Conference Agenda

The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.

Only Sessions at Location/Venue 
Session Overview
Location: MC 7-860
Date: Tuesday, 26/Mar/2019
8:30am - 10:00am01-13: Formalizing customary tenure: How to make it work?
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Uganda
MC 7-860 
ID: 458 / 01-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Innovation, Roll-Out, Customary Land Documentation, Land Governance, Uganda

Catalyzing Innovation: Lessons from Uganda: Innovating land governance in predominantly customary settings.

David Betge2, Zeno Pack1, Thorsten Huber1

1GIZ, Uganda; 2ZOA, Uganda

This paper provides practical recommendations and lessons learned to build on the achievements of Uganda’s ongoing land tenure reforms. The authors draw on practical experience with implementing land tenure projects in two different regions of northern Uganda. Their findings are based on recent evaluations of these projects, current literature and the results of ongoing engagements with multiple stakeholders. The article highlights key elements for speeding up the current process of developing a comprehensive land governance system while ensuring its sustainability and taking into account opportunities for innovation.

Land governance is high on the political agenda in Uganda and land is ‘a national priority’. At the same time, the tools, processes and structures needed to register land, including customarily held land are at times unclear or even contradictory. Recent research suggests a strong demand for land registration among communities, but also strong insecurity about the best way to facilitate this.


ID: 459 / 01-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Mailo, landlord, tenant, Uganda, fit-for-purpose

Evaluation of the land inventory approach for securing tenure of lawful and bona fide occupants on private mailo land in Uganda

Thorsten Huber1, Moses Musinguzi2, Daniel Kirumira1, Pamella Drate1

1Responsible Land Policy in Uganda (RELAPU), GIZ; 2Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Makerere University, Uganda

This paper introduces and evaluates the Land Inventory Approach to improve security of tenure for both landlords and tenants on private mailo Land in Uganda. The approach is a non-authoritative form of adjudication that takes into account the unique features of Mailo tenure and the various arrangements between landlords and tenants on Mailo land. It differs from adjudication because the verification and ascertainment of rights is not authoritative. The approach is based on a realisation that addressing the impasse between registered owners and tenants on Mailo land in a manner that is fair and acceptable to both parties requires appreciation and in-depth understanding of the dynamics on Mailo tenure. To attain such appreciation an inventory of the nature and extent of tenancy rights as well as gathering of other basic information such as opinions of both, landlords and tenants, on preferred long lasting solutions, areas of agreement and areas of conflict, is required.


ID: 486 / 01-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Urban expansion, land use, land value capture, and housing
Keywords: land reform, physical planning, implimentation

Land use Policy; implementing the Physical planning Act, in the context of Malawi land reform program implementation

Dr Janet L. Banda, Felix Tukula, Devie Chilonga

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi

The new law regulating land use planning will help in management of physical development national wide. This new law has repealed the old law which in way had specific areas that were subjected to physical planning principles. Since implementation has started through pilots, there is expectation that administration and management of land will improve in the area of land use planning national wide once rolled out.


ID: 773 / 01-13: 5
Individual Papers
Topics: Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples
Keywords: Customary institutions, land administraton, land use planning, gender

The role of customary authorities in land administration: Examples from Tanzania and Ethiopia

Maija Hyle, Zerfu Hailu

NIRAS, Ethiopia

Often when land policies and land legislation are reformed, the existence of customary authorities is challenged, however, typically in agrarian societies they remain as well although their rules may partly contradict each other. This kind co-existence of customary and statutory authorities can be called legal pluralism. This paper will explore the practices of customary and statutory institutions in land administration in Tanzania and Ethiopia and discuss how customary institutions can to be involved in the formal land administration. The involvement of the customary authorities can as its best make the land administration more transparent, aid in land disputes and conflict situations, bridge the gap between legality and legitimacy and contribute to a practical land administration system but it might challenge the rights of women and vulnerable groups.

10:30am - 12:00pm02-13: Gender aspects of land tenure
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
MC 7-860 
ID: 741 / 02-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: land privatization, health, nutrition, land reform

Land reform and child health in the Kyrgyz republic

Katrina Kosec1, Olga Shemyakina2

1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Georgia Tech, United States of America

ID: 587 / 02-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples
Keywords: forest tenure reforms, gender gaps, ownership of land, native communities, Peru

Gender gaps in forest tenure reforms in Peru: The impact of expectations on the household incomes of native communities

Rosa Luz Duran

Universidad de Lima, Peru

ID: 808 / 02-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples
Keywords: gender, ethnicity, vietnam, EAP, joint-titling

Land joint titling and its effects on household welfare in Vietnam

Helle Buchhave, Cuong Nguyen Viet, Hoa Hoa Thi Mong Pham, Giang Tam Nuyen, Kathrine Kelm

World Bank, United States of America

ID: 1139 / 02-13: 4
Individual Papers
Topics: Urban expansion, land use, land value capture, and housing
Keywords: gender, housing, urban, empowerment, employment

Gender differences in housing ownership in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Aphichoke Kotikula, Ruth Hill, Wameq Azfar Raza

World Bank, United States of America

2:00pm - 3:30pm03-13: Drawing policy advice from land data analysis
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Hamady Diop, NEPAD, South Africa
MC 7-860 
ID: 1001 / 03-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Use of remote sensing and land use policy
Keywords: slums, earth observation, enumeration, housing deprivation

Predicting deprivations in housing and basic services from space in slums of Dhaka

Amit Patel1, Christian Borja-Vega2, Luisa Mimmi3, Tomas Soukup4, Jan Kolomaznik4, Marcia Mundt1, Hyunjung Lee1, Tanushree Bhan1

1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Inter American Development Bank, United States of America; 4GiSAT, Czech Republic

This paper develops a novel approach to identify and enumerate housing deprivations in slums of Dhaka using Earth Observation data. We integrate household survey data with very high resolution remote sensing data to build a robust econometric model to estimate housing and basic infrastructure deprivation such as water and sanitation in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Such a model could be used to predict housing and basic services deprivation in areas where household surveys are not available. Identification of most deprived areas from space could be used to inform policymaking and targeting beneficiaries of such policies. We argue that spatial data, which have become increasingly available and affordable, could answer the following questions: ii) How to identify and delineate slums spatially in a metropolitan area using Earth Observation data? ii) How to detect and predict deprivations in housing and basic services as a function of factors from Earth Observation data?


ID: 1178 / 03-13: 4

International collaboration: capturing the impact of emerging trends

Bilan Stribling

Columbia University, United States of America

The surge in global population, over the past decade, has fueled technological innovation. Many advancements are developed to manage and forecast population growth rates while complexities in the political and economic landscape increases. With this in mind, the research how international collaboration can strengthen our ability to achieve the poverty reduction targets in the 2030 Agenda. The research methodology used to explore the potential impact of data collaboration among the World Bank, United Nations, and Internal Monetary Fund is a case study. In the case, the research captures how data collaboration can strengthen the Partnership Framework for Crisis-Affected Situations between the World Bank, IMF and the United Nations. The research examines the mandate and goals of the framework then explores how data collaboration strengthens or weakens the group’s ability to achieve the desired goals. The primary sustainable development goal highlighted in the case is goal 1.A.


ID: 497 / 03-13: 5
Individual Papers
Topics: Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples
Keywords: Agricultural income, instrumental variable, endogeneity, precipitations

The effects of agricultural income on Internally Displaced Persons: Evidence from Colombia

Paola Palacios, Miguel Angel Perez-Uribe

Universidad Icesi, Colombia

Colombia has the largest population of Internal Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the world. Not only IDPs suffer a significant welfare loss suffered after migrating, they also generate an enormous cost to the Colombian society in several respects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of agricultural income on the number of IDPs expelled from Colombian municipalities. To address the possible endogeneity and omitted variables bias, we use an instrumental variables’ approach. The standardized deviation of precipitation from its mean serves as an instrument for municipal agricultural income. Our main result indicates that agricultural income has a negative and statistically significant impact on forced displacement: an increase in agricultural income of one percent reduces forced displacement in the municipality by 1.2%. As a robustness check, we use alternative definitions of economic activity at the municipality level such as agricultural loans, GDP, and energy consumption finding similar results.


ID: 1170 / 03-13: 6
Individual Papers
Topics: Urban expansion, land use, land value capture, and housing
Keywords: electricity residential consumption; increasing block tariff; subsidy leakage; poverty

The consequences of increasing block tariffs, magnitude and distribution of electricity and water subsidies for households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Helena Cardenas, Dale Whittington

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America

In Addis Ababa the increasing block tariff (IBT) is used to calculate households’ monthly bills for both electricity and water services. We estimate the combined water and electricity subsidies received by households with private connections to both the electricity grid and the piped network water in 2016, and evaluate the distribution of these subsidies among wealth groups. We use customer-billing data and match those data with socioeconomic information collected from a household survey. Results show that the combined subsidies are large. The average household receives a subsidy of US$26 per month, about 6% of household income. Also we find that both the electricity and the water IBT subsidies disproportionately target richer households, with even worse poor targeting outcomes when both sectors are considered jointly. The poorest quintile receives 12% of the cumulative subsidies provided by both electricity and water services, while the richest quintile receives 31% of the cumulative subsidies.

3:45pm - 5:15pm04-13: Land rights regularization and common property resources
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: David Ameyaw, International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
MC 7-860 
ID: 510 / 04-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Commons and natural resource management
Keywords: Key words: Benefit sharing, jurisdictional approach, commodities, REDD+, sustainable land management

Identifying best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale in relation to emission reduction programs

Lauren Cooper1, Dietmar Stoian2, Emily Huff1, Kezia Salosso3

1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Bioversity International / World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), France; 3University of Papua, Indonesia

Benefit sharing is an important incentive for many actors who would otherwise not reduce GHG emissions. However, sharing schemes must be transparent, legitimate, and fair, especially because payments are often based on avoided actions rather than tied to specific goods. Earlier thinking focused on financial returns, but new thinking encompasses a broader set of ‘monetary and non-monetary benefits’, including tenure reform, local climate regulation, and community resilience. However, there is a gap in understanding best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale, reflected in the limited guidance for jurisdictions to develop such plans. This study aims to address this gap by assessing, compiling, and communicating best practices across the spectrum of data currently available in multiple programs with a case study approach in two focal countries using sound scientific methods including semi-structured interviews, surveys, Strengths Weakness Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, Q-sorting, and statistical analysis.


ID: 982 / 04-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Commons and natural resource management
Keywords: resources, experimental economics, scarcity, land use, forests

How Does Scarcity Affect Extraction of Resources? A study about land use as a common-pool resource dilemma using survey and field-experimental data collected in northern Namibia

Nils Christian Hoenow, Michael Kirk

University of Marburg, Germany

The aim of this study is to analyze how scarcity of resources affects at what rate users decide to extract or appropriate resources. We investigate this by conducting a survey and an economic field experiment in northern Namibia. The participants in our study are small-scale farmers who regularly make decisions about either staying on their old fields or clearing forest areas for new ones. We compare environments where resources are abundant against environments where resources are scarce.

Results from both the survey and the experiment show that a scarce environment does not cause faster extraction, but under scarcity the rate of extraction is lower than in an abundant environment. Survey results also reveal that abundant stocks tend to attract additional users.


ID: 1091 / 04-13: 4
Individual Papers
Topics: Institutional innovation and private sector participation,
Keywords: land tenure certificate, cash crop expansion, Southern China, multinomial endogenous switching model

Impact of land certification on cash crop expansion in Southwest China

Haowen Zhuang, Shaoze Jin, Hermann Waibel

Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany

We analyze the impacts of forest and farmland certification on cash crop cultivation in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China. Our analysis is based on the panel data from two socioeconomic surveys of 612 smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN covering the period of 2012 and 2014. We apply a multinomial endogenous switching model along with a counterfactual analysis to estimate “ratio of land allocated to other cash crops relative to rubber” under different land use certification.We divide households into 4 groups, namely, (1) households with only farmland tenure certificate, (2) households with only forestland tenure certificate, (3) households with both farmland and forestland tenure certificates and (4) households without any land certificates. Results show that expansion of other cash crop takes place in households with either (a) only farmland certificate or (b) only forestland certificate. Households with both land use certificates and those without certificate are less likely to expand cash crops.


ID: 1188 / 04-13: 5
Individual Papers
Topics: Commons and natural resource management
Keywords: Forest Carbon Supply

Forest carbon supply in Nepal: Evidence from a choice experiment

Randall Bluffstone1, Eswaran Somanathan2, Sahan Dissanayake1, Harisharan Luintel3, Naya Paudel4

1Portland State University, United States of America; 2Indian Statistical Institute, India; 3Smart Start Evaluation and Research, United States of America; 4Forest Action, Nepal

In this paper, we use a choice experiment conducted in 2013 to estimate household-level willingness to participate in a REDD+ program that requires reductions in fuelwood collections as a function of various CO2 prices. We find that robust participation occurs at prices that are higher than the early literature on developing country sequestration. Rather than prices of $1.00 to $5.00 incentivizing participation, we find that relatively little carbon would be supplied at such prices. This basic finding is in line with more recent literature focusing on Nepal REDD+ pilots, which suggests that the early optimism about low-cost carbon supply in community forestry settings may have been somewhat misplaced.

Formal community forests will almost certainly be the core institution within which REDD+ is implemented in Nepal and likely other countries.

Date: Wednesday, 27/Mar/2019
8:30am - 10:00am05-13: Providing policy advice through applied research
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Ammar Alhamadi, Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
MC 7-860 
ID: 397 / 05-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Commons and natural resource management
Keywords: Grassland degradation, pastoralism, tenure reform, Inner Mongolia

Beyond climate change: how tenure reform aggravated grassland degradation in north china

Xingyue Zhang1, Shuhao Tan2

1University of California Davis, United States of America; 2Renmin University of China, China

Grassland plays a vital role in human society and in the ecosystem. Maintaining the vulnerable natural assets---grassland resources, though challengeable, is very significant. However, comprehensive studies on the detailed process of and mechanisms leading to the degradation are still to be presented. This paper will combine the environmental monitoring data with the policy impacts, then arrange them along the timeline to explore how the tenure reform aggravated the grassland degradation in North China. The results illustrated that despite the climate change, tenure reform could be a strong driver of grassland degradation through two mechanisms - “livestock distribution - livestock increase – Tragedy of Commons” and “grassland distribution - grassland fragmentation - Fence Trap”. This finding reminds countries/regions undergoing grassland tenure reform to be aware of both the Tragedy of Commons and the Fence Trap which have taken place in North China.


ID: 834 / 05-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Commons and natural resource management
Keywords: pastoralism, commons, drylands, mountains, natural resources

Unrecognized opportunities for pastoral tenure: Re-framing variability, mobility, and flexibility

Kramer Gillin

University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America

Among scholars and practitioners involved with land tenure in pastoral areas, there has existed a tension between the benefits of clearly established property rights and the dynamic land access needs of pastoralist communities. In describing the institutional demands of pastoral mobility, those advocating for pastoralist communities often explain that the climatic variability of pastoral areas necessitates flexible property arrangements. The seemingly inherent incompatibility of formal registration and clear boundaries, on the one hand, with flexible access rights, on the other, is the crux of the problem of pastoral property rights. This paper clarifies the often conflated concepts of unpredictability vs. variability and mobility vs. flexibility. While climatic variability and livestock mobility are intrinsic to pastoral systems, the relevance of “uncertainty” and flexibility are context specific. Looking for predictability can help form the basis of institutionally viable tenure arrangements that meet the livelihood demands of pastoralists.


ID: 871 / 05-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Urban expansion, land use, land value capture, and housing
Keywords: Property values, land use regulations, hedonic pricing model, Windhoek

An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to understanding the correlation of land use regulations on residential property values in Windhoek, Namibia

Sam M. Mwando

Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

Windhoek city in Namibia continues to experience an acute shortage of affordable housing, a situation that has reached a socio-economic crisis proportion with an estimated housing backlog of 21,000 units out of the national backlog of 100,000 units. The aim of the study investigates the impact of the newly introduced urban land use regulation on single-family residential properties in Windhoek. Using mixed methods approach, the study combined survey interviews and observational checklist to develop a hedonic pricing model in understanding the variables that significantly contribute to residential property values in the study area from 2005 to 2017. Hedonic pricing analysis revealed that proximity to commercial or office uses has a positive correlation in the short run. Further, as distance from non-residential uses increased, the positive effect on property values increases. The results also indicate that being too close to commercial or office uses yield negative effects because of nuisance factors.

10:30am - 12:00pm06-13: Providing policy advice through applied research
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Anna Locke, Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom
MC 7-860 
ID: 151 / 06-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Customary rights; Ghana; Land insecurity; Land governance; Land guard

Governance challenges in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Land Guards and land protection in Ghana

David Kwasi Bansah

Ghana Revenue Authority, Ghana

Land management policy in many developing nations has been riddled with conflict because of competing land tenure systems. Having transitioned through customary tenure systems to bureaucratic property rights regimes without a complete shift from the former, Ghana’s land management system, over time, has witnessed administrative challenges such that some desperate land protection schemes are taking root, including the use of unregulated security land guards. The fundamental objective of this research, therefore, is to explore and better understand the lengths to which people or groups will go to ensure land rights and protection in a regime of statutory rules and regulations. World Bank-sanctioned Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) framework (2015), underpinned my theoretical argument. Overall, the study found that the land administration system of Ghana has not fully achieved effective land governance and consequently occasions instances where people have the tendency to seek other means of exercising control over land rights.


ID: 877 / 06-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Rwanda-Tanzania, Institutional Governance, Urban Wetlands conservation, Food production, Environmental protection

Assessing institutional governance in balancing food production and environmental protection in urban wetlands of Kigali/Rwanda and tropical Kilombero floodplain/Tanzania. A comparative analysis

John Kalisa

World Bank Group, Rwanda

Institutional Governance has been a challenge to balance the food production and environmental protection in wetlands of Rwanda and Tanzania, their peri-urban wetlands are getting more encroached by the population for livelihoods. This paper compares the institutional arrangements in the Nyabugogo- Nyabarongo peri-urban wetlands and kilombero valey floodplain. The major driving forces for alteration of Nyabarongo urban wetland’s functions in reparian urban community in kigali lie in social and economic factors such as policies, markets, demographic trends, and institution governing access to resources and poor enforcement. The Kilombero entire catchment which covers an area of 40,240 km with mountains around Kilombero valley are mainly covered with forest, and land cover in valley itself is dominated by urban areas of Ifakara, some smaller settlements, and agriculture; The area is characterized by diverse land uses, land use intensity gradients, and interactions between large-and small-scale crop farmers, landless herders, and urban populations.


ID: 232 / 06-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Economic research and impact evaluation
Keywords: Communication links, Productivity, Knowledge transfers, Growth and Income distribution

Growth effects of banking development on agriculture and industrial GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa

Ayine Nigo

University of Westminster, United Kingdom

In this study, we show that banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution exert a statistically and economically significant positive impact on local economic growth. This effect becomes more pronounced when the financial sector is more liberalized and deregulated.

The lifting of state controls in the banking sector in the 1980's and 1990's, created a more integrated and competitive financial industry ensuring efficient allocation of bank credits to productive areas.The economic thinking behind all this is that the financial entities, functioning under liberalized monetary regimes operate at higher levels of efficiency and productivity.

Using data from 14 Sub Saharan African Countries, we examined the growth effects of banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution over the period 1990 – 2013. We find evidence of significant growth effects of banking development in SSA on industrial components of GDP. Growth in agricultural GDP is positive but not significant.


ID: 419 / 06-13: 5
Individual Papers
Topics: Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples
Keywords: land tenancy, tenure security

Land related human rights in Pakistan: improving land tenancy as a pathway for agriculture development and food security

Marianna Bicchieri

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Thailand

Secure land tenure rights are crucial for the realization of a number of human rights such as the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being, including food and housing. Land is also a key element for food security and well-being of rural people who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. In Sindh Province in Pakistan, land governance issues hamper tenure security and, consequently, food security and equitable social and economic development. Highlighting human rights principles encompassed in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), this document will outline innovative options for securing rural land access for the poor. Drawing on pilot experiences, the text will elaborate on alternatives to enhance land governance, which has been leading to improved tenure security and agricultural productivity and, ultimately, enjoyment of fundamental human rights.

2:00pm - 3:30pm07-13: Linking global issue to local reality on the commons
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Gerardo Segura Warnholtz, World Bank, United States of America
MC 7-860 
ID: 760 / 07-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Global frameworks; indicators; progress monitoring, LGAF
Keywords: Forest, Rights, Indigenous, Community, Tenure

Consequential trends in global recognition of community-based forest tenure from 2002-2017

Chloe Ginsburg, Stephanie Keene

Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America

Tenure reforms recognizing the rights of Indigenous Peoples, local communities, rural women, and smallholders are a prerequisite for the realization of global climate and development objectives. A new analysis on the distribution of global forest tenure in 58 countries over fifteen years finds that while the forest area legally recognized for Indigenous Peoples and local communities has grown nearly 40 percent since 2002—to a total of 15 percent of forests globally—the rate of recognition has remained slow since 2008. Despite limited progress, forests that were legally recognized between 2013-2017 have much stronger protections for community rights than those recognized during the previous 5 years, signaling an emerging upswing in recognition of community forest ownership. To take full advantage of the opportunities offered by recent legislative advancements that could robustly secure Indigenous Peoples’, communities’, and rural women’s forest tenure rights, more nuanced and appropriately disaggregated data is urgently needed.


ID: 801 / 07-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: global forest governance, international forest policy, Delphi, forest land use

From lessons learnt to future options for global forest governance

Anna Begemann, Lukas Giessen, Marko Lovric, Jeanne Roux, Dennis Roitsch, Georg Winkel

European Forest Institute (EFI), Germany

Deforestation remains one of the biggest global environmental challenges. Over the past 25 years a large variety of forest governance initiatives and institutions have evolved at global level, stemming from fields such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, forest management, as well as human rights and trade. Taking stock of lessons learned on these initiatives in a systematic way, and drawing on the insights of both, policy practitioners and academia is a step yet to be undertaken. Against this background, and building on a qualitative, transdisciplinary Delphi methodology, this article aims at (i) drawing lessons from past initiatives, and at (ii) identifying promising forest governance approaches. The findings include rankings of most important challenges and drivers of global forest governance, promising initiatives, influential actors, main effects thus far, ideal and most likely developments until 2030, underexplored research topics as well as key aspects for successful future initiatives on global forest governance.


ID: 1109 / 07-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Commons and natural resource management
Keywords: biodiversity, community engagement, systematic synthesis, resource management, theories of change

Evidence on biodiversity conservation impacts: assessing theories, approaches, and outcomes from community engagement

Aireona Bonnie Raschke1, Michael I. Brown2, Samantha H. Cheng1

1Arizona State University, United States of America; 2Chemonics, International

Community engagement is widely assumed to facilitate and enhance environmental and human well-being outcomes of conservation interventions. However, while community engagement is broadly applied, empirical evidence of their impact remains unclear. We sought to examine the connections between the dimensions of engagement, governance/land tenure, and outcomes via a systematic assessment of peer-reviewed literature. Our study illustrated that the current evidence base is insufficient to carry out such an analysis, and uncovered clear deficiencies in research on this topic. Community engagement approaches are not coherently defined such that they can be compared and evaluated, research efforts are widely focused on a few regions and lack longevity and robustness, and there is an overall trend towards surface-level community participation and continued state control of land. Our results suggest that increased cross-sector and historical learning is required in order to test rigorously test current assumed pathways to impact.


ID: 1187 / 07-13: 4
Individual Papers
Topics: Global frameworks; indicators; progress monitoring, LGAF
Keywords: Land governance, Sustainable Development Goals

Producing useable knowledge for sustainable land governance: Potential contributions from land systems science

Ariane de Bremond1, Albrecht Ehrensperger1, Peter Messerli1, Vincent Roth2, Henri Rueff2

1Global Land Programme/University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland; 2University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland

Land systems lie at the intersection of diverse interests and claims concerning societies’ needs for sustainable development. Thus, implementation of the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may ultimately translate, in many contexts, into competing claims on scarce land resources. Land system scientists are not oblivious to this: since 2015, the scientific community of Future Earth’s Global Land Programme (GLP) has produced over 5000 scientific publications (data from Scopus), many of which address aspects that are relevant to land governance.

With this in mind, we screened the 380 highest ranked articles published since 2015 by GLP’s scientific community to identify references on interactions between different SDG targets, assuming that the latter are representative of the development claims placed on land. Further, we surveyed 50 practitioners to assess their perception about the most important development goals related to land governance.

07-13-de Bremond-1187.docx
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-13: Land and post-conflict: the case of Colombia
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Mike Mora, Organization of American States, United States of America
MC 7-860 
ID: 1162 / 08-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Social perspective, Agrarian Court, Peace Agreements, Colombia, 902

First social then legal: what 902 decree – law changed. Follow-up on the Colombian Peace Agreements and land tenure issues II

Margarita Maria Varon Perea

Colombia Rural, Colombia

Decree Law 902 was signed by the Colombian Government after 1.5 years of preliminary discussion and was recently ratified by the Constitutional Court as a valid agrarian law issued in compliance of Point No. 1 of the Peace Agreements. This paper studies the extent to which the decree complies with the compromises, how they address land tenure policy and what is still missing.

One of the main features of Decree-Law 902 is the design of the legal process as a dependent product of the interaction between rural inhabitants and authorities and the informal institutions currently operating. Properly implementation of Decree 902 implies intrusion of the social perspective over the formalities of the traditional legal approach and requires the development of a new way to create and apply law. Decree-Law 902 creates the basis for what could be a new rural justice still pending for a legal development: the agrarian court.

08-13-Varon Perea-1162_ppt.pdf

ID: 1211 / 08-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: review of implementation

Between over-innovation and business as usual: another look at the reasons for delay in the implementation of the rural dimension of the Final Agreement in two departments of Colombia (Caquetá and Putumayo).

Klaas Geert van Vliet1, Erika Andrea Rámirez2

1CIRAD, France; Network for applied research on Transitions in Latinamerica and the Caribbean; 2Foundation CERSUR, Colombia, Network for applied research on Transitions in Latinamerica and the Caribbean

The “Final Agreement" signed on 24 November 2016 has been presented as being innovative with respect to other peace agreements. However the first evaluations on implementation point at shortcomings, specifically regarding those measures involving the rural dimension of the agreement. The authors argue that the low rate of implementation of the rural dimension observed in Caqueta and Putumayo, should be sought, firstly, in the quality of the formulation of the text of the agreement itself and the process through which it was produced; secondly, in the way in which the national government steadily added financial, institutional and organizational arrangements for implementation, into the existing State apparatus, without questioning and rethinking its functioning thus far; finally in the way the international “community" managed external resources for support of the implementation. The authors then suggest alternative paths, with a focus on the future managing of land issues in the two departments.

08-13-van Vliet-1211_paper.pdf
08-13-van Vliet-1211_ppt.pdf

ID: 484 / 08-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Large scale land acquisition: Agriculture, extractives, infrastructure
Keywords: Land-Grabbing, Network Analysis, Colombia, Large Scale Land Acquisition

Land markets, social networks and land-grabbing in Colombia.

Camilo Pardo

George Mason University, United States of America

During the past three decades Colombia witnessed what can be cataloged as the most recent chapter in its history of agrarian conflicts, when massive extensions of land were abandoned by internally displaced populations and their property rights were affected during their absence. Simply put, large tracts of land were stolen while people were running for their lives. In the Colombian context this has been labeled as land-grabbing.

Social Network Analysis techniques are used to analyze the context following intense armed conflict in the municipality of El Carmen de Bolivar, where large extensions of land were purchased by a few individuals foreign to the region from local owners forced to leave as a consequence of mass violence. Based on information contained in judicial decisions, it proposes an alternative, network-based explanation for the mass land-theft that occurred in the country in the past thirty years.


ID: 729 / 08-13: 4
Individual Papers
Topics: Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples
Keywords: land and conflict, land tenure formalization

Effects of land tenure formalization on illicit crop production in Colombia

Ivonne Astrid Moreno Horta

WORLD BANK, Colombia

Colombia must address longstanding structural deficiencies that have disproportionately affected rural communities, including illegal crops (171.000 hectares. UNODC/2018). Addressing the conditions of poverty that drove thousands of smallholder farmers to illicit crop cultivation, includes securing their land tenure rights. The average land tenure informality is 60%; while in areas with illicit crops, can reach up to 80% (National Land Agency/2017).

Land titling in drugs-affected contexts increases the sustainability of substitution programs. Municipalities with higher levels of formal property rights witnessed a greater reduction in illicit crops; in fact, the formalization of one hectare of land is associated with a decrease of approximately 1.4 hectares of coca crops (Ministry of Justice and UNODC/2017).

In this sense, in the illicit crops affected areas, the rural cadastre and land tenure formalization measures, should be strengthened. This along with productive projects, affordable housing solutions, improvement of public goods and security conditions.

08-13-Moreno Horta-729_paper.pdf
08-13-Moreno Horta-729_ppt.pptx

ID: 455 / 08-13: 5
Individual Papers
Topics: Data integration & interoperability for public service provision
Keywords: Multipurpose Cadastre, LADM based on INTERLIS, LADM and SDI integration, Land Use Planning Data Model, Colombia

Extended models from the Colombian LADM Profile as support of Territorial Planning

Oscar Zarama1, Fabián Mejía2, Moisés Poyatos3, Daniel Casalprim3

1IGAC, Colombia; 2BSF Swissphoto, Colombia; 3BSF Swissphoto, Spain

Colombia faces transcendental changes to define public policies related to land governance because of the Peace Process between the FARC and the Colombian Government. Among other initiatives, Colombia has been working on the construction of the Multipurpose Cadastral Data Model. This will help to define the expansion phase to the entire country, where the inter-institutional participation will be crucial.

The Project “Modernization of Land Administration in Colombia”, funded by SECO, has supported the Government in developing a Colombian profile of the norm (LADM-COL) and the building of the extended models for land administration, focusing on the land-use planning one (LADM-COL-OT).

The document presents the stages that have been identified and the tools that have been developed to define and put into operation the LADM-COL models based on INTERLIS and the challenges that Colombia will face to consolidate the concept of the modularity through definition, building and implementation of new models.

Date: Thursday, 28/Mar/2019
10:30am - 12:00pm10-13: Legal pluralism and tenure reforms: Has there been progress?
Location: MC 7-860
Session Chair: Richard Gaynor, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC 7-860 
ID: 362 / 10-13: 1
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Land tenure, privatization, collective land, rural development, political economy

Stakeholder narratives on tenure transformation in Morocco

David Balgley

Georgetown University, United States of America

The Moroccan government and development organizations have repeatedly identified the legal complexity of collective land, which makes up one-third of Morocco’s territory, as a barrier to rural development. In 2017, the government began a project to transform 46,000 hectares of collective land in the Gharb irrigated perimeter into private property with funding from the Millennium Challenge Corporation. I explore how diverse stakeholders to this privatization project mobilize different narratives to express their implicit and explicit objectives, concerns, and future expectations on the outcomes of titling collective land. I trace the historical trajectory of collective tenure in Morocco, as well as analyzing the likely outcomes of privatization on economic livelihoods, administrative shifts, and the implications of privatization on agrarian social relations. I conclude by exploring some potential policy options that could achieve project objectives and alleviate stakeholders’ concerns while maintaining local usage of newly-titled land in the Gharb region.


ID: 481 / 10-13: 2
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: Institutions, Agrarian Reform, Political Economy, Rural Development

The heavy burden of the past - The political economy of rural reform in Colombia.

Camilo Pardo

George Mason University, United States of America

Conflicts over the distribution of land have been a constant in the history of Colombia and consensus exists around the idea that inequality in access to the resource is at the core of the intense civil war the country has gone through.

As part of the peace agreement reached with the FARC, the Colombian Government has embarked on an Integral Rural Reform (IRR) strategy with the potential to address historical agrarian issues that have hindered the pace of development and generated protracted conflict.

However, its results are expected to alter the historical status quo and consequently affect the interests of some actors. The paper describes the political economy of the IRR agreement by identifying the actors and the issues from which either support for, or resistance to, the initiative is likely to materialize.


ID: 935 / 10-13: 3
Individual Papers
Topics: Land policy and political economy
Keywords: community property, land law reform, application of law, Africa

Real change or paper tigers? An assessment of legal support for community property

Liz Alden Wily

independent, Kenya

This paper assesses the application of new land laws since 1990 which provide for community property, defined as lands which communities traditionally or contemporarily possess, use and govern. A substantial background on legal trends is provided. This includes a shorter review of the global situation and a longer analysis of new land statutes on the African continent since 1990. Implications in trends and substance are then critiqued. The paper then turns to issues of application and uptake of the law. Could it be that the wave of legal reformism that promises to bring majority untitled land interests in Africa out of the cold as unprotected interest, is predominantly a paper tiger, promising more than it ever intends to deliver? If so, why?

10-13-Alden Wily-935_ppt.pptx
Date: Friday, 29/Mar/2019
9:00am - 10:30am12-08: Working with the Private Sector: bridging the gap between the Public, Private and Civil Society Sectors to catalyze innovation in Land Markets
Location: MC 7-860
MC 7-860 
ID: 375 / 12-08: 1
MasterClass - learning day events

Working with the Private Sector: bridging the gap between the Public, Private and Civil Society Sectors to catalyze innovation in Land Markets

William E Endsley, Glenn Williamson

Georgetown University, School of Continuing Education, United States of America

This Master Class will examine the concurrent work of private sector developers, government agencies and civil society organization in the fields of land management, urban planning, housing, and property market system development to address income inequality.

Case Studies of PPPPs (Public-Private-People-Partnerships) will be presented on successful RRRR (Rethink-Reduce-Reuse-Recycle) land projects that have led to profit for developers, reduction in bureaucratic impediments and more equitable land use. Countries covered include Angola, Benin, Ghana, Nigeria and the United States.

11:00am - 12:30pm13-08: Urban data collection tools and approaches
Location: MC 7-860
MC 7-860 
ID: 489 / 13-08: 1
MasterClass - learning day events

Urban data collection tools and approaches

Frank Pichel1, Shishir Ranjan Dash2, Tim Fella3, G. Mathivathanan4, Shikha Srivastava2

1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Tata Trusts, India; 3ESRI; 4Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Odisha State, India

Join this masterclass to gain firsthand insights into how the project is managed and executed by Tata Trusts in partnership with Cadasta Foundation— a provider of land rights tools and services. Together, using Esri ArcGIS tools and software, the team has successfully surveyed 75,000 households (as of October 2018) to create an official data set of slum dwellings in Odisha. With representatives from Tata Trusts, Cadasta Foundation, and Esri, this masterclass will discuss how Cadasta’s Esri supported tools and technologies were used to collect, manage, and share the project’s cadastral data.

1:30pm - 3:00pm14-08: Women's land rights conceptual framework
Location: MC 7-860
MC 7-860 
ID: 1107 / 14-08: 2
MasterClass - learning day events

Women's land rights conceptual framework tool

Elisa Scalise, Amanda Richardson, Renee Giovarelli

Resource Equity, United States of America

The goal of this class is for participants to be able to holistically analyze the effectiveness of land tenure interventions to improve outcomes for women and men, by putting the Conceptual Framework on Women’s Land Tenure Security into action, using a new Tool, in their research and their practice. Participants will leave the class able to more methodically analyze the effectiveness of interventions to improve land rights for women by applying a common conceptual framework and vocabulary in future research, and by applying that framework to research that has already been completed in order to find gaps.


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