States of America
Despite the inclusion of land-related indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is still no comprehensive, legal or human rights framework that can guide countries to reform laws to strengthen land tenure security. The Global Land Rights Index (GLRI) was created to address this gap. It analyzes six elements of land and resource rights frameworks and then scores countries based on adherence of their laws and regulations. It helps fill the gap in the monitoring of land-related SDGs 1.4, 2.3 and 5.a, by providing measurable clarity to indicator terms such as: “equal rights”, “secure”, and “equal access”. The authors present the GLRI methodology in detail and examine the findings and rankings from the initial analysis of 12 countries, including scores for each field and category. We then discuss the policy implications and particular laws that would need to be reformed to improve the scores.
Land Governance Indexes: Opportunities to assess progress of adoption of VGGT principles in policy, legal and institutional framework of land governance
1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya; 2Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (HQ)
As the globally accepted principles guiding improvements in tenure security, the VGGT (FAO, 2012) have commonly been adopted at national level through ensuring that policy and legislative reform are in conformity with the guidelines. Despite adoption of VGGT principles in law, other factors such as political goodwill, civic education for awareness of rights to land and financial support (or lack thereof) remain key components that may catalyze (or stall) the progress in improving tenure governance. To track the progress different countries are making towards realizing responsible governance of land and land-based resources, there is need for developing a set of quantifiable global ideals that each nation can work towards achieving. Having a set of globally accepted quantifiable standards could be the key to making tenure security a priority in a way that will be easily understandable for governments and political leaders who may not fully understand the tenure security issues.
Guidelines for effective and impactful SDG reporting of progress on land rights
Landesa, United States of America
To fully leverage the extraordinary opportunity provided by the SDGs, it is critical that a wide range of stakeholders report the progress (or lack thereof) towards countries’ commitments on land rights. This paper seeks to encourage widespread and effective reporting that holds governments accountable to their land rights commitments, celebrates the progress made and encourages action, and promotes widespread learning that empowers others to follow effectively.
Creating effective data and information tools for monitoring the VGGT
1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands; 2Global Donor Platform for Rural Development, Germany
Numerous efforts to track and monitor progress on the implementation of the VGGT. Significant efforts to make to monitor and track the VGGT and make this information widely available to stakeholders are underway from a multiplicity of actors. This paper will describe the diversity of initiatives currently underway to monitor and amplify efforts focused on the VGGT. It will describe the relevance of institutional efforts, such as the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), for monitoring the VGGT, for ensuring the implementation of country-level action plans. It will also look at related civil society initiatives established evaluate VGGT implementation. It will describe how these efforts are complemented by the Global Donor Platform’s Land Governance Programme Map, which monitors donor investments in implementing the VGGT. Finally, this paper will feature the work of the Land Portal Foundation to consolidate all of these efforts in a global hub.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-07: Building crowd-sourced data into formal systems|
Session Chair: Achilles Kallergis, New York University, United States of America
Is it possible to collect low-cost household data on slum conditions? Evidence from slum dwellers enumerations
New York University, United States of America
At present, there is little information about the conditions occurring in informal settlements, making it extremely difficult to effectively target resources in efficient ways. This paper investigates whether survey protocols developed by Slum/Shack Dwellers International can credibly provide much-needed local data on the housing and neighborhood conditions occurring in informal settlements. It uses data from Uganda and Ghana, and investigates informal housing demand showing that income, household size, dwelling and infrastructure quality are strong determinants of rent values. The paper further explores the links between household and dwelling characteristics and shows that households with lower incomes and education levels, have an increased likelihood of occupying inferior quality dwellings with no access to services. The empirical results conform to findings produced by more expensive and one-shot surveys. This implies that the survey instrument could serve as an effective low-cost basis for obtaining better information for informal settlements across time and space.
Evidence-based community-driven mapping: Catalyzing city planning and service provision in Muntinlupa and other cities
1Technical Assistance Movement for People and Environment Inc. (TAMPEI), Philippines; 2Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives Inc. (PACSII), Philippines; 3Homeless People's Federation Philippines Inc. (HPFPI), Philippines; 4Global Land Tool Network (GLTN), Kenya
This paper narrates the experiences of the Homeless People’s Federation Philippines Inc. and its partners in facilitating citywide community-driven mapping activities in Muntinlupa and other cities. While these initiatives follow no specific format, it was observed that critical elements define the legitimacy of the approach being promoted. Community participation is essential in all phases as it provides an accurate, up-to-date representation of the needs and aspirations of informal settler families (ISFs). Validation of mapping results at different levels is equally important as it generates ownership of the process among ISFs and ensures delivery of demand-driven services. As a people’s process, the results of mapping can be used in numerous ways—housing, basic services provision and city management. The framework which focuses on the mapping process as a mobilizing platform and an empowerment tool presents a concrete example of a genuine participatory approach in informing an evidence-based, inclusive and sustainable city planning.
“Information is power only if used “-Improving Tenure security in informal settlements using participatory data collection: The case of Informal settlements in Gobabis Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology
The paper looks at understanding the land tenure security of informal settlers, and how socioeconomic and spatial data generated by communities themselves has been used in aiding the implementation of solutions that are pro-poor and Fit for Purpose. Additionally, it provides a description on how enumeration has an influence on the perception of tenure security. Could participatory enumerations be a catalyst for improving services and registering land rights? Can the data that informal settlers produce be suitable for using in planning and land rights registration?
The paper considers the data producers and the data users, to understand how the community’s input through data collection influences planning by the local authority. The paper concludes that, if the data generated by the community is to be used for; land recordation, decision-making or to prove ownership, there is a need for direct involvement of local authority officials in the management of the data.
Count me in: the case of improving tenure security of slum dwellers in peri-urban Lusaka
1Lusaka City Council, Zambia; 2UN Habitat, Kenya; 3UN Habitat, Zambia
The paper highlights experiences and lessons learned on the adoption of affordable geo-spatial solutions and participatory approaches in an urban context (informal settlements), and within a national regulatory framework in which informal tenure is integrated into a system recognized by public authorities. It will also explore the different stakeholders’ interactions and how they relate in slum-upgrading related processes, as well as how the local government authorities attempt to make the different aspirations of the SDGs and other global frameworks, become real to communities, households and individuals, particularly to those who are at risk of falling behind.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Heather Huntington, DevLab@Duke, United States of America
Evaluating the impact of community forestry practices in Sumatra island, Indonesia
1World Resources Institute, Indonesia; 2Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, United States of America
Managing common-pool resources has always been a local challenge with global implications. Community-based forest (CBF) management is often cited as a solution to improve livelihood of communities while conserving the forests. This study investigates the extent to which CBF practices in Indonesia managed to achieve its dual mandates. We focused on evaluating impacts of Community Forest (CF) scheme on forest cover loss, as it is the most likely mechanism to expand community control of forests in Indonesia. We applied propensity scoring approach to empirically measure the relative performances of conservation and watershed protection forests with and without CF concessions in reducing deforestation rate between 2007-2016 in Lampung province. CF concessions have managed to maintain forest loss in relatively low levels compared to those that are not managed by communities. This result shows that generating economic benefit and improving communities’ access to forest resources does not necessarily lead to forests degradation.
Impact, diffusion and scaling-up of a comprehensive land-use planning approach in the Philippines – Results from a rigorous impact evaluation
DEval - German Institute for Development Evaluation, Germany
The authors present results from a rigorous impact evaluation, applying a quasi-experimental and mixed-methods design, of a large-scale, multi-level land-use planning intervention in the Philippines. We assessed the impact on core aspects of socio-economic development, environmental sustainability, disaster risk management, local governance, and also estimated innovation diffusion to non-intervention municipalities.
The intervention by the Philippine-German cooperation supported municipalities to conduct comprehensive land-use planning and aimed at reducing vulnerability to negative effects of uncontrolled development and to multiple hazards, including human-made risks, and climate change. We show the impacts of this technical approach on municipal planning capacities, on plan quality and comprehensiveness, and in five impact fields. We shed light on the implications resulting from mainstreaming the approach into national policy-making.
Based on our results, we provide several conclusions and recommendations for policy makers, development agencies and local stakeholders involved with land-use planning, disaster risk management and local governance.
Results from land tenure formalization activities in the Senegal River valley: a mixed-methods evaluation at medium-term
Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America
In 2015, Senegal completed a five-year project of land tenure formalization, registration and land management capacity building, which was combined with irrigation, drainage and road system construction in nine municipalities in the Senegal River valley. The MCC-funded project included post-project evaluation to measure the impacts and outcomes of the activities, provide lessons, and help insure the sustainability of the capital investments, processes and reforms. Early findings showed that local citizens had improved understanding of the rights and benefits of land tenure formalization and were coming forward in significant numbers to request agricultural parcels or formalization of parcels they already held informally. This paper presents updated, medium-term evaluation findings in the format of case studies of four of the nine municipalities, focusing on the land-related outcomes. The variations of the situations of these communes help explain differences in the quantitative outcomes and citizen perceptions reported in the midterm evaluation.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-09: Bottom-up approaches: A key to land use planning|
Session Chair: Klaus Ackermann, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Increasing access to land for housing for Irula tribal families: Lessons from implementing the Solid Ground Campaign in India
1Habitat for Humanity International, Philippines; 2Habitat for Humanity, India
For many poor households, access to decent, secure land for even the most minimum housing needs continues to be a fundamental problem. This is despite land being an inseparable ingredient for them to survive, earn, thrive and lift themselves out of poverty. In India, the government has put in place laws and policies that govern land use and land tenure. However, deep-rooted perceptions, religious and cultural practices continue to dictate how land is used, or accessed. Through the Solid Ground Campaign, an innovative approach to mobilizing existing and new supporters to influence policy makers toward promoting policies and systems that improve access to land for shelter, Habitat for Humanity India focuses on the lived experiences of a historically marginalized tribe, the Irulas. This paper will elaborate lessons learned from implementing the Campaign in India as well as discuss potential policy actions to address land rights of such marginalized communities.
Giving the land back to people : solving colonial cases of land-grabbing in Madagascar
Transparency International - Initiative Madagascar, Madagascar
During the French colonial period (1896-1960), large agricultural areas had been titled on behalf of French, Greek, Creole or Indian companies. Nowadays, most of these concessions, which may span several hectares are occupied by indigenous peasants, migrants, or descendants of farm workers who are considered as squatters. Such a situation impedes agricultural potentialities and threatens human rights of millions of Malagasy citizens who are considered as strangers on their own land. Worried about the impacts of such land insecurity, Transparency International - Initiative Madagascar (TI-IM), a Malagasy association specialized in anti-corruption, decided to set up an innovative and corruption-free mechanism intended to solve it. After the launch of a Guidebook on land rights, TI-IM mapped these land conflicts in the Diana region (North of Madagascar) and developed an innovative technical and legal mechanism in order to give back these pieces of land to their legitimate owners: the Malagasy people.
Examining how land laws have implemented GLTN tools
UN Habitat, The Netherlands
This study examines the various legal criteria that should be incorporated into legal frameworks in order to support the implementation of GLTN's Access to Land and Tenure Security Tools as well as its Land Administration and Information Tools. This study presents illustrative examples of legal frameworks that, to some extent, support the implementation of the GLTN land tools, including frameworks enacted in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Rather than only discussing countries in which GLTN has supported the implementation of its Land Tools, this study focuses more broadly on a range of country that (either intentionally or unintentionally) adopted the guidance provided by these Tools. By identifying a menu of legal options for promoting access to land, tenure security, and effective land administration, this report provides a useful snapshot that can inform and influence law- and policy-makers to adopt GLTN Land Tool guidance in domestic legal frameworks.
Sustaining sustainable development: Leveraging human rights structures to implement land-related SDGs
Landesa, United States of America
Links and overlaps between the Sustainable Development Goals and the human rights realms results in a catalytic space for land rights advocacy. Both realms share common goals: human dignity and well-being, achieved through substantive empowerment and poverty alleviation. And in both realms, bridging the gap between policy and ground-level realities presents a set of challenges with overlapping solutions and needs for cross-sector coordination.
This paper will explore the potential of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) to serve as a bridging mechanism between the human rights realm and SDGs implementation and institutionalization. It will explore the following questions, featuring Myanmar’s NHRI as a case study:
• How does the role of an NHRI already relate to SDG implementation?
• What specific actions could an NHRI take to facilitate the coordination needed for SDG implementation?
• What capacity-building would be needed to enable NHRIs to play a robust role in SDG institutionalization?
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-10: Land administration: Cases from Africa|
Session Chair: Chris Penrose Buckley, DFID, United Kingdom
Appropriateness of land administration domain ontological model for the national land governance and the promotion of foreign investments
1ANCFCC, Morocco; 2IAV Hassan II, Morocco; 3IAV Hassan II, Morocco; 4ANCFCC, Morocco
Among the land and real estate sector shortcomings influencing the international direct investment is how to identify various land statuses and stakeholders, to secure the immovable property right and to share data concepts and relationships between them. One way to handle this is to set and adopt a comprehensive ontology model for the domain of land administration. This serves two major purposes: On the national level, land sub domains should be integrated and interoperable, namely state and non-state lands, land shaping and improvement, taxation. On the international level, foreigner investors in land, real estate and dependent economic sectors need good perception of the land administration domain and demand expert knowledge about its concepts as well as transparency in rules and procedures in force. This paper contributes in providing a knowledge ontology system and a land administration domain model to help in land governance and its promotion for international direct investment.
Scaling up the more systematic land certification method in Madagascar – issuing 106,000 land certificates in seven months
1Agriculture Growth and Land Management Project, Madagascar; 2Ministry of Land Management and Land Tenure, Madagascar
Madagascar maintains the priority to promote land tenure security by issuing land certificates. A grouped certification method has issued 106,000 land certificates in 7 months, the equivalent of 74% of the production since 2005. This action led by the CASEF project and the Decentralized Land Management Departement of Ministry of Land aims to establish 500 000 land certificates until 2021. It is expected that for the family farming, the security of the land incitates investment, facilitates the access to loan or contracts of market-oriented production, secures the transmission of rights, and allows to register secondary rights contracts, a source of access to land for the most vulnerable. For the Commune, land identification facilitates the extension of family farming and investments. Land database enable to manage taxation, source of financial means and incentive to update land information.
Indicators' assessment of Land Governance in Morocco: a preliminary study
1Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medecine, Morocco; 2Graduate Engineers, Morocco
Two institutions are governing land tenure system in Morocco. One is the abstract deed system to guaranty land ownership and land transactions. The second is the titling system based on Torrent principles. The Torrent system is sporadic, time consuming, and expensive. Many operators are facing challenges in terms of land market transactions and land rights management. The issues are linked to the diversity of the land regulations and the bureaucracy of many institutions. Indeed, it is necessary to assess land governance in Morocco. The LGAF tool as the basis of a highly participatory approach analyzing various dimensions of land governance in a systematic way was adopted to achieve this purpose. the goal behind is to identify good practices and build consensus on priority areas for land administration enhancement. The results of the analysis will enable stakeholders to address key governance gaps and elaborate a clear roadmap of improving land governance.
Land Sectoral Policy document: the ultimate challenge for efficient land governance.
D. R. CONGO Government, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
A sectoral Land Policy document is the place where the major options for land governance for a country are laid down, to guide the design and implementation of legislation. Despite its land's huge potential for economic development and community empowerment, the Democratic Republic of Congo has never designed a Land Policy document since the colonial period. The land existing land legislation has derived many of its principles from the colonial model, thus failing to address the societal evolution, the evolving economic competition over land as well as the need for sociocultural stability founded on land.
Through a challenging land reform process, the country is designing its first land policy document. What are the challenges for this crucial exercise, and what are its potential implications for improving land governance while addressing economic and social issues directly related to land ?
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-11: Land as instrument for post-conflict peacebuilding|
Session Chair: David F. Varela, Global Land Alliance, Colombia
Housing, land and property (HLP) rights for Syrian women
Norwegian Refugee Council, Syria
Years of warfare in Syria have resulted in mass destruction and a breakdown in essential infrastructure and service provision in major cities, as well as smaller towns and villages. Housing land and property issues are massive and include loss of property documents, secondary occupation, eviction and expropriation. While such challenges apply to all Syrians, the difficulties for women will be particularly acute, especially those who have lost husbands or other male relatives during the conflict.
Based on extensive research and interviews with over 2000 Syrian internally displaced people, this paper describes the particular obstacles and challenges that women face and that prevent their ability to exercise HLP rights. This includes barriers based in both law and custom, as well as the complicating circumstances created by years of war and displacement. The paper provides recommendations to policymakers and practitioners on how to prepare for the immense challenges that lie ahead.
Developing land tenure risk indicators in FCV contexts
The World Bank, United States of America
Access to land is critically important in FCV settings. Land is an important social and economic asset and is often the most considerable asset a household may hold in post-conflict situations. FCV settings can increase land tenure insecurity further through displacement, insecure land tenure, and fraudulent land transfers, land grabbing and the undermining accountability mechanisms. Yet often there is little data available to assess the channels by which land tenure is undermined.
The proposed paper will examine pilot efforts to develop new forms of data collection through GIS and big data (satellite imagery, traditional media, social media, administrative data) that in turn will be used to design land tenure risk indicators. Pilot indicators will include: housing destruction; secondary occupation; land grabbing; implementation of discriminatory regulatory regimes; and fraudulent land transfers. Indicators will be adjusted to fit the local context in several FCV situations.
Technology, policy, national systems and local civil society: using a mobile application to protect the housing, land and property rights of displaced people in Honduras
1UNHCR, The Netherlands; 2UNHCR, Honduras
In Honduras an innovative partnership with parishes and government plus mobile technology is helping to solve displaced people’s problems of housing and land. Many of the nearly 200,000 Hondurans internally displaced by violence and organized crime had little prospect of regaining their homes and land if they returned, because the country’s legal framework and administrative capacity was not adapted to protect forcibly abandoned housing and land. UNHCR supported the government to form a Housing and Land Working Group and mobilized parishes with equipment and training to identify abandoned housing and land and record the data with a mobile application. This data is being incorporated into the national Property Institute’s registration system—thereby strengthening a national system and enabling the government to handle claims for redress efficiently. This fast-tracks a solution to a key impediment to return and empowers government and civil society to handle this aspect of displacement much better.
Environmental peacebuilding through participatory social cartography: land, property and social data mapping of ground zero or most affected area to assist Marawi city recover from violent conflict
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Republic of the Philippines
The Participatory Social Cartography Project is basically land, property and social data mapping of ground zero of the war in Marawi City, Philippines which was recently the site of violent conflict. The project is framed under the ‘Environmental Peacebuilding’ architecture with the strategy of leveraging on land, land resources and the environment to achieve the broader goals of ‘Sustaining Peace’ and ‘Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.’
Marawi City was recently the site of violent conflict waged by extremists that resulted in deaths and destruction of properties in Marawi City. The result of the research conducted by a Committee headed by this author revealed a defective land titling system resulting in thousands of overlapping and misaligned land titles. Land and property data gathering thru PPK/RTK drone mapping, RTK/Total Station land survey and participatory enumeration can address the root causes of the conflict thus, leading to lasting peace.
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-12: How can large investors be held accountable?|
Session Chair: Samuel Kimeu, Transparency International Kenya, Kenya
Open EIA reporting and contracting for sustainable land and natural resource development in Cambodia
Open Development Cambodia (ODC), Cambodia
Undisclosed: Practical examples of financial sector disclosure and why it’s critical for communities to know who is financing activities on their land
Oxfam International, Australia
Estimating industrial concession area in the developing world: Results and conclusions
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-01: Indigenous tenure for resilience and reconciliation|
Session Chair: Enrique Pantoja, World Bank, United States of America
Modelling land-use change for indigenous socio-economic development: Curve Lake First Nation, Canada
1Natural Resources Canada; 2University of Waterloo, Canada
Land-use change is mainly driven by factors of socio-economic development, a relationship between economic activity and social life to improve the well-being of people. The indicator of socio-economic development used for Indigenous communities in Canada is the Community Well-Being Index (CWB). A CWB score for a community is based on income, education, housing, and labour. The relationship of these CWB variables to socio-economic drivers of land-use change such as demography, technology, industry, and employment is complex; modelling these variables will explain the relationship.
An integrated agent-based model on land-use decision-making that will assist First Nations to understand the relationship of CWB variables to socio-economic drivers of land-use change is being developed in collaboration with Curve Lake First Nation, a community 120 km’s north-east of Toronto. The model will be validated if it simulates a realistic-like scenario, such that it assists First Nations in land-use decision-making.
Innovations in Indigenous land tenure in Canada: Reconciliation as the catalyst
Natural Resources Canada, Canada
The Government of Canada (hereafter Crown) is committed to achieving reconciliation with Indigenous peoples “through a renewed, nation-to-nation, government-to-government, and Inuit-Crown relationship based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation, and partnership as the foundation for transformative change.” Implementing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) means that Canada’s relationship with Indigenous peoples must be transformed. Such transformation has resulted in 10 principles, rooted in s35 of the Constitution Act 1982, in UNDRIP, in the Royal Commission on the Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) and in the Calls to Action of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Thus, innovations in Indigenous land tenure engage both the Crown’s fiduciary duty to Indigenous peoples and the Honour of the Crown. This means that spatializing Canadians now means rethinking borders and boundaries. Six Crown projects illustrate meaningful and uplifting engagement with Indigenous peoples vis-à-vis-land tenure.
Exploring pluralism: building resilience and respect
Murray Chambers, Australia
When the British came to Australia in 1788, they brought with them notions of land governance based upon commerce and individual ownership that were in sharp contrast with those of the original inhabitants whose land governance systems were underpinned by communal ownership and inalienability.
Ignoring the knowledge and techniques of the Aboriginal people well adapted to the land, the British settlers dispossessed the original inhabitants of their land. Despite the impact of dispossession, Aboriginal governance systems and relationships to land remain strong.
Even after recognition of Indigenous land rights, traditional land governance systems are required to give way to Western notions of land management. The challenge is to reconcile Western land policy approaches with Indigenous concepts. The way forward is a dialogue based on respect for Indigenous land governance systems, rather than a desire that they “yield” to, and conform with, non-Indigenous land policies.
First nations' post-counter map praxis
Royal Roads University, Canada
First Nations Geomatics: a Post-Counter Map Praxis
Historically, survey and map making have represented power and authority for land holders and within contested lands space. In the examination of past Canadian counter map actions, a new theory building is proposed of ‘Post-counter mapping’. The theory's evidence is from an emerging geomatics praxis happening in First Nations today with new innovations in geomatics technologies and implementations.
This theory was derived from semi-directed interviewees, of indigenous based agents, geo-industry professionals and topic knowledgeable academics. These groups were interviewed about their counter map views of: past, present, and future comments on a topic which all knew about in varying degrees over recent times.
Triangulation of these counter map dialogues provides new evidence as to a Post-counter map praxis perspective. This theory building offers with the literature, new research examining and gaining qualitative knowledge as to a future reconciliation avenue via current geomatics.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-02: How to achieve the SDG goals and global commitments on land?|
Session Chair: Clarissa Augustinus, Independent, Ireland
Global donor working group on land: what is the way forward?
DFID, United Kingdom
The World Bank, United States of America
GROOTS Kenya, Kenya
Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Nepal
Tetratech, United States of America
International Land Coalition, Italy
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Ethiopia
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-03: Potential and pitfalls of using drone imagery|
Session Chair: Tobias Landmann, Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH, Germany
Drones and the structure from motion (SfM) technique in cadastral surveying
MicroAerial Projects LLC, United States of America
The use of small drones is spreading rapidly into several application fields. The adoption of drone operations has been quicker in cases where the relative safety and economic advantages are easily demonstrated or where they are blatantly obvious. Opportunities such as power and pipe line inspections, aerial plant health monitoring, commercial photography and video work, roof inspections and search and rescue support have been seized very quickly by entrepreneurs in general. Cadastral surveying however is practiced almost exclusively by highly qualified and certified specialists and is subject to rigorous rules and strict standards. Before the benefits of drones and the important structure from motion (SfM) mapping technique can be realized in cadastral surveying the regulatory environment needs to be amended accordingly. This presentation discusses how regulatory hurdles in the adoption of drone/SfM techniques can be effectively addressed to achieve legitimization of drones/SfM as a valid tool in surveying.
Drone-based geomatics land data acquisition methodology - case study: city of Adama and rural area of Mojo, Ethiopia
1Hojung Solutions CO. LTD, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, The Government of Ethiopia
One of the basic challenges of establishing a sound land governance system is finding a fast, reliable, economical, and sustainable land measurement tool. It is difficult to have a complete and practical land administrative system without an efficient method of cadastral data production to feed into the overall land information framework.Through a cadastral surveying project conducted in Ethiopia, our project made several observations on the effectiveness of a bottom-up approach to land governance projects through a cadastral survey methodology using a combination of drones and conventional resection survey conducted in collaboration with the local survey team. This methodology is ideal to introduce strategically in local areas. This drone-based solutions is an effective means of catalyzing innovation not simply because it introduces a new technological application but because the methodology is believed to be adaptable, transferable, empowerable and sustainable by the local community of land survey experts.
Evaluation of UAV-based technology to capture land rights in Kenya: displaying stakeholder perspectives through interactive gaming
1University of Twente ITC, The Netherlands; 2Swinburne Business School, Australia; 3Kadaster International, The Netherlands
Limitations of western-oriented land administration systems and traditional surveying approaches have indisputably contributed to a reality where approximately 70% of the world’s land rights are not recorded. Amongst others, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are evolving as a remote sensing tool for alternative data acquisition. However, so far UAVs have only been tested and rarely been implemented in the context of land tenure mapping. To investigate technology uptake and to unlock the potential of UAV-based remote sensing, this paper introduces an interactive game. Key stakeholders were asked to rank four different means of data acquisition, namely satellite images, aerial images, UAV images and ground surveying according to six predefined indicators. The results of the board game visually unveiled opportunities and drawbacks of each data acquisition technology from the perspective of the stakeholder while the continuous group discussion provided valuable insights into existing workflows and different perceptions.
The challenges and opportunities of AI and drone technology in land management and poverty assessment
1Teamnet, Romania; 2Autonomous Systems, Romania
Urban areas are quickest to adopt and implement smart technologies in order to improve decisional processes, thus increase the quality of life, while rural areas and rural communities are much more conservative and backwards facing.
We investigate the opportunities that arise from using up-to-date high resolution in-situ information collected with drone technology into a decisional platform for local authorities to support better land governance and land use practices while providing coherent land policies. Using Machine Learning techniques such as Deep Learning, our goal is to turn data collection into actionable information systems supporting smart development.
Combining drone imagery, GIS technology and Artificial intelligence, cadastral work and urban planning is sped-up drastically, decreasing the amount of work necessary to update previous erroneous collected data, providing visual proof of the present-day situation of both land-uses as well as households and buildings, helping rectify long overlooked information in property deeds and local registries.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-04: Harnessing the scope for incremental tenure upgrading|
Session Chair: Abdu Muwonge, World Bank, Kenya
Formalizing the informal through incremental tenure strengthening in urban Battambang: Experience on tenure transformation in Cambodia
1Habitat for Humanity International, Philippines; 2Habitat for Humanity, Cambodia
Equitable access to land continues to remain a growing problem in the global urban South. In Cambodia for example, demographic pressure, the enduring effects of decades of conflict, increasing urbanization and persistent rural and urban poverty have intensified insecure tenure and unequal access to land for many poor families. As a way of dealing with the problem of access to land, in March 2003, the Cambodian government unveiled the Social Land Concessions, a mechanism for enabling transfer of state private land to private individuals or groups for social purposes. In an effort to test different approaches for providing the poor with access to land, the Cambodian government prepared a Civic Engagement Framework and created several pilot projects. This paper will discuss outcomes and lessons learned in one such pilot project in urban Battambang, Cambodia which, provided avenues for poor households to incrementally move informal settlers towards greater tenure security.
The Odisha Liveable Habitat Mission: The process and tools behind the world’s largest slum titling project
1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Tata Trusts, India; 3Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Odisha State, India
In the eastern Indian state of Odisha, the state with the second highest number of slum households nationally, the need for formal land rights is acute as without documented rights, citizens are unable to open bank accounts, get credit from financial institutions, enroll children in schools, and access government benefits. Furthermore, without data on land use and holdings, and limited property tax collection, urban living standards fall as local governments struggle to meet demand for services.
Recognizing the need to clarify the rights of informal settlements, the Odisha state government enacted a landmark legislation, the Land Rights to Slum Dwellers Act 2017. As per this Act, slum dwellers across the state will get heritable and mortgageable land rights for residential use free of cost.
This paper details activities over the past year to implement the Act, resulting in 2,227 households being formalized, and another 250,000 households in process.
Urban landholding registration in Ethiopia: law and practice
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
This paper presents the current status of urban landholding registration system in Ethiopia, the different problems faced with the system and the practical solutions to the problems. Land is the basic element of development and more especially on developing countries such as Ethiopia. A good land administration system is a prerequisite for proper land registration and information about parcels of land is the basis on which is good land administration and land information system can be built. In this review, issues and problems pertaining to urban land registration in Ethiopia are examined. The roles of various stallholders, the nature and format of the urban landholding registration are discussed and how handling of this information has affected land registration in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the various efforts being taken by the government of Ethiopia in addressing urban landholding registration problems are highlighted. Finally, possible solutions to urban landholding registration problems in Ethiopia are proposed.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-05: The role of land in structural transformation|
Session Chair: Jonathan Conning, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, United States of America
Poverty, Inequality, and Agriculture in the EU
The World Bank, United States of America
Small farms, large farms and international productivity differences
1The Graduate Center, City University of New York, United States of America; 2Hunter College, City University of New York, United States of America
The misallocation of land and other factors of production in India
World Bank, United States of America
At what price? Price supports, agricultural productivity, and misallocation
University of Southern California, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-06: Data to determine compensation for land acquisition|
Session Chair: James Kavanagh, RICS, United Kingdom
Utilizing UAV images for large-scale land development compensation: A case of prevention for compensation speculation in South Korea
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The compensation issue is considered as the biggest matter when land development operator implements a large-scale land development. South Korea has is unusual behavior that landowners install new facilities to raise compensation on their lands, just before the project takes place, called as 'Compensation Speculation'. To prevent that behavior, LX, the Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, attempted to analyze the ‘ortho-image’ taken by UAV. A day before the land development implement notice date, LX took the image for the project site. This ortho-image was completed as basic data for compensation by superimposing with cadastral map. Using this image, operator able to obtain objective data that could accurately identify the target of compensation at the time of the project was noticed and allowed to calculate compensation to be determined without survey it directly in the field.
Improve the land acquisition system with a technology based processes approach
Transparency International-Secretariat, Germany
The land acquisition process could be described as a series of interconnected steps where the output of one step is the input to another, resulting in the acquisition of a piece of land. As the leading organisation in the fight against corruption, Transparency International (TI) has innovated various approaches to addressing corruption. The process-based approach, described in this paper, improves case management by reducing the time spent on addressing issues such as transparency (or lack thereof) while maximizing efforts to address corruption. TI conceived and developed this approach to improving the land acquisition process, in order to contribute to building a transparent, effective and accountable land management system. This method is called the ‘process approach’ and it incorporates both business process management and reporting technologies. This experimental technology is currently being implemented in Zambia and Sierra Leone.
Analysing governance in the informal land compensation approaches in customary areas of Ghana
1Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana
In peri-urban areas, increasing urbanisation and land development leave indigenous farmers forcibly evicted from their farmlands. Farmers who lose their land to these land development activities are mostly not compensated. Over the past decade, many customary areas of Ghana have developed and adopted different compensation packages based on different sharing formulae to address the problem. This paper analyses the governance issues in the compensation approaches in stool land areas of Ghana and highlights the conditions for scaling up the process in other customary areas. The paper shows that though the compensation approaches have been developed on local customary norms and structures, they have the potential to be scaled both horizontally and vertically across different customary areas. Addressing issues on participation, equity and transparency in the development in the sharing formulae can improve governance in the implementation of the compensation approaches.
Valuation and compensation under Zimbabwe post 2000 land reform program
Independent Consultant, Zimbabwe
Between 2000 and 2005 the Zimbabwe Government embarked on compulsory acquisition of commercial farms which were predominantly owned by white commercial farmers. This attracted a lot of negative international headlines and condemnation.To this day, compensation of the acquired farms is still a major outstanding and topical issue. Until this is resolved this shall remain a major stumbling block in efforts to rebuild Zimbabwe’s agriculture. Land acquired under this program shall remain contested and this has domino effect in terms of security of tenure, decisions on long term investments, value of the land and use of such land as collateral.
The compensation quantum is estimated to run into billions of dollars and is probably one of the world largest compensation programs today.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-07: New aspects of land reform in Africa|
Session Chair: Michael Becker, GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo
Using remote-sensed data and machine learning to measure the impact of Zimbabwe's Fast Track Land Reform Programme on crop cultivation and vegetation quality
1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn, Germany
Zimbabwe carried out agrarian reform in 2000 to correct colonial land imbalances. Dubbed the Fast Track Land Reform Program (FTLRP), the program is widely considered as the single most important trigger to the country’s economic misfortunes. We estimate the effects of the program on crop cultivation areas and vegetation quality. The unavailability of nationwide survey data confined earlier empirical work to localised studies, limiting the extent to which existing results can contribute to the debate. We use remote sensed data that covers the whole country and estimate the effects on welfare using semi-parametric differences-in-differences with genetic matching. Specifically, we employ Night Lights Data (NLD), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and machine learning-generated land cover changes in crop hectorage. We find a high correlation between these indicators and ward level poverty estimates for the 2012 Population Census. Land reform had large negative impacts on crop production, but not on light luminosity.
Land reform policy-induced access to agricultural land and nutritional outcomes in Zimbabwe
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
One of the major constraints to increased rural agricultural economic activity and better nutrition outcomes is linked to the availability of land. In this paper, we use Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data to examine the impact of increasing access to land (through a reform policy) on nutritional outcomes. The results suggest that resource access policy such as land reform improves child nutrition. In particular, the findings indicate that increasing the production of domesticated birds, goats and pigs directly linked to increased access to land is crucial for improving nutrition. However, Zimbabwe’s current livestock policy thrust emphasizes support to cattle production, although the results show no association between cattle ownership and nutrition. The study, thus, recommends increased access to agricultural land in rural areas for improving child nutrition and suggests a land policy review for support to also be aligned with chicken, goat and pig production for increased nutritional outcomes.
Building a National Spatial Data Infrastructure one step at a time- the case for Zambia
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia
The Government of Zambia has established the National Spatial Data Infrastructure starting in 2014. NSDI has been implemented through a project entitled “Provision of and Processing of Aerial Photography and Satellite Imagery and Development of National Spatial Data Infrastructure”. The main focus of the project was to establish the technological infrastructure of the NSDI. This has involved the capturing of aerial and satellite imagery for the whole country, development of a centralized database and the development of web-portal for citizen access to the spatial data that has been collected and assembled in the centralized database. Apart from the development of the technological foundation of the infrastructure there is a lot more that needs to be done to achieve a semblance of an effective NSDI.
There is now need to establish the framework for an institutionalized NSDI and governance structure for sharing spatial information
Assessing communal land use management related policy /legislative setting and applications in Bir-Temicha watershed, upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
GiZ, Africa Union, Ethiopia
Communal land tenure system has been a controversial and politicized issue in Ethiopian. This study was aiming to assess the communal land administration and use policy setting and applications.The study deploys household survey, key informant interview, focus group discussions & document analysis method. Content analysis technique, load factor ratio and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the findings. Legislative instruments to govern communal land administration were adequately set and placement of stable state structure that goes down to the lowest administration level to implement communal land administration was found encouraging. However, absence of national land use policy, weaker policy and legislative application weak updating of communal land adjudication process, low level community participation & involvement in decision making was found as a gap.This needs further research on socioeconomic and political dimensions. Besides, policy and legislation evaluation and revision has to be considered with correction measure to bring a sustainable communal land use management.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
Endline evaluation findings for USAID’s responsible land-based investment pilot in Mozambique
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International, United States of America; 3United States Agency for International Development, United States of America
Mozambique’s land law of 1997 recognizes customary and community land rights, and also aims to facilitate growing private investment in the country. Many rural smallholder farmers have low familiarity with the country’s land laws and the majority still operate under undocumented customary arrangements, leaving them vulnerable to expropriation. We present the endline findings from an evaluation of an innovative USAID-funded private-sector partnership to strengthen land tenure security and minimize risks associated with large-scale agricultural investments in Mozambique. The project supported participatory mapping and delivered land rights certificates for 1,642 land users around a sugar cane estate. The evaluation uses a qualitative pre-post design coupled with a 500-person telephone survey of pilot participants at endline to examine community perceptions and effects on land management, tenure security, and engagement with private sector investors. Findings add to the limited evidence on use of the private sector-focused Analytical Framework to reduce land tenure risks.
The impacts of Second-Level Land Certification (SLLC) in Ethiopia: empirical evidence using panel data
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia
In 2013, Ethiopia has launched a mega project on second-level land certification program in the four major regions in the country (Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray). The program aims to enhance tenure security, transferability of land, access to credit and land related dispute resolutions. This study, thus, aims to investigate these program outcomes using a unique 3-wave panel data of 6600 households collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2013, 2015 and 2018. The fact that the first-round survey in 2013 is collected just before the DFID-sponsored mega SLLC program in the country provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impacts of the SLLC program with the data before-and-after the program was launched. Findings from the study are expected to provide insights to inform policy directions in the form of formalization of land rights not only in Ethiopia but also elsewhere in the continent.
Mobilizing for title: A mixed-methods randomized evaluation of a homestead land rights initiative in Bihar, India
1Northwestern University, United States of America; 2Deshkal Society, India
Bihar state law guarantees each rural household the right to hold title over a plot of homestead land, yet many poor households lack title. This article studies a social accountability program that established, trained, and mobilized village-level community-based organizations to assist households in obtaining homestead title. The study employs a survey-based field experiment to estimate the program’s impact while qualitative methods are used to examine ground-level processes. We find that the program strongly increased perceived land security and access to entitlements, moderately increased asset ownership and homestead satisfaction, and exerted a modest but significant positive effect on food security. However, we do not find evidence for impacts on investment in dwellings or homestead-based livelihood activities. The qualitative analysis suggests a key mechanism by which the program improved entitlement access: enabling target households to circumvent profit-seeking intermediaries. Results contribute to development studies research on social accountability, service delivery, and land rights.
Certified to stay? Experimental evidence on property rights and migration in Benin
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Agence Française de Développement, France
Women’s ownership and control of land in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is often mediated through their relationship to a male spouse or a male relative. These limited rights can rapidly disappear in the event of the death of the husband – with stark welfare implications for the widow and her children. We examine the following question in the context of a randomized controlled trial in rural Benin: can land formalization interventions strengthen a widow’s right to stay? Drawing on two rounds of data from approximately 3,500 households, we find that female-headed households are more likely to remain in their original community, and this effect is driven by widows in treatment villages. We also find that the land intervention leads to a change in planned inheritance patterns away from sons and towards daughters and wives.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-09: Capacity building: Lessons from experience|
Session Chair: Charl-Thom Hilgardt Bayer, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Equal partnership in the capacity building project Eduland2: conceptual design, implementation, successes, challenges & lessons learnt
1University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria; 2Debre Markos University, Ethiopia; 3Technische Universitaet Wien, Austria; 4Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
The capacity building project “Implementation of Academic Land Administration Education in Ethiopia for Supporting Sustainable Development is a bilateral project between Austrian (BOKU Vienna, TU Vienna) and Ethiopian universities (DMU, BDU), funded by the Austrian Development Agency.
EduLAND2 is a trigger for the design and running a research-driven bachelor curriculum at DMU, for joint problem-oriented research, for the building academic staff capability, for joint research activities and for the preparation of demand driven community services – all on the topic of land administration.
Gender mainstreaming and the principle of equal partnerships between all project partners are central elements of EduLAND2. The presentation considers the conceptual design and the realisation for guaranteeing an equal partnership in the project. Based on the experiences gained by project members in EduLAND2, challenges and success factors for a successful and equal partnership are outlined. Recommendations for a long-term and successful equal partnership are given.
Encouraging women’s land rights and promoting female land professionals: A twin track approach to enhancing land governance
Second Level Land Certificates (SLLC) have been issued to 10,634 households on 36,590 parcels. Proportionally, 63.9%, 21.5% and 14.5% of the certified households are married couples, female-headed and male-headed households, respectively. As married couples are registered with equal rights on their joint holding, females with recognized land rights are much higher than males.
Totally, 154 technicians are trained on rural cadaster and land registration. Proportionally, 28.6% of the graduates are female. Yearly percentage of female graduates varies from 26.3% to 45.5%. In 2019, there are 219 trainees attending courses on rural cadaster and land registration; of which 37% are female trainees. The female trainees at different levels vary from 30% to 51.9%. Proportionally, there are more female trainees in the current attendees than graduated ones. This breakthrough using a twin track approach enhances land governance and contributes to SDGs goals, targets and indicators.
Breakthrough, Equal rights, Female-headed, Male-headed, Married couples
The land research capacity of Africa: new research centre concept for catalysing improved land governance
1Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2Independent Consultant, South Africa; 3UN-Habitat / GLTN, Uganda
This article explores a renewed approach to research centre. It uses desktop review and interviews with key informants from African universities to investigate the specific features that should characterise a research centre on land governance in Africa. The investigation also focuses on how to package and implement research centre concepts in land governance. It uses the SCImago Journal Rank platform to access data and analyse (and present) the research capacity country rankings of top 10 countries in Africa, as a way of understanding how African countries rank in general research outputs and in specific land governance subjects. It also deals on how to operationalise research centres in land governance to enable improved African-wide research outcomes. By way of an outcome, the article presents a new research centre concept for catalysing innovative research (learning) in land governance.
The ADLAND model: Transformative experiences and lessons in human capital development in land governance in Africa
Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany
ADLAND “Advancing Collaborative Research in Responsible and Smart Land Management in and for Africa” is a research model based on a strategic partnership for scientific, academic support in capacity development in land management to selected African universities. Grounded on the principle that African universities could act as decisive nodes for knowledge creation and exchange, a network of universities from the global North collaborate with them in developing human capacity.
ADLAND activities include capacity development workshops, research writing workshops with jointly written scientific papers, curricula development and review, and staff exchange to enhance knowledge transfer. The outcomes of such activities have successfully involved in the past 10 months more than 115 participants from 16 different African countries. With this perspective, Africa is becoming a place rather than a subject of research and education.
Scaling emerging geospatial technologies for land administration: understanding institutional innovation dynamics through a Technological Innovation System perspective
1KU Leuven, Belgium; 2RMIT University, Australia; 3Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany; 4INES Ruhengeri, Rwanda; 5Leiden University, The Netherlands
A combination of push and pull factors are stimulating geospatial innovation to respond to land administration challenges. Yet, as these alternative tools begin to move from development to implementation, we still know little about how the institutional environment helps or hinders innovation and importantly, scaling of these technologies to deliver impact. This paper contributes to this gap by applying the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework in the context of an ongoing project in East Africa where four new geospatial tools are being developed and tested as alternative land tools. The outcomes of the analysis provides country-specific insight into how actors, their interactions, and the institutional arrangements impacts adoption and scaling of the geospatial tools, but also presents a generalized view of the extent developing countries are ready for disruptive geospatial innovation in land administration and raising awareness of those institutional aspects that are helping or hindering innovation.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-10: Land administration: Cases from Africa|
Session Chair: Dominik Wellmann, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
From registration to sustainability: developments in Rwanda
Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda
This paper briefly review the national Land Tenure Regularisation programme which was implemented in several phases in Rwanda and how it was established and implemented and then it focus on the problems that arise post-LTR – setting up the nationwide systems to support transactions, informing and changing public behaviour so that they understand the need to register changes and discourage informal transactions. The big question is how to provide sustainable land administration and land use management that can be implemented in an affordable manner, yet meet the many diverse needs of the country and its citizens while promoting economic growth and social wellbeing. We focus in how Rwanda has tried to develop a sustainable approach, and what lessons can be drawn from this.
EDOGIS comes online, an evaluation
GIS/Transport, United States of America
An evaluation of Edo State Geographic Information Service (EDOGIS) is presented.
The governor of Edo State, Nigeria establishes a new land agency in early 2018, backed by an enabling law. A private company is awarded a Design, Built, Operate, Transfer contract to implement the agency. The new program is to be fully digital, fully automated and centered on an LIS / GIS / LAS networked system. A comprehensive, high resolution orthophoto imagery is employed in the program as well. The project also entails a fully renovated and environmentally controlled building, file tracking management, rigorous training and other international best practices. This paper is an evaluation at one year on of the successes and shortcomings of EDOGIS, and of contributing factors and lessons learned.
Piloting urban land systematic adjudication and registration in Ethiopia:
1Federal Urban Land and Landed Property Registry, and Information Agency, Ethiopia; 2IGN France International, France
The Government of Ethiopia has embarked on incremental land reforms. The 2011 Federal Urban Land Holding Proclamation No. 721/2011 provided a legal basis for leasehold and old possession. According to Proclamation No. 721/2011, land acquired before the introduction of the leasehold system is taken as old possession/permit-hold. Following the Urban Land Holding Proclamation, the Proclamation to Provide for Registration of Urban Landholding No. 818/2014 was passed in 2014 to mandate a common legal cadastre for all urban areas. The establishment of legal cadastre over urban areas aims to secure tenure for all urban land holds to bring good governance in urban land administration and enable the facilitation of investment and the operation of the real estate market. The realization of the objective of urban legal cadastre will probably take a decade or more, hence the program will be phased into at least three project phases.
The innovative national rural land administration information system of Ethiopia
1Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany; 2Ministry of Argriculture and Natual Resources, Ethiopia; 3NIRAS, Finland; 4IINTAPS, Ethiopia
The National Rural Land Administration System (NRLAIS) of Ethiopia was developed and implemented for the country’s Ministry of Agriculture to harmonize the rural land administration. The system was developed on the basis of free and open source software (FOSS) components, applies the ISO Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard and provides Open Geospatial Consortium compliant services. It stores all data, geometries and their associated textual information. The architecture is innovative and follows a modular “toolkit” approach. The system can easily be adapted for the different legal requirements of the Ethiopian regional states. It applies unique holding and parcel identification numbers. It represents all processes of the Ethiopian rural land administration which are carried out at the various administrative levels, from the central ministry to the district (woreda) level. The system also includes a mass registration solution for systematic land registration and a data migration tool to convert existing land records.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-11: Remote sensing and deep learning for agricultural productivity|
Session Chair: Felix Rembold, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
Use of earth observation and land parcel identification in supporting the implementation of the common agricultural policy
Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
Satellite crop monitoring within World Bank project on land management transparency in Ukraine
1Space Research Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Space Agency of Ukraine; 2University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 3National Technical University of Ukraine, Ukraine; 4University of Maryland College Park, United States of America; 5EOS Data Analytics, Ukraine
Remote sensing of agricultural land use is one of the essential objectives of the EBRD project “Supporting Transparent Land Governance in Ukraine”. The main goal of the project is Land Cover/Land Use classification based on free satellite data as well as development of efficient automated technologies of land management utilizing remote sensing data.
Within the project we have investigated the applicability of three information platforms — Sen2Agri (developed under ESA support), Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform and our own approach based on artificial neural networks.
All the results of the pilot project should establish the preconditions for transparent functioning of agricultural land market, improving efficiency of land use and creation the foundations for investments in the agricultural sector and rural development.
Proximate sensing of food types and land uses in Thailand using street-level photography and deep learning
University at Buffalo, United States of America
We present new tools to exploit street-level imagery to inventory crop types and land uses. We describe two classifiers using Google Street View imagery and a deep convolutional neural network. First, a multi-class classifier distinguishes six crops and three land uses. Second, a specialized detector recognizes the presence of a single species. We tested these tools along roadside transects in Thailand.
The overall accuracy of the multi-class classifier was 83.3%. For several classes the producer's accuracy was over 90%. This performance compares favorably to some remote-sensing classifiers. The overall classifier accuracy on the top 40% of images is excellent: 99.0%. The area under the specialized detector’s receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9905, indicating excellent performance.
This approach shows potential for fine-grained analysis over large areas. We are developing it further for places where home gardens provide significant diet supplementation, but are poorly characterized when quantifying macro-economically important crops.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-12: Large investments: Protecting human rights & environment|
Session Chair: Ward Anseeuw, International Land Coalition, Italy
The ASEAN guidelines on promoting responsible investment in food, agriculture and forestry
International Institute for Sustainable Development, Switzerland
Private law and agricultural development – Improving agricultural land investment contracts and making them consistent with the VGGT and CFS-RAI Principles
1UNIDROIT, Italy; 2FAO, Italy
Agricultural investments under international investment law
1Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America; 2International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada; 3International Institute for Environment and Development, United Kingdom
Undermining justice: The investment treaty regime and affected third parties
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-13: Legal pluralism and tenure reforms: Has there been progress?|
Session Chair: Richard Gaynor, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Stakeholder narratives on tenure transformation in Morocco
Georgetown University, United States of America
The Moroccan government and development organizations have repeatedly identified the legal complexity of collective land, which makes up one-third of Morocco’s territory, as a barrier to rural development. In 2017, the government began a project to transform 46,000 hectares of collective land in the Gharb irrigated perimeter into private property with funding from the Millennium Challenge Corporation. I explore how diverse stakeholders to this privatization project mobilize different narratives to express their implicit and explicit objectives, concerns, and future expectations on the outcomes of titling collective land. I trace the historical trajectory of collective tenure in Morocco, as well as analyzing the likely outcomes of privatization on economic livelihoods, administrative shifts, and the implications of privatization on agrarian social relations. I conclude by exploring some potential policy options that could achieve project objectives and alleviate stakeholders’ concerns while maintaining local usage of newly-titled land in the Gharb region.
The heavy burden of the past - The political economy of rural reform in Colombia.
George Mason University, United States of America
Conflicts over the distribution of land have been a constant in the history of Colombia and consensus exists around the idea that inequality in access to the resource is at the core of the intense civil war the country has gone through.
As part of the peace agreement reached with the FARC, the Colombian Government has embarked on an Integral Rural Reform (IRR) strategy with the potential to address historical agrarian issues that have hindered the pace of development and generated protracted conflict.
However, its results are expected to alter the historical status quo and consequently affect the interests of some actors. The paper describes the political economy of the IRR agreement by identifying the actors and the issues from which either support for, or resistance to, the initiative is likely to materialize.
Real change or paper tigers? An assessment of legal support for community property
This paper assesses the application of new land laws since 1990 which provide for community property, defined as lands which communities traditionally or contemporarily possess, use and govern. A substantial background on legal trends is provided. This includes a shorter review of the global situation and a longer analysis of new land statutes on the African continent since 1990. Implications in trends and substance are then critiqued. The paper then turns to issues of application and uptake of the law. Could it be that the wave of legal reformism that promises to bring majority untitled land interests in Africa out of the cold as unprotected interest, is predominantly a paper tiger, promising more than it ever intends to deliver? If so, why?
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-15: Climate change, forest landscape restoration and tenure|
Session Chair: Robert Nasi, CIFOR, Indonesia
Mitigation the effects of climate change requires catalyzing ecological restoration from below and above. This session discusses public and private initiatives and incentives around forest landscapes, while focussing on lessons learned from implementing law and policy towards strengthening community rights to land and forests.
Scramble for land rights: reducing inequity between communities and companies
World Resources Institute, United States of America
Madagascar experience with role of tenure in forest restoration
Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Madagascar
Role of tenure in protecting and restoring the Amazon forests
Lessons from tenure and gender research for restoration
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
World Wide Fund for Nature International (WWF International), Singapore
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-01: Round table: Innovative land policies for sustainable development|
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
The importance of land reform for agricultural transformation
Ministry of State Property, Surveys and Land Tenure, Cameroon
Enhancing land tenure security and functioning of land markets in Zambia
Ministry of Local Government, Zambia
Towards secure land rights for all in Uganda: Remaining challenges and ways of monitoring progress
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
Key challenges to advancing land tenure security in Malawi
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-02: Political economy of tenure change|
Session Chair: Jonathan Conning, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, United States of America
Market access, property rights and small-holder farming in colonial Southern Rhodesia
1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn, Germany
The role of informal institutions in change: land reform in urban and peri-urban Ghana
Harvard, United States of America
Customary institutions and customary land tenure: Regulating dualism to inhibit land-related conflicts?
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Leiden University, The Netherlands
The legacy of Mexican land and water in California
1University of California, Santa Barbara and NBER, United States of America; 2Indiana University, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-03: Improving interoperability of registries & open data access|
Session Chair: Connie Fair, Land Title & Survey Authority of British Columbia, Canada
Local Land Charges - Laying the foundation of a new national digital service.
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
Each of the 326 local authorities in England is required to hold a Local Land Charges register that records obligations affecting properties within its administrative area. Across the country there are some 26 million charges that are held in differing formats and to different data standards, often in non-digital, paper or electronic format.
Obtaining evidence from this dataset that describe restrictions on the use of the property such as building restrictions or listed building information take up to several weeks and impact property buying decisions and timelines.
Working in partnership with the local authorities, the United Kingdom’s Her Majesty’s Land Registry (HMLR) has begun to centralise and transform this data, which can now be accessed through a new innovative online digital service. The new service provides instant online access to citizens, speeding up the home buying process.
Digitalization of public registers and the role of legal professionals – a connection for the future
Public registers are an essential element in the legal systems of most developed economies. In the digital age, registers are kept electronically and there is a strong desire to allow electronic access to the registers. How can courts, registers, notaries and other legal professionals remain accessible to all citizens, and maintain the existing high standards of integrity, reliability and professional secrecy in the digital age? The project “Electronic Communication of Notaries with Public Registers“, which currently attempts to develop practical, locally applicable solutions for six countries of the Western Balkans, will be presented. The session will illustrate the challenges and show a range of answers adopted in the Western Balkans region. The audience will be able to learn from the different experiences and answers to the omnipresent challenges of digitalization for legal service providers and reflect on which approach might be most appropriate in a given situation
Modern technology in land administration - a call for governance and structuring data in view of privatising land administration processes
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands
Data are of the most interesting items of value for commercial entities and parties to implement modern technologies such as blockchain technology and (especially) artificial intelligence in various processes. This sometimes seems to implicate that the true meaning and value of data are of minor importance to some of these parties. In Land Administration processes the proper use of data is of the utmost importance. Especially in cases where Land Administration processes seem to be outsourced to commercial entities – or the complete Land Administration is privatised – it is important to set rules and implement a well-function system prior to outsourcing land administration activities. We describe the implementation and use of modern technology (eg. blockchain, AI and Internet of Things in Land Administration and the possible privatisation of land registry activities. The most frequently stated arguments not to privatize the Land Registry organizations will be discussed.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-04: Demand for and impacts of land tenure regularization|
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
The socio-economic impact of implementing land registration and land information systems in Saudi Arabia
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Crop prices and the demand for titled land: evidence from Uganda
The World Bank, United States of America
The effects of land title registration on tenure security, investment and production: evidence from Ghana
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, Ghana; 3Northwestern University, Department of Economicsm, United States of America
Early lessons from the evaluation of land management reforms in Cabo Verde
Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-05: Land and water governance|
Session Chair: Marie-Laure Lajaunie, World Bank, United States of America
Linking irrigated land and water scarcity: a global view
World Bank, United States of America
Based on an innovative analysis of country-level data reported from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization—in particular on area equipped for irrigation (a proxy for irrigated land), agricultural water withdrawals, and total renewable water resources—, the paper explores the link between irrigated land and water scarcity at the global level. Trends in agricultural water withdrawals show large increases, though with declining rates of growth since about 1980. Countries’ agricultural withdrawals are closely linked to total water withdrawals, and also to the area equipped for irrigation. At the global level, agricultural water withdrawals are closely linked to water scarcity levels. With increasing scarcity, interventions related to irrigated land should therefore be moving to the center of water management concerns. In many countries, however, even high levels of water scarcity seem to have had little effect so far on trends in agricultural withdrawals and area equipped for irrigation.
Land and water: the rights divergence
SPRL KH & Associates, Belgium
Ensuring secure access to both land and water is key to the eradication of rural poverty and increased agricultural production. Yet, the legal and policy mechanisms for the allocation and use of land and water are increasingly divergent: water was actually omitted from the VGGT. Building on, and updating, an earlier FAO study, the aim of this paper is to trace this divergence in terms of rights to land and water resources and to seek to identify possible new approaches and areas for intervention. The obsolescence of traditional land tenure-based water rights in the face of increased pressure on water resources has led many countries to introduce ‘modern’ permit based water rights that sever the link to the land. The land-water divergence is further exacerbated by the SDG mandated introduction of integrated water resources management (IWRM) with its own specific methodologies and approaches.
Intensification of irrigated agriculture: the case of the Boudnib plain in Morocco
1Independent consultant, Morocco; 2Agroconcept, Romania; 3INRA SAD, ISARA Lyon, France; 4IAV Hassan II, Morocco
Agricultural development in the Sahara is relatively recent in Morocco as compared to North African countries. The plain of Boudnib, located in the South East of Morocco, is interesting for it differs in terms of rythm, actors, land rights and political setup. A “visible revolution” involves the national capitalist groups consolidated by liberal policies. The anticipated high rent created by the exploitation of natural resources - unlimited rangeland and abundant groundwater- to produce high value Medjool date palm and the high mobility of production factors contribute to the emergence of a specific model. It creates a visible agricultural boom and at the same time it induces local communities to request the access to land and groundwater for small scale extensions on the basis of their historical land rights. However, individual allocation of land may not be the best way to share the hydraulic rent and alternative pathways are needed.
Irrigation Modernization in Spain: what influences the Effects on Water?
1ICATALIST, Spain; 2Valladolid City Council, Spain; 3Duero River basin agency, Spain
This paper presents the results of a proof of concept study undertaken for the FAO/UNU on the concept of water tenure and its application to an irrigation modernisation project in the Duero basin in Spain, and a follow up study funded by the Duero River basin agency on the effectiveness of subsidies for irrigation modernization to comply with the European Union Water Framework Directive.
The study analyses the impacts of a switch in irrigation technology on changes in land and water use that are often ignored or underestimated. These land-water relationships, if not well understood and monitored, could mean that decisions in either agricultural policy or water policy have unintended consequences, including potential negative impacts on resource use. Aligning water and land use planning ex-ante to account for these interactions is key for a deeper and more nuanced understanding on the close connections between land and water use.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-06: Improving resilience via better land data|
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
Leveraging national land and geospatial systems for improved disaster resilience
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2The World Bank, United States of America
Integrating land and geospatial systems for disaster resilience – the need for technical and institutional innovation
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2Land Equity International, Australia; 3World Bank, United States of America
Comprehensive disaster risk management – best practice example of Monastir, Tunisia
IABG mbH, Germany
The earth observation for sustainable development initiative to support states affected by fragility, conflict and violence
1SIRS, France; 2CLS, France; 3Hatfield Group, Canada; 4UNITAR, Switzerland
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-07: Using data and planning to improve urban resilience|
Session Chair: Allan Cain, Development Workshop, Angola
Cities and good urban land management practice as a catalyst for climate change adaptation in developing countries: case of Blantyre city, Malawi
Blantyre City Council, Malawi
Cities occupy a unique position as they are crucibles of political and governance innovations that enables them to play major roles in climate change interventions in developing countries. Through better policy responses and practices such as land use planning and building codes, cities can keep their ecological footprints to the minimum and ensure their residents especially the poor are protected as best as possible against climate change disasters which including drought, floods and other calamities. However, cities are challenged in terms of capacity to take full advantage of their unique position as they occupy to address climate change. This paper highlights initiatives in supporting cities to deal with climate change. It looks at the unique position of cities and good urban land management practices in developing countries as a catalyst for climate change adaptation, and further discusses current global and regional initiatives to implement this ‘urban dimension’ to climate change.
Developing voluntary gender responsive relocation policy guidelines to support sustainable urban development
1Habitat for Humanity International, United States of America; 2University of East London
Slum dwellers face a range of challenges– from tenure insecurity to poor quality housing and lack of access to basic amenities and services– threatening their daily existence. Yet, a growing and often understated risk comes from climatic/environmental hazards and natural disasters that threaten both loss of property and life. In high-risk non-viable settlements, physical infrastructure interventions are often hard to justify on the basis of both economic costs measured through cost-benefit analysis or long-term environmental risks, such as rising sea levels or river flooding. Under such circumstances, meeting the commitment of the New Urban Agenda (NUA) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 11), to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” requires the implementation of voluntary relocation schemes where slum upgrading may not create sustainable outcomes.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-08: Improving access to land for the youth|
Session Chair: Violet Shivutse, HUAIROU COMMISSION, Kenya
An assessment of youth land rights in rural Liberia
1Landesa, United States of America; 2Development Education Network, Liberia
This paper summarizes the evidence on youth land rights in Liberia from a literature review combined with primary research from two separate studies - 1) a qualitative assessment conducted as formative research to inform the design of the Land Rights and Sustainable Development (LRSD) project for Landesa and its partners’ community level interventions and 2) a quantitative baseline survey of program beneficiaries as part of an impact evaluation of the LRSD project. The findings are presented using Landesa's Women's Land Rights (WLR) Analytical Framework that examines youth land rights through a gender lens. The evidence highlights that female and male youth in Liberia face significant but different barriers to long term access to land, as well as to participation in decisions related to land. Our suggested recommendations offer insights for the implementation of Liberia's Land Rights Act as well as for community-level interventions focused on increasing youth tenure security in Liberia.
Harnessing the potential for rural youth-inclusive agri-food systems livelihoods: A landscape analysis
Mississippi State University, United States of America
There is limited evidence on what works best to support and empower youth within agri-food systems, especially as related to improving their livelihood opportunities. In order to help close this evidence gap, the authors are conducting a multi-disciplinary analytic literature review to identify which agri-food system sectors are best suited to engage youth in sustainable livelihoods. Peer-reviewed empirical and analytic research relevant to the inclusion of rural youth in agri-food systems will be collected and analyzed to address two questions:
1. Which areas of agri-food systems are best suited to engage youth?
2. Are there youth-specific constraints to engaging in agri-food systems, and do those constraints differ by gender, socio-cultural and enabling environment factors?
Land access and youth spatial and occupational mobility in Africa: the case of Nigeria
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2International Food Policy Research Institute, Nigeria
The paper examines the role of land access in youth migration and employment decisions using a two-wave panel data (2012/3 and 2015/16 LSMS-ISA datasets) from Nigeria. Overall, findings show land access is significantly and negatively associated with long-distance migration, migration-to-urban areas, and employment in the non-agricultural sector while the impact is negligible temporary migration. A more-disaggregated analysis considering individual characteristics of the youth shows that results are more elastic for older youth and those that are less educated, while we find no difference when comparisons are made by gender. Disaggregated results further reveal that youth in areas with a high level of agricultural commercialization and modernization seem to be more responsive to land access than are youth residing in less commercialized areas. Similarly, the agricultural ladder hypothesis seems to be more explained by less educated youth as the more educated youth are shown to be less responsive to land access.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-09: Promising initiatives to build capacity|
Session Chair: Diane Dumashie, International Federation of Surveyors - FIG, United Kingdom
Using a multi-lateral organisation to catalyse institutional innovation at global scale: Evidence from the work of the Global Land Tool Network partners
Independent consultant, Ireland
UN-Habitat, a multi-lateral organization, facilitated the Global Land Tool Network (GLTN) partners to develop pro poor land tools between 2006-2015 to fill the gap conventional land administration was not addressing. This paper describes for the first time the global institutional change model that was used to develop these tools. The conceptual framework is based on Checkland (1981) and Jackson (2003) soft systems thinking for operational research to address complex and wicked problems; Ortiz (2013) on soft systems thinking and capacity development; and Barry and Fourie (2002) and Augustinus and Barry (2006) who used the approach to analyze national land systems. UN-Habitat/GLTN targeted parts of the global land industry to catalyze change and address the tenure insecurity and land administration gaps of the poor. The change model was used for understanding socially unjust land tenure patterns and as a way to ameliorate problems through tool development for altering power relations.
An innovative experience of capacity building for land in Central Africa
University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon
One of the major challenges facing land governance in Africa today is the inadequacy of the current knowledge production system in relation to the issues at stake.
In Central Africa a Center of Excellence supported by SELGA and ALPC has been created to coordinate the process of developing curricula on land governance.
The following hypothesis guide the project: a) graduates and trainees are ill-equipped to meet the needs and challenges of African land governance ‘industry’; b) African Higher Education Institutions have the potential to provide much of the training that countries need to achieve the objectives of controlling land for sustainable development.
This paper seeks to share an on-going experience supported by SELGA and ALPC on capacity building on land, laid on curricula development fed by the findings of different international initiatives among which LPI, LGAF and VGGT.
Importance of capacity building and training in the World Bank assisted projects - Case study of Serbia
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Importance of capacity building in governmental institutions is recognized as a prerequisite not only for organizational, but also for infrastructural and social development. World Bank supports numerous projects worldwide. One of them is “Real Estate Management Project” in Serbia. Objective of the Real Estate Management Project is to improve efficiency, transparency, accessibility and reliability of Serbia’s real property management systems. One of subcomponents within the Project is D4 - Training. Aim of this subcomponent is to improve Republic Geodetic Authority’s operation in the long-term, influencing the work quality improvement, and to enhance the capacity of its staff. This paper describes undertaken training activities and institutional and governmental results achieved due to capacity building, as well as how they all together contribute to overall progress of Serbia as demonstrated by Serbia's improved ranking on the WB Doing Business list.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-10: Land administration: Cases from Africa|
Session Chair: Anthony Burns, Land Equity International, Australia
Data conversion and integration in the implementation of national land information systems in Uganda and Tanzania
IGN FI, Uganda
IGN FI successfully implemented pilot projects to establish national land information systems in Uganda (2010- 2013) and Tanzania (2016-2018) and is in the final stages of implementing the roll-out of the National Land Information System (NLIS) in Uganda (2015-2020). A core component of each initiatives was the conversion of large volumes of spatial and non-spatial data from paper and analogue systems to digital format appropriate for integration into registration, cadastral, registration and administration systems. The paper and presentation will provide a detailed description of the secure, cost effective processes and methodologies developed by IGN FI to accurately convert and integrate data in strict accordance with the statutory requirements that exist in the two countries. The scale of the data conversion undertaken by IGN FI in these three projects represented an enormous administrative and logistical task and remains unprecedented in Africa.
National land information system as a catalyst for the greater integration of spatial data in Uganda
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD), Republic of Uganda; 2IGN FI, Uganda
The implementation of the National Land Information System (NLIS) has proved a key and influential driver in the development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) initiated by the Government of Uganda in 2001 and spearheaded by the National Planning Authority (NPA) since 2010. The objective of the NSDI is to provide a national infrastructure for access and use of geo-spatial information in decision making at local, regional and national levels for social economic development. While the political will to establish the NSDI has been strong and consistent, the implementation of the initiative has faced challenges associated with resources, capacity and administration. This paper will discuss how the NLIS Project implemented by the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD) with support of IGN FI and the World Bank has assisted in overcoming these challenges and provided a model for integration and interoperability for public service provision.
Implementation of an integrated land information management system (ILMIS) for Tanzania
1IGN FI, United Kingdom; 2Prime Minister's Office, The United Republic of Tanzania; 3Innola Solutions, United States of America
The Government of Tanzania is committed to land-related reforms and to economic and public sector change as a firm basis for development. In 2016, the Government of Tanzania through the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development (MLHHSD) and funded by the World Bank, engaged a consortium led by IGN FI to implement a two-year project to design, supply, install and commission an Integrated Land Management Information System (ILMIS). Phase 1 of the project has been completed and is currently in the final maintenance stage before operationalization and scaling up to cover the rest of the country. Phase 1 included integration of all aspects of land management comprising the procedures of land allocation and registration involving Land Administration, Survey and Mapping, and the Registration of Titles (linked with Physical Planning and Property Valuation) managed in the Dar es Salaam Zonal Office.
The use of modified data capture tool for securing Land and resource rights for Customary tenure in Uganda
Ministry of Lands,Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
This paper presents the use of the Systematic Land Adjudication and Certification (SLAAC) application to support issuance of Certificates of Customary Ownership, Communal Land Associations and Freehold Titles. It is a collection of tools, procedures and infrastructure which assist the Ugandan Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development in the data collection, mapping, and processing.
The objective of the SLAAC application is to increase the rate of Land registration or certification in the region, secure Land rights for vulnerable groups, increase productivity and use of the documented rights to contribute to improvement of social economic development in the country.
The tool is based on mobile tablets installed with Windows operating system and now being upgraded to Android operating system. The application is based on open source software running a Postgres/PostGIS database, Alfresco and QGIS software for mapping. The Orthophotos are used in digital format while conducting the demarcation of boundaries.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-11: Resolving dispute over land|
Session Chair: Jonathan Lindsay, World Bank, United States of America
The impact of land corruption on human rights. insights from transparency international 's land and corruption in Africa programme
1Transparency International Zimbabwe; 2Transparency International Kenya; 3Ghana Intergrity Intiative; 4Corruption Watch
As the United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner notes, land is not a mere commodity, but an essential element for the realization of human rights. The social, political and economic significance of land makes it susceptible to corruption. It is important to note that the endemic corruption in the land sector poses a huge threat to the realization of human rights that come along with access to, use of and control over land. Through profiling cases of Kenya, Ghana and Zimbabwe, this paper seeks to demonstrate how land corruption violates the human rights of citizens. The paper is also a call to action highlighting why it is important to fight corruption in the land sector. The paper is informed by a review of secondary data some of the data sources includes reports by Global Witness, FAO, TI, Landesa, TI National Chapters and DFID Land Legend.
An analysis of dispute resolution systems as a means to fighting land corruption and promotion of access to justice – the case of Kenya, Ghana and Zimbabwe
1Transparency International, Kenya; 2Ghana Integrity Initiative, Ghana; 3Transparency International, Zimbabwe
Many challenges bedevil the justice system in countries, thus leading to protracted resolution of land cases. These challenges not only fuel land corruption, but lead to immense violation of land rights. This paper seeks to analyse dispute resolution mechanisms as a means to fighting land corruption and promoting access to justice. It asserts the need to examine the legal, institutional reforms and progress made towards making access to justice for all a reality. It further proposes mapping out the existing formal and informal land dispute resolution mechanisms, strengthening their capacity and enhancing transparency and accountability in discharging their mandate.
Through analyzing case studies in Kenya, Ghana and Zimbabwe, the paper is framed within the nuances of Goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals on promoting peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
Redress for land rights violations and the legal empowerment agenda
1International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), United Kingdom; 2Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (TNRF), Tanzania; 3Global Legal Action Network (GLAN)
Pressures on land are growing in many low and middle-income countries. Despite significant international attention to ‘land grabbing’ and efforts to inject greater transparency into land deals, communities still struggle to effectively assert their rights in the face of large land-based investments. While there exists a plethora of redress mechanisms available to communities depending on the type of rights violations and type of investments triggering these violations, many community leaders and civil society organizations still find it daunting to navigate the process of filing a complaint for many of the reasons cited above. Thus, the volume of complaints remains low relative to the harms faced by rural communities in the global south. This paper will elaborate on new socio-legal empowerment strategies organizations are testing to promote achieve legal redress for victims of land rights violations.
Bylaws to improve land value and conflict resolution experience in Tanzania:
Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, Tanzania
In Tanzania especially, village areas most of villagers don’t have clear understanding value of their land and natural resources on it. This has led to conflict of land between villagers themselves and between farmers and pastoralists. Lack of enough understanding of Land has also led to Villagers selling their Land in low prices and even providing to investors just by given some promises which most of them are not fulfilled.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-12: Gathering the data needed to assess large farm productivity|
Session Chair: Daniel Ayalew Ali, World Bank, United States of America
Root for the tubers: extended-harvest crop production and productivity measurement in surveys
1The World Bank, Italy; 2University of Malawi; 3Consultant
To document the relative accuracy of survey methods for cassava production measurement a field experiment was implemented in Malawi over a 12-month period, randomly assigning households to one of four approaches: daily diary-keeping, with semi-weekly supervision visits (D1); daily diary-keeping, with semi-weekly supervisory phone calls (D2); two 6-month recall interviews, with six months in between (R1); and a single 12-month recall interview (R2). The analysis reveals that compared to D1, the average household-level annual cassava production is 295 kilograms higher (and assumed to be closer to the truth) under D2. While the difference between R1- and D1-based estimates is statistically insignificant, R2 underestimates annual production, on average, by 221 and 516 kilograms, compared to D1 and D2, respectively. For improved microdata on root and tuber crop production, the findings support the use of (i) D2, if deployed in a broader mobile-phone based survey, or (ii) R1, as a second-best alternative.
How much can we trust farmer self-reported data on crop varieties? Experimental evidence using DNA fingerprinting of cassava varieties in Malawi
1The Living Standards Measurement Study, Development Data Group, the World Bank, Italy; 2CGIAR Independent Science and Partnership Council’s Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, Italy; 3University of Canberra, Australia; 4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Malawi; 5Chitedze National Agricultural Research Institute, Malawi; 6CAVA2, Malawi
This paper empirically estimates the extent of measurement error associated with alternative approaches for collecting data on the adoption of improved varieties. A range of non-rival data collection protocols were implemented for the same sample of 1260 cassava producers in Malawi, and the accuracy and relative cost-effectiveness of these protocols are compared to a benchmark of DNA fingerprinting using the DArTSeq platform. The results show that only 35% of the farmers could correctly identify their varieties. Identification achieved through using a photo-based survey protocol of morphological attributes achieved correct identification in only 5% of cases. Farmer self-reported data overestimates adoption of improved varieties by a factor of 19. Based on these findings, we recommend that any empirical study in which crop varietal status is an important variable should make the marginal investment of approximately $25 per sample per household for including DNA fingerprinting.
Land measurement bias: comparisons from GPS, self-reports and satellite data
1Northwestern University, USA; 2Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Nonclassical measurement error from farmer self-reports for plot size has been well documented primarily in comparison to using Global Positioning System (GPS). Our study investigates the reliability of Google Earth (GE) for plot size measurement and its impact on the inverse land size–productivity (IR) relationship and input demand functions. Comparing across four Asian countries, we find significant differences between GPS and GE only in Vietnam, where plot sizes are small. The magnitude of farmers’ self-reporting bias relative to GPS measures is nonlinear and varies across countries, with the largest magnitude in Lao PDR relative to Vietnam. Except Vietnam, the IR relationship is upwardly biased for lower land area self-reported measures relative to GPS measures. In Vietnam, the intensive margin of organic fertilizer use is negatively biased by self-reported measurement error. As remote sensing data becomes publicly available, it may become a less expensive alternative to link to survey data.
Assessing the impact of systematic measurement error in farmer-reported crop production on the scale-productivity relationship: evidence from a survey experiment in Mali
The World Bank, Italy
We contribute to the renewed debate on the inverse scale-productivity relationship (IR) by using primary survey data from a representative cross-section of sorghum-producing households in Koulikoro, Mali, and show that the IR can be explained by (systematic) measurement error in farmer-reported crop production. The analysis compares plot-level sorghum yields based on (1) farmer-reporting, (2) crop cutting, and (3) high-resolution imagery-based remote sensing. We find that with respect to crop cutting, sorghum yields based on farmer-reported crop production are overestimated across the board, ranging from an average overestimation of 270 percent in the first quintile of plot areas to 71 percent in the fifth quintile. By switching from farmer-reported to objective yield measures in production function estimations, we show that IR exists only if yield measurement is based on farmer-reported sorghum production. Further, we profile the measurement error in farmer-reporting, and expand on the implications for policy and household/farm surveys.
From the ground up: integrating survey and geospatial data for improved soil fertility measurement at scale
World Bank, Italy
Key to agricultural production, and often omitted from data collection efforts due to cost and complication, is soil health and quality. This paper sets out to validate the use of Africa SoilGrids 250m geospatial soil data by (i) comparing plot-level soil sampling results for several properties with that extracted from the Africa SoilGrids 250m database, and (ii) analyzing the ability of Africa SoilGrids 250m data to predict plot-level soil properties and indices of soil quality when integrated with household survey data. This is possible using data collected through the Methodological Experiment on Measuring Maize Productivity, Soil Fertility and Variety conducted in Eastern Uganda. Preliminary results highlight statistically significant differences in many soil properties as measured at the plot-level and as extracted through Africa SoilGrids 250m. For key soil properties, such as organic carbon and cation exchange capacity, geospatial data paints a more optimistic picture of the state of soils.
|3:30pm - 4:00pm||Coffee Break|
|4:00pm - 5:00pm||Closing Plenary|
Session Chair: Albert Zeufack, World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
Lessons from the conference for land policy in Africa
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Takeaways on ways for strengthening land governance in LAC
Lessons for the land administration profession
FIG- International Federation of Surveyors, Germany
Next frontiers for research on land policy and implementation
Peking University, China, People's Republic of
Opportunities for leveraging the private sector
IFC, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
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Conference: 20th Land and Poverty Conference
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