The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Date: Monday, 25/Mar/2019|
|Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|9:30am - 10:30am||00-01: Innovative approaches to land data generation|
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
Survey Solutions: An open source software to collect socio-economic and spatial data
World Bank, United States of America
.Survey Solutions is free software that aims at building capacity in developing countries by providing institutions involved in data collection with cost-effective, sustainable solution for conducting complex surveys and censuses. Survey Solutions combines powerful functionality for data capturing on tablets and web with tools for survey management and data aggregation. This technology reduces the time lag between data collection and data analysis, dramatically improves data quality and cuts survey costs. The ability to collect GIS information using high resolution images, register GPS coordinates and data obtained from sensors, and time stamps opens up possibilities of tackling new, policy relevant questions.
Survey Solutions is used by governments, NGOs, universities, and private companies in 147 countries.
Practical experience with mapping informal farms and houses in Zambia
1World Bank, Zambia; 2Central Statistics Office, Zambia; 3MLNR, Zambia
Ministry of Lands & Natural Resources (MLNR) in Zambia has embarked on a National Land Titling Programme which is expected to run up 2021. However, MLNR and Ministry of Agriculture do not have accurate statistics on the number and sizes of farms due to number of reasons including; Duo land tenure system i.e. Leasehold and Customary; and lack of up-to-date Land information system. Since information on farms is critical in food security planning, and in order to provide accurate statistics on formal and informal large farms, the World Bank is supporting a program obtaining a full listing and perimeter mapping of all formal and informal large and medium-scale farms under the Zambia Integrated Forest Landscape Project (ZIFLP) context. Further, Under the country's regularisation of informal settlements, the Bank is also supporting the mapping of residential properties in Lusaka, Zambia. The presentation highlights our practical experiences in implementing the above exercises.
Combining drone imagery, street view, cadastral data and machine learning for urban development
World Bank, United States of America
Data collaboratives: How data sharing can yield better insights
World Bank, United States of America
Building capacity to use drone imagery for land administration and management: Opportunities and challenges
World Bank group, Tanzania
|11:00am - 12:30pm||00-02: Using land data in innovative ways for policy and interventions|
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
Linking cadastral data & imagery to assess cultivation status of large land acquisitions: Examples from Ethiopia and Malawi
New Light Technologies, United States of America
Identifying changes in housing investments using satellite imagery
World Bank, United States of America
Using census maps to put chiefs' areas on the map: Evidence from Malawi
1Ministry of Lands Housing and Urban Development, Malawi; 2RCMRD, Kenya
Using the SDG module to assess to documents, tenure insecurity, and demand for title
1World Bank, United States of America; 2MLNR, ZambiaCSO, Zambia; 3CSO, zambia
|1:30pm - 2:30pm||00-03: Land ownership and development: Potential lessons for Africa from East Asia’s experience|
Session Chair: Joao Pedro Azevedo, The World Bank, United States of America
Land inequality and development: Potential lessons for Africa from East Asia’s experience
Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom
|2:00pm - 4:00pm||00-04: Land in the World Bank's new Environmental and Social Framework|
Session Chair: Mary Lisbeth Gonzalez, World Bank, United States of America
History of ESF consultation and what was agreed and why
World Bank, United States of America
The importance and implication of the ESF to provide support and supervise projects
World Bank, United States of America
The importance and implications of the new ESF for land projects and for projects with land components / issues
World Bank, United States of America
ESF and land issues in Africa
World Bank, United States of America
|2:45pm - 4:00pm||00-05: Using big data to advance land governance|
Session Chair: Trevor Monroe, The World Bank, United States of America
What Governments can do to harness the potential of big data
NYU, United States of America
Benefits from open access to cadastral data: Lessons from Uruguay
Technology for Simplification and Modernisation of the Common agricultural Policy
Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
|3:00pm - 4:00pm||00-16: Stand for her land|
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
|3:30pm - 4:15pm||Coffee Break|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|4:30pm - 5:00pm||00-10: Conference opening|
Session Chair: Simeon Djankov, World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
Digital technologies and land governance in Africa
AUDA-NEPAD, South Africa
Land policies to allow effective urban service delivery and expansion: Ethiopia’s experience
Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, Ethiopia
Why regularizing informal properties in Chile is a priority
Ministry of National Assets, Chile
|5:00pm - 6:00pm||00-11: Opening keynote|
Session Chair: Simeon Djankov, World Bank, United States of America
Keynote: Linking satellite and administrative data for land economics research and practice
Tufts University, United States of America
Building on new data for evidence-based land policy in Africa
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
|6:05pm - 6:10pm||Overflow Room Conference Opening and Keynote|
|Overflow rooms: Preston Lounge; MC 4-800|
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-01|
Anthropic activities and sustainability of the natural resources of the Lomako-Yokokala Fauna Reserve (RFLY) in DR Congo.
Higher Institute of Agronomic Studies of Mvuazi, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Implementing approach for responsibility management of pasture use in
Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia
Kyrgyz pastures - nomad heritage (traditional approaches in pasture degradation struggle)
KYRGYZ JAYITY National pasture users' association, Kyrgyzstan
Farm’s natural resources management strategy
Mercy Corps, Democratic Republic of the Congo
"Developing community-based land use planning system using the community resource management area (CREMA) model in Ghana
1Kukje Theological University, Republic of Korea (South Korea); 2Pals of the Earth-Ghana; 3Take Care Africa Foundation-Ghana
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-02|
Documenting communal land rights: understanding the use and management of communal land in the highland regions of Ethiopia
DAI, United Kingdom
Land tenancy, contract term and land conservation-theoretical and empirical analyses on apple growers
Northwest A&F University, People's Republic of China
Sustainable practices diffusion in socio-ecological systems: the Gorutuba Irrigation Perimeter (Brazil) analysis
1Regional Economics Applications Laboratory / The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional / Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; 3Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 4FUCAPE Business School
Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi arid areas
1University of Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya; 2Lund University, Sweden
Forest planning decision model to restore forest denudation of N. Korea
LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Republic of Korea (South Korea)
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-03|
ILMS - global land transfer standard
1RICS, United Kingdom; 2Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
Measuring multi-dimensional poverty analysis in Nepal: a study of poverty alleviation fund intervention programme districts
Poverty Alleviation Fund Nepal, Nepal
Monitoring progress towards the 2030 sustainability goals: "Trends.Earth" as a support tool for achieving land degradation neutrality
Conservation International, United States of America
Weak signals for future cadastral systems
1Aalto University, Finland; 2National Land Survey of Finland
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-04|
A practical method for evaluating institutional arrangements and policy indicators of land administration system
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Evolution régimes foncier en Guinée-Conakry
Cabinet CAGEOFI - OGEG, Guinea
Spatial flood damage assessment mapping in Abeokuta
Pointmile Geotech, Nigeria
Achieving SDGs through land consolidation in rural regions of Uttar Pradesh state in India
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India
International Standards – key to unlocking the value of green buildings?
RICS, United Kingdom
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-05|
Transforming social norms about women’s land and property rights
Wellspring Philanthropic Fund, United States of America
Opportunities for innovation: lessons from land rights work in the African Great Lakes Region.
ZOA, The Netherlands
Protecting Ugandan customary land tenure through documentation of Principles, Practices, Rights and Responsibilities (PPRR)
LEMU: Land and Equity Movement in Uganda, Uganda
Of the substantive law in the common law: where is the blocking limiting the access to the landed property of the women in Côte d'Ivoire
UNIVERSITE FELIX HOUPHOUET BOIGNY, Côte d'Ivoire
Leveraging the Sustainable Development Goals to strengthen women’s land rights: takeaways from the espaco feminista model in Brazil
1Landesa, United States of America; 2Espaço Feminista, Brazil
Financial inclusion through increasing land access rights and improving security of tenure a major pillar to reduce inequality and poverty in Uganda
Buganda Land Board, Uganda
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-06|
Delving into the relationship between land tenure and food security using the case of Ayeyarwaddy, Myanmar
Landesa, United States of America
The impact of land rights regularization on the cassava technology adoption among smallholder farmers in Mozambique: the case of pro-poor value chain development project in the Maputo and Limpopo corridors (PROSUL)
Agricultural Development Fund (FDA)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique
Gender and land acquisition: implications for agricultural development in Nigeria.
Babcock University, Nigeria; Babcock University, Nigeria; Kwara State University, Nigeria
Integrating strategic peacebuilding approach into land and environmental conflict resolution for better Indonesia peace infrastructure
University of Notre Dame, United States of America
From commitment to practice: lessons from efforts to implement corporate policies to respect land rights
Strengthening farmers’ land rights in Malawi
1Ministry of Lands, Housing & Urban Development, Malawi; 2DAI Europe
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-07|
Refugees influx, land access and second generation health outcomes in host communities: evidence from Tanzania
The World Bank Group
The conceptual framework on women’s land tenure security: an action tool
Linking land tenure and use, catalyzing land use innovation for grassroots women
Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment Uganda, Uganda
From culture to human rights; unmasking the gendered perspectives in the application of law and existing culture in protecting vulnerable widow’s land rights.
KELIN Kenya, Kenya
Housing provision and land rights in the quilombola community Ribeirão da Mutuca (Brazil).
Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo - FAUUSP, Brazil
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-08|
Grassroots women’s land rights for development
Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment Uganda, Uganda
Norms formation: California gold rush and women's roles
1Columbia University, United States of America; 2Barnard College, United States of America
Innovative approaches in transforming social norms for strengthened women's land rights and security of tenure
Uganda Community Based Association for Women and Children's welfare ( UCOBAC), Uganda
Land grabbing and the land justice movement in Taiwan
1China University of Technology, Taiwan; 2National Chengchi University, Taiwan
Peaceful land for future citizen
Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-09|
Tenure responsive land governance: the case of government-community partnership towards improving livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda
1UN-Habitat, Kenya; 2IFAD
Land tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa and its implications for access and benefit-sharing to bio-diversity
University of Jos, Nigeria
Legal establishments and gendered access to land in patriarchal societies of North-Western Ghana
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
Women’s life cycle as a pathway to land rights on customary tenure in west Nile region of Uganda: lessons for certification and titling.
1Associates Research Uganda; 2Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development; 3Consultant Surveyors and Planners; 4Global Expert - Land and Natural Resources
Practical approaches to implementing and monitoring free, prior and informed consent processes
Equitable Origin, United States of America
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-10|
The impact of land rights regularization on the cassava technology adoption among smallholder farmers in Mozambique: the case of pro-poor value chain development project in the Maputo and Limpopo corridors (PROSUL)
Agricultural Development Fund (FDA)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique
Innovative approaches for promoting gender responsive land governance processes for strengthened women’s land rights and equitable land rights: application of the Gender Evaluation Criteria on land rights registration processes on customary land
1Uganda Community Based Association for Women and Children's Welfare (UCOBAC), Uganda; 2UN Habitat/ Global Land Tools Network
Linking land tenure and use, catalyzing land use innovation for grassroots women
Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment Uganda, Uganda
The land tenure system in Bangladesh: trends, challenges and options for reforms
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangladesh
Discourse on Customary Land Act 2016: evolution of land rights or devolution of powers
University of Malawi Polytechnic, Malawi
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-11|
Today's urban families are rapidly losing their connections and kinship ties with rural families, making the new generations ignorant about the ways of life, production processes, and food origins that are served at the table
1Secretary of the Association of Notaries and Registrars of the State of Mato Grosso- Brazil; 2Lowyer, Brazil; 3Notary, Brazil
Land-based livelihoods and gender vulnerability: a study of cultural inheritance practices in select African states
Translantic Development Limited, United Kingdom
Land regularization of quilombola community in Brazil
1Campinas City Hall, Brazil; 2University of Campinas; 3University of Campinas; 4Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária; 5University of Campinas
Human rights and land policy in quilombola lands: a decade of construction (2008-2018)
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2FAO, Brazil
Towards a responsive customary land rights security in rural Ghana: adopting a rural titling approach
Lands Commission, Ghana
State land inventories using the voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure (VGGT) - case of Madagascar
1Consultant; 2Land Reform Coordination Unit; 3Cercom; 4Essa
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-12|
Role of income distribution and consumption expenditure on agriculture output: case of Nigeria
1Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,; 2University of Macerata, Italy
Government intervention for superior land acquisition outcomes
1Kent State University - Tuscarawas, United States of America; 2NITI Aayog, India; 3University of Central Missouri, United States of America
Local infrastructure effects: large-scale land acquisition.
Ministry of Lands & Parliamentary Reforms, Sri Lanka
The dichotomy of tenure arrangements and its effects on land acquisition and compensation: evidence from Zambia
1University of Lusaka, Zambia; 2Copperbelt University, Zambia; 3Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-13|
Identifying yield gap and potential crop production in Ethiopia, Gambella Region
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany
Monitoring large-scale land acquisitions using open data platforms for improved decision making
Land Matrix Initiative, South Africa
Implementation of infrastructure expansion projects in Tanzania: -the property rights quagmire
1Majengo Estates Dev, Tanzania; 2Land Administration Unit, Ardhi University, Tanzania
Le soutien des communautés locales à la maîtrise de la gestion foncière : un bon prétexte de déploiement de nouveaux outils de sécurisation du foncier et d’acquisition des terres
1PDIDAS, Senegal; 2Banque Mondiale
Displacement in the name of development: insights from Zimbabwe
China Agricultural University, People's Republic of China
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-14|
Gold mining in Eastern Cameroon: The rights of artisanal miners in the face of semi-mechanized mining
1Centre pour l'Environnement et le Développement, Cameroon; 2International Institute for Environment and Development; 3Network for The Fight Against Hunger
The bottlenecks in large scale land acquisition for agriculture: a case study of Azama, Inikorogha and Opuede communities in Gbaramatu Kingdom.
1Angene Surveys & Consultants, Nigeria; 2Gbaramatu Kingdom; 3GFSH Consult Ltd, Nigeria
Lessons from the promised land: a case study of ‘land for land’ compensation for the Buseruka Oil Refinery, Uganda
LEMU: Land and Equity Movement in Uganda, Uganda
Impact of land fragmentation on productivity and profitability of crops in Pakistan
1University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-15|
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China
Land readjustment: the missing link in progressive urban land management in Zimbabwe
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
Polycentricity; a panacea for managing urban expansion in secondary towns? A planning scenario study of Mumias Town, Western Kenya
National Land Commission, Kenya
Design and implement of discount-oriented businesses based on the sale of targeted partnership shares and improved Government’s rules and regulations
Islamic Republic of Iran
|7:00pm||Poster Board 01-16|
An analysis of the effects of urban expansion and housing problems on resident’s quality of life in the outskirts of Lagos, Nigeria
Yaba College of Technology, Yaba- Lagos, Nigeria
Research on the moderate-scale of apple farmers in different targets
Northwest A&F University, People's Republic of China
Urban population modeling: towards a better planning
Land use change detection and prediction using GIS and Remote Sensing, case study of Nsukka Urban, Enugu, Nigeria
1Surveyors Council of Nigeria (SURCON), Nigeria; 2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria
|Date: Tuesday, 26/Mar/2019|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-01: Land for African development: towards stakeholder synergies|
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa
Translation English - French
African Union Commission, Ethiopia
The role of land governance in achieving Agenda 2063 and SDGs
AUDA-NEPAD, South Africa
Consolidating transparent land administration and land revenue generation in Uganda
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda
The way forward on land reform in Namibia: lessons from the 2nd National Land Conference
Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia
Strengthening land governance in Mali
Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning, Mali
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-02: Strengthening land governance for sustainable growth in Ukraine|
Session Chair: Anthony A. Gaeta, The World Bank, United States of America
Increasing the transparency and decentralization in Ukrainian land relations
State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine
Roll-out of e-services and e-auctions - progress and challenges ahead
State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine
Towards a methodology for automatic cadastral error identification
World Bank, Ukraine
methodology for cadastral error identification
World Bank support to help improve land governance in Ukraine
World Bank, Ukraine
Incomplete land reform, weak administration & management, and prohibition of land sales restrict agricultural productivity and investment in Ukraine, with some 10 mn. ha the state controlling 25% of land. With EU support. the Bank has been supporting transparency and better land governance. This helped develop broader support to inventory and register state land, develop land use planning, and competitively auction lease or ownership rights to increase local revenues and enhance investments.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-03: Ways to establish cadastral systems at scale|
Session Chair: Claire Galpin, World Bank, United States of America
Increasing cadastral survey productivity to tackle undocumented land rights worldwide: A case study
Trimble Inc, United States of America
This presentation will introduce a vision for transforming cadastral workflows by leveraging a broad spectrum of geospatial technologies in a way that will provide surveyors with greater productivity in both the field and the office. A holistic system approach will be analyzed, with key factors identified to address customer challenges in the context of a real-world case study. Finally, the customer benefits identified in the case study will be extrapolated to identify potential applicability to developing countries in order to enhance productivity to tackle undocumented land rights worldwide.
Leica Geosystem, Denmark
The world's population is increasing fast; people are moving from country to cities, and the environment is changing quickly. For development projects, basic Mapping has for years been a need. A major problem has been the time it took from the start of a mapping project until data were available for the real development project and sometimes the quality of data. This paper is telling how technology from the new continental mapping project there deliver maps to the Internet portals map solutions can be used in development projects in e.g. Africa. By exampels of already done projects and describing the new methodes there are shown examples of how large scale mapping can be done from aircrafts with significant more accurate data there can compete both in price an performance with satellite data.
An innovative affordable and decentralized model for land registration and administration at a national scale in Tanzania
DAI Global LLC, Tanzania
This paper addresses issues related to scaling up a successful, innovative land registration pilot program using digital technology. Following the successful development of a process for a decentralised land administration system—driven by local land administration authorities using digital land data capture and management tools in Tanzania—this paper explores the potential for and challenges of implementing the system nationally. The paper proposes a low-cost, participatory, digital land use planning, registration, and management process. It examines the potential for a self-sustaining, decentralized, digital land management system for large-scale first land registration and ongoing administration of post-registration transactions. It is proposed that contributions by beneficiaries in conjunction with the involvement of the private and nongovernment organization (NGO) sectors can potentially deliver a self-sustaining system. The paper further examines challenges related to secure data storage and limiting opportunities for corruption.
Leveraging location-enabled street photos and machine learning to automate large-scale data collection in support of property valuation
ESRI, United States of America
To address the data divide for property valuation, a proof of concept is proposed that leverages Esri’s Property Condition Survey together with artificial intelligence. The Property Condition Survey is a configuration of Esri’s Photo Survey application that can be used by local governments to publish street-level photo collections, conduct property surveys, and automate the classification of property condition using machine learning.
The Property Condition Survey leverages location-enabled photos produced by many commercially available cameras and simplifies data processing, so street-level photo collections can be gathered on a regular basis. Photo collections can then be used in the Property Condition Survey application and/or be classified using Microsoft's Custom Vision service to identify property conditions and related attributes in support of property valuation.
By applying machine learning (ML) to the classification of street-level property photos, valuation authorities can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with performing property assessments in the field.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-04: Land administration and changing gender norms|
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
A tripartite normative interaction in land registration: inheritance and land information updating
University of Twente, Netherlands
In trying to identify the underlying factors that account for the low incidence of land registration in the global south, commentators tend to focus on administrative limitations inside of land registration organizations. Whereas lack of efficiency, complex procedures, bureaucracy, high transaction cost and long transaction times have been mentioned as problematic internal administrative features, little is known about how external socio-cultural practices factor into the reasons for the registration and non-registration of real property. We studied the socio-cultural practices of real property inheritance and registration in Ghana and found that the eventual decision/ability/willingness of a successor of real property to report transfers for registration is influenced by the social norms of society, the formal rules of land registration and the practicalities of registration. However, the second and third influences only happen when the social norms allow room for personal appropriation of property.
Women and customary land tenure: emerging developments and ways forward in Savelugu, Ghana
1Techninical University of Munich, Germany; 2UN-Habitat / Global Land Tool Network, Uganda; 3Kwame Nkrumah Univerisy of Science and Technonology, Ghana
Patriarchal norms on land operate along kinship lines. Male children have higher inheritance rights in the family. The girl child is considered not to be a permanent member of the family as she is expected to be married into another family or remarry upon the death of her husband. These are fundamentals for the discrimination against females in the patriarchal community. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches (Savelugu in northern Ghana), this study analyzed land challenges that women face in their efforts to access land in rural communities. Findings from the study show that land acquisition modes available to women appear to operate in ways that exclude them from being owning lands with high tenure security. Suggestions include intense education on land rights and land registration, the formation of women cooperative groups and economic empowerment (through responsible government and NGOs interventions).
Securing property rights for Women and children through Distributed Ledger Technology in Judiciary
Absolutum Consultancy Private Limited, India
UN Women, in partnership with the UN Office of Information and Communications Technology (UN OICT) and with the support of Innovation Norway organised four-day simulation lab to explore cutting-edge solutions based on distributed ledger technologies that address challenges faced by women and girls. UN Women has prioritized innovation technology as one of the drivers for change, strategically leveraging innovation and partnership to accelerate progress towards gender equality and women's empowerment.UN Women has identified cash transfer and identity as areas to leverage DLT to assist women and girls. Having a safe place to save and store humanitarian cash transfers and remittances is a key strategy for coping with shocks and building resilience.In Vietnam, a world bank pilot is testing the ways in which distributed ledger technologies could help women entrepreneurs to prove ownership of business assets, verify production values, and establish a digital identity
Women and land: A conflict of culture and law
Federation of Women Layers, Kenya
Kenya is a diverse country with about 42 tribes, each bearing it's own cultural laws. According to the Constitution 2010 cultural practices and customs are a source of law, in so far as they are not repugnant to justice and morality. it is paramount that a balance be struck between the two to avoid either offending the other. This paper seeks to; synchronize the existing land laws with the customary laws relating to land so as to create a convergence of the two and to help strike a balance between culture and women land rights. It also seeks to recommend reforms and policy change such as codification of the current customary laws so as to ensure that the retrogressive laws are done away with and only those that are progressive and accommodate women land rights are maintained. This will all be with an aim of realization of Kenya’s vision 2030.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Land and human rights, gender and indigenous people of Kaduna state, Nigeria
Kaduna Geographic Information Service, Nigeria
In Nigeria, like most African countries today, customary systems of land regulation are being undermined and weakened, and more formal regulative mechanisms being developed. In most part of Nigeria, Kaduna State inclusive access to land, use and control especially by the women and the indigenous people continue to be a challenge.
Thus, the introduction of land Use Decree was an attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to solve these problems.
Despite all this effort the land ownership continues to be a serious challenge to indigenous people of Kaduna State.
The study on this topic a case study of Kaduna state, shows that Land rights for the indigenous are insecure and unclear.
This paper wishes to examine Kaduna State amongst the few states in Nigeria to make laws, official regulations and policies to address these problems of land and human rights, gender equity for the benefits of its indigenous people.
World Bank-funded land titling in Piauí, Brazil: a pillar of growth or a regularization of land grabs?
1ActionAid USA, United States of America; 2Rede Social de Justiça e Direitos Humanos, Brasil; 3ActionAid Brasil, Brasil; 4Comissão Pastoral da Terra, Brasil
In 2015 the World Bank approved loans of $320 million to support “Pillars of Growth and Social Inclusion" in the state of Piauí, where the Brazilian government announced its MATOPIBA project to expand large-scale soybean production. A key part of the loans includes support for land titling. However, the project needs to address unrecognized conflicts, namely the grabbing of community commons, public lands and water by large scale farmers and ranchers. This paper analyzes the human rights, land rights, and environmental issues at stake, and will report on the status of community concerns and progress toward recognizing, protecting and recovering the land rights of marginalized communities. Finally, the paper will distill key recommendations for institutions and governments to meet their human rights obligations and protect community land rights in line with the United Nations Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs).
Land tenure, gender, and productivity in Ethiopia and Tanzania
The World Bank (USA), UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands) and Jimma University (Ethiopia)
Agricultural land use and tenure system in many African countries are characterized by subsistence production and communal land tenure system. Reforming the tenure system in a way that ensures tenure security could promote sustainable agriculture in the region. In addition, women’s right to land is an essential recipe for rural development. This chapter, therefore, analyzes the gender differential effects of land tenure security on productivity in East Africa using LSMS data from Ethiopia and Tanzania. The chapter uses plot and household level data to investigate the effect of land title and other determinants of crop productivity. The main results show that tenure security positively and significantly affects households’ productivity in general and female-headed households in particular. Potential indicators that positively correlate with crop productivity are total land and plot sizes, inorganic fertilizer use, input credit access, herbicide use, soil and plots type. Policy implications are drawn from the results.
The Impacts of land tenure regularisation programme in Rwanda
1UK Department for International Development, Rwanda; 2Mokoro ltd
The Land Tenure Regularisation programme started as a pilot project in 2005, has been running at scale since 2009, and is expected to end March 2019.The aim of the LTR programme was to issue a registered title to every landholder in Rwanda through a one-off, low-cost community-based process and thereby contribute to poverty reduction, increase investment, optimize land use, and promotes gender equality in access to land and reduce conflicts related to access and ownership of land.
In recent years, the LTR Programme has consistently been sighted as a landmark example of systematic land tenure reform in Africa and textbook case for wider replication. This synthesis paper summarize the findings from an impact evaluation commissioned by DFID between September 2018 and January 2019.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Using data systems to increase accountability|
Session Chair: Michael Taylor, International Land Coalition, Italy
Democratizing the data revolution: bringing local perspectives to the surface
Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The
With the inclusion of land indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals, the data revolution has very noticeably reached the land sector. New technologies to capture, monitor or analyze land data are increasingly being developed, for improved public service provision and beyond. These innovations could very well be the catalyzing factor that is necessary to bring this data where it can be put to good use to achieve land tenure security for all, at a speed and scale that would otherwise not be possible. However, one critical element of this data revolution is at risk to be overlooked: a multi-stakeholder, inclusive approach. The available data that is interoperable is largely from stakeholders from the global North. This paper highlights research into the interoperability-compliance of key land datasets in Africa and calls for a more democratized approach to the data revolution - ensuring local perspectives are not left behind.
Capturing data gaps: comparative study on availability of land data in Africa
1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The; 2People, Land and Rural Development, Kenya
It is an often-repeated rhetoric that there is a lack of land data - whether it is lack of reliable or up-to-date data or a lack in the existence of any data. Collecting data is a time-consuming and costly process and one can only imagine the enormous impact new data capture technologies can have on the speed and volume of new data collection. With digitization of information, increased use of internet, and growing demand for more data, the risk is that we get swept up by the potential of the latest technology and only add to the wealth of data, without having analyzed or digested any existing data. This paper presents a scoping study in five countries in Africa to uncover the information landscape. We hope to trigger thoughts on use of the data ecosystem, rather than ‘simply’ adding to its continued growth.
The role of people-centered data in land governance monitoring: preliminary results from the Dashboard Initiative
1International Land Coalition; 2International Land Coalition, CIRAD
Increased focus on global development frameworks such as the SDGs and the VGGTs has highlighted a demand for reliable land governance data while exposing the limits of existing data. The recognition of such limits has led to a growing consensus on the role that a data ecosystem – with evolving, diverse data sources – can play in the provision of disaggregated, grounded and people-centered data. The Dashboard tool for land governance monitoring is among several initiatives that have emerged in recent years to provide a people-centered perspective to the growing data ecosystem. Developed in consultation with members of the ILC in 2017, the Dashboard is built on standardized indicators and methodologies adaptable to local context. Pilot studies in Colombia, Nepal and Senegal in 2018 have yielded preliminary results that demonstrate how the tool allows members to directly contribute to the monitoring of global frameworks while providing people-centered data recognized as legitimate in broader policy circles.
Developing a country stakeholder strategy for the global property right perception survey (Prindex)
International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
This goal of Prindex Country consultation and stakeholder engagement strategy is to enable the team to engage with selected countries and other stakeholders on the Prindex process a timely, transparent and meaningful way in order to disclose and disseminate information about the PRIndex Initiative. The engagement process will ensure that stakeholders are fully aware of opportunities and benefit of Prindex as a data sources to measure perceptions of individual property rights and self-reported status of property documentation in support of the global effort to monitor land rights. Through consultations of these types, each selected country can establish constructive relationships with a variety of external stakeholders and maintain those relationships over time. The active engagement of stakeholders increases their sense of ownership and commitment to key decisions and outcomes leading up to the agreement and implementation of a compact program.
Rwanda land registration is complete – now what? the view of an NGO.
1Rwanda Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), Rwanda; 2Department for International Development (DFID), Rwanda
Comprehensive land registration in Rwanda was completed in three phases between 2005-2018: a development phase between 2005-2008, registration between 2009-2014, and completion between 2015-2018. Writing from the perspective of the Rwandan Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), a leading Rwandan NGO that has been active in the field of land rights during the period, this paper offers insights into the Land Tenure Regularization Process (LTRP) with an eye to understanding the process of land dispute mediation from a participatory angle. Focusing on the institution of community mediation through abunzi mediators, It further offers lessons on how NGOs in other countries can work with similar land registration processes in different contexts. Findings from the paper are divided into three sections (a) trends of land disputes in land reform (b) ICT and land dispute monitoring and (c) land dispute monitoring in relation to gender.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-07: Managing public land for the common good|
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Common pool resource access rights and wrongs: Insights from Ghana
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Ghana
Common pool resources (CPRs) are resources that are available to more than one person and subject to degradation as a result of overuse. Over the years many studies on CPRs have emerged. However, there are still unanswered questions on how best to manage CPRs while correcting the wrongs of abuse and free riding. Using the case of urban forests in Ghana, the focus of this inquiry was to understand whether resource managers in developing countries employ appropriate tools for the management of CPRs. This article used the theory of access and institutions to examine the broad range of factors including property rights to land and theft that enable people to benefit from CPRs. Our findings suggest that management of CPRs in Ghana is mediated by complex interrelationships between customary and statutory institutions. Different forms of legal (title, leese, deeds) and illegal rights (theft, coercion, violence, deception) characterized access to CPRs.
Spatial planning for land use and protection as an anti-poverty tool in rural areas: case study of innovative approaches on the USAID-funded agriculture and rural development support project
Chemonics International Inc.
The poverty rate among the rural population in Ukraine reinforces the need to change the rural development model. Land reform, reform of power decentralization, and local self-governance are underway in the country. Land is the main resource, but communities lack experience and tools for land resource management. Approaches and tools developed by the USAID-funded Agriculture and Rural Development Support (ARDS) project are feasible for helping newly-established communities set up a system for spatial planning and efficient land use and protection based on modern GIS-technology; and to resolve community development issues of environmental, social, and investment nature. Public discussion of community plans and decisions adopted later by the local authorities are an important component of this system. The proposed methodology has been tested in pilot communities and enables the mitigation of corruption risks in land relations, as well as improves well-being in rural areas.
The official biological killing of productive land under the silence of a class of citizens and applause of others: when all contribute in destroying living land!!!
1Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret (Algeria); 2Abou-Bekr Blekaid University of Tlemcen (Algeria)
All Economists recognize that land is one of the most important factors of production, and one of the decisive determinants of economic growth and development, in any period and country. And most of them agree that rational economic logic invalidates any sense of talking about sustainable economic, human and social development unless it is linked to a strong protection of limited area of agricultural and pastoral land which every rational person must preserve it and support its crucial role as a sustainable source of human food, incomes and also for the accumulation of wealth. But because there are other alternative uses of land, such as those aimed to satisfy many needs of citizens in terms of housing, working, security, shopping, sports, worship, recreation, etc., so the land with high biological productivity is subject to many policies and practices which make them completely and definitively lost its biological spirit and fertility.
Improving governance of tenure: Technology as the enabler
1FAO, Ethiopia; 2FAO, HQ, Italy
Fit-for-purpose enabling technology is an excellent catalyst for improving the governance of tenure in legal pluralistic environments but it requires pragmatic and sustained political will to generate and sustain interests of local communities whose participation is critical for ownership and success. Governments as duty bearers hold responsibility to make the systems sustainable so as to provide secure tenure rights and create the enabling environment for sustained economic development. The paper provides an overview and analysis of the use of technology as the enabler for improving governance of tenure. Four case studies are presented dealing with different tenure contexts. These are clam fisheries tenure in Ghana, Land Administration and community land recording in Angola, Illegal forestry occupation in Tunisia, and tenure administration in private mailo lands in Uganda all within the framework of VGGT. The paper concludes that sustainability is key in using technology as enabler for improved governance of tenure.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-08: Methodological approaches to urban property valuation|
Session Chair: Ruud Kathmann, Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, Netherlands, The
Self-declaration of value: an option for the urban property tax
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK
The ad valorem property tax is a presumptive tax based on an estimate of the property’s value. The estimation of value is normally undertaken by the valuation authority. To assist the authority, there is usually a legislative requirement whereby the taxpayer (whether owner or occupier) is obliged to declare certain information regarding the property. The information sought is typically related quantitative characteristics of the property such as age, size, and accommodation. In addition, some value based information such as tenancies, lease details, business/trade turnover and rents can be sought. This is information that the valuation authority use in their estimation of the value of the property.
The focus of this paper is to consider whether the owner should be obliged to submit a declaration of their property’s value. The question is whether these valuations could be used for the property tax.
Valuing property with bad data: utilizing GIS and spatial modeling to achieve equitable property tax valuations in the face of incomplete data
Missing, incomplete, or inaccurate data have the ability to compromise any predictive model (Beaver, 1966; Pifer & Meyer, 1970; Martin, 1977; Altman, 1981; Bansal et al. 1993). For models used for ad valorem property tax purposes, such data inadequacies can result in financial burdens that arise from inaccurate valuations. Recent advances in spatial modeling methodologies and the availability of open data sources have presented governments with ways to “do more with less” – specifically achieving more accurate valuations without incurring additional data collection costs.
This research will present recent findings on how spatial modeling and open data can be harnessed by governments to promote more fair and uniform property valuations with fewer costs incurred. This presentation will bridge the current literature gap by making explicit methodological prescriptions for valuations that will be yield uniform and equitable valuation results for governments faced with technological or financial constraints.
Response surface analysis (RSA): modeling values in geographically sparse markets
1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2International Association of Assessing Officers, Kansas, United States; 3School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK
Due to physical, legal, and other barriers, as well as cost-prohibitive reasons associated with data collection and storage, sparse data can be a common hurdle in the effectiveness of governments who depend on or are considering the implementation of a property tax regime. The ability to estimate accurate, equitable property valuations is oftentimes a difficult task, particularly in areas with little or no sales transactions. In developing and transitioning economies with limited, inaccurate, or outdated sales information, the data needed to create reliable estimates of value is often times very difficult, or even impossible, to attain.
Standard price points in spatial interpolation. A case study
National Land Survey, Finland
This paper explores various spatial interpolation techniques and tries to find an optimal mix of automa-tion and manual fine tuning for mass valuation purposes for property taxation. The value of land should be estimated to the tax base of 2 million units, in a system of higher tax rate on land than on buildings. Machine learning techniques such as ordinary kriging, empirical bayesian kriging (EBK), geographically weighted regression (GWR), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and spatially constrained cluster analysis (SCCA) have been tested. The paper offers a comparison between those methods and a compari-son to a more manual approach.
Using remote sensing data and machine learning to value property in Kigali, Rwanda
1German Aerospace Center; 2International Growth Centre, Rwanda; 3University of Tübingen; 4Ministry of Economic and Financial Planning, Rwanda; 5Carnegie Mellon University
This paper develops two property valuation models for Kigali, Rwanda, and tests them on a unique dataset combining remote sensing data for buildings in Kigali, with sales transaction data for 2015. This paper credits and builds on a similar paper by Deininger et al (2018) but also covers both the built up area of Kigali and the whole of Kigali Province, it addresses temporal prediction issues beyond 2015, it employs an expanded set of variables, and it uses machine learning techniques to employ Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy to select the model that best predicts property price data using Ordinary Least Squares. The model in this paper is intended as a prototype of a Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal system for Kigali that could be used to calculate the revenue potential of a new property tax introduced in Rwanda in 2019, and to help detect under-declaration of property values for tax purposes.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-09: Using remote sensing to assess impacts of forest policy|
Session Chair: Joep Crompvoets, KU Leuven, Belgium
Informality in access to land and deforestation in the legal Amazon: an empirical study of the state of Acre
1Federal University of Acre, Brazil; 2University of Campinas; 3State Secretary for the Environment
Last Forests Standing: Deforestation prevention with land-use monitoring and valuation in Côte D’Ivoire
Vivid Economics, United Kingdom
Land use Management in Nigeria: the role of Remote Sensing
1Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria; 2Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria
Comparative evaluation of the registered information in the Rural Environmental Registry base under the Federal Cerrado Project
1Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 2The World Bank, Brazil; 3Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Brazil
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-10: Land consolidation: A tool to improve land use|
Session Chair: Morten Hartvigsen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
New trends in development of agricultural land consolidation in Russia
State University of Land Use Planning, Russian Federation
We can treat Agricultural Land Consolidation as a merging, enlargement, eliminating of mosaic land ownership and improvement of configuration as well as optimization of size of land plots. The present stage of development of Agricultural Land Consolidation in Russia is featured by development of agricultural holdings and increasing size of private farms. The average size of agricultural holding amounted 490 thousand hectares in 2016. It varied from 340 thousand hectares to 790 thousand hectares in 2016. The average size of private farm estimated 71.4 hectares in 2016. It increased by 66.4 % compared to 1995. There is also a trend of development of Agricultural Land Consolidation at the regional level, for example, in Orel Region. In 2017, the average size of the private farm was amounted 160.0 hectares in the region. It increased by more than 3.2 times compared to 1994 due to agricultural land consolidation.
An analysis of long-term experiences with land consolidation projects
1Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The; 2University of Munich Germany; 3National Land Survey Finland; 4Aalto University Finland/National Land Survey of Finland
Land consolidation is a specific land management instrument, which has changed in goals, application, legislation, and context of application over time. How and why these changes took place and what the effects of these changes were can best be learned from experienced land consolidators. This article provides an analysis of these experiences, which were captured through narrative vignettes. From the analysis we infer that land consolidation has adapted itself over time, and experiences from different countries have brought more insights in the bottlenecks, limitations, opportunities and requirements for land consolidation. Despite regional differences in preferences, attitudes and opinions about whether land consolidation is an appropriate instrument, there seems to be consensus that land consolidation projects should currently be highly pragmatically oriented, whereby one has to be very sensitive to the needs and characteristics of local contexts, and whereby one needs to be very clear on both short-term and long-term wins.
Land Consolidation as a multi-purpose Instrument - exploring Opportunities and addressing Challenges in Kosovo
1GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo; 2MAFRD - Kosovo Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development
This paper explores opportunities and addresses the challenges of using the instrument of Land Consolidation in Kosovo, elaborating details of reforming the existing legal framework and its institutional setup. It reflects on former and current experiences made in Kosovo and Eastern Europe, discusses feasible land consolidation models, reviews implications for making implementation feasible and highlights advantages and limitations of different approaches. Furthermore, it emphasizes key principles to be taken into account, which reflect principles of good governance, public participation and key steps in the technical planning process. Last but not least, this paper addresses the need for further learning and frequent exchange of best practices in the region, which helps bringing the agricultural sector of all east European countries forward on their way to EU accession, by stimulating land markets, sustaining economic development in rural areas for both large and smallholder farmers in Eastern Europe.
FAO recommendations on land consolidation legislation
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
Most Western European countries have a long-lasting land consolidation tradition. In most Central and Eastern European countries (CEE), land reforms were at the beginning of transition high on the political agenda. In most CEE countries, land reforms resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which are not competitive in the globalized economy.
FAO has in CEE from 2000 and onwards played a leading role in supporting introduction of land consolidation and in the development of national land consolidation programs. In order to enhance its support to the member countries on land consolidation, FAO has in 2018 conducted a regional legal study to identify best practice on land consolidation legislation involving European countries with ongoing land consolidation programs. The main outcome of the study is a Legal guide on land consolidation in line with VGGT. The paper provides overview and summary of the main recommendations in the guide.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-11: Fit for purpose land administration|
Session Chair: Yerach Doytsher, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Secure Tenure for all starts to emerge: New Experiences of Countries implementing a Fit-For-Purpose Approach to Land Administration
1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2KnowEdge, United Kingdom
This paper initially provides background to the 2030 Global Agenda and the realisation that many of these goals will not be achieved without quickly solving the current insecurity of tenure crisis through the FFP approach to land administration. New technology and emerging trends for land administration identified within the World Bank’s Guide (2017) will then be reviewed within the context of implementing Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) land administration solutions. Finally, the paper will review the lessons learned from implementing FFP land administration solutions in three developing countries, Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda, to identify how their country strategies were evolved, how the FFP land administration guidelines were interpreted and adapted, how politicians and decision makers signed onto the approach, and how the mind-set of key stakeholders, including surveyors, were changed to embrace FFP land administration.
Fit-for-purpose land administration strategy: an innovative approach to implement land policies in Nepal
1Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Government of Nepal; 2Kathmandu University, Nepal; 3UNHABITAT, Nepal; 4Aalborg University, Denmark; 5Land and GLTN Unit, Land and Governance Branch, UN-Habitat, Kenya; 6Community Self Reliance Center, Kathmandu Nepal; 7Land and GLTN Unit, UN-Habitat, Kenya
The current Nepalese Land Administration System only deals with the formal land tenure system. Approximately 10 million land parcels are under informal tenure and outside the formal cadaster. Families, under such informal tenure, are highly vulnerable to eviction due to unsecured land tenure. Informal tenure is causing huge loss to economy and the valuable land asset is dumped as “dead capital”.
Addressing this problem of informality with the existing traditional approach may require huge financial resources, long time span and large number of trained human resources, which could be difficult to manage for a country like Nepal. In this context, this paper presents an innovative approach and fit for purpose strategy of land administration which could be a solution to manage informal land tenure and implement the provisions in the proposed land policies and newly enacted Constitution of Nepal. The results are encouraging and can be implemented throughout the country.
Creating resilience to natural disasters through FFP land administration – an application in Nepal
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2UN-Habitat Nepal; 3UN-Habitat Global Land Tool Network; 4University Twente, ITC Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation; 5Swinburne University of Technology
Information on people to land relationships - documented in a land administration system - is crucial in occurrence of any natural disaster. Fit–For Purpose approaches and interventions have been used in the process of earthquake recovery and to improve the resilience for four affected communities in the Dolakha district in Nepal. Therefore innovative land tools have been used in a post-earthquake context to support the management and recordation of customary and informal land rights for communities. The FFP LA approach in the post-earthquake context brought quick results and benefited not only four communities in Dolakha district but also had impact at national level as it supported the national land policy formulation process and ignited the FFP country implementation strategy.
Fit for Purpose Land Administration: Innovations as a result of country implementations
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Twente University - ITC
There is an urgent need for the administration of property and land use rights worldwide as a basis for inclusive social and economic growth. To continue in the conventional way will not lead to inclusion of the remaining 70% within our lifetime. It is time for new, innovative approaches to land administration. Time to build affordable, inclusive, scalable and sustainable systems that quickly provide complete coverage of the tenure situation in territories.
Based on our experiences in the implementation of FFP methodologies in projects over the last year, we will define lessons learned in e.g. Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, Indonesia. Some lessons are of a more general nature, and other lessons are country and context specific. These lessons are significant for scaling up and ‘scaling forward’ FFP land administration and will result in innovations of methodology, technology and approaches.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-12: Planning land use to attract investment|
Session Chair: Kaitlin Cordes, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
Challenges of making land available for large-scale investment in commercial agriculture in Tanzania: the case of Missenyi district
Ardhi university, Tanzania
There is a belief that for a country like Tanzania, there is a lot of unutilized or underutilized land that can be made available for large-scale agricultural investment. Based on a study of the Missenyi District to the north-west of the country, it was established that given the growing population and the existence of a sugarcane estate, a state ranch and a nature reserve there is a land scarcity which is forcing serious encroachment on the traditional communal resources land (rweya), and on wetlands (bishanga) with serious consequences on land for livestock grazing, the environment and water sources. It is recommended that rather than think in terms of creating a land bank for large external investors, efforts should be made to enable land markets including land rentals, and turn the local populations into high productivity investors, reducing the pressure for lateral expansion onto communal and environmentally sensitive land.
Insights from participatory land use planning in Liberia: the dos and don’ts of bottom-up land use planning as part of tenure reform
1Liberia Land Authority; 2IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative
In September 2018, after years of advocacy, negotiation, and research, the Government of Liberia passed the Land Rights Act (LRA). This act formally recognizes customary land and calls for land use planning in every community. The Liberia Land Authority, the agency tasked with implementing the LRA, and IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative, are piloting bottom-up land use planning in Foya District of Lofa County, in Northwest Liberia, to understand the opportunities and challenges of such a process. Through this initiative, communities identify land for farming, other livelihood activities, future use or conservation, infrastructural development, and sustainable agro-production supported through external investments. The first of its kind in Liberia, this project tests methodologies for land negotiation, community mapping, and conflict resolution in the land sector at the district level. By analyzing the successes and challenges of this process, we offer insights that can inform land use planning processes occurring elsewhere.
Building harmonized private and state land data and information systems in Ethiopia
1Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Ethiopia; 2NIRAS
Different government institutions in Ethiopia working on land related issues manage data and information independently, while their activities and mandates are often related or even overlapping. In Ethiopia different institutions deal with small holder rural land and commercial agricultural land. Until now responsible institutions were not able to share information and view each others data to make informed decisions. The lack of shared data has in some cases led to investment allocations that overlap with small holder farmers’ areas. This challenge is currently addressed through joint initiatives involving the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Resources and Ethiopian Horticultural and Agriculture Investment Authority supported by the Finnish Government funded REILA project and by the EU/German co-funded GIZ implemented S2RAI project. The paper will provide examples and arguments for linking data and IT-systems of different governmental institutions and focus on the link between investment land allocation and monitoring and rural cadaster.
Making Myanmar's National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work: opportunities and challenges for harnessing technology, innovation and investment in people for Myanmar's inclusive development
1The PLAN: Public Legal Aid Network, Myanmar; 2Emerald Sea Group; 3River Mekong Group
"There is no compensation for inaction and lack of policies", warned a panelist in "Leveraging Policies for Sustainable Development Goals", one of the seminars in the 2018 Annual Meetings of the World Bank and IMF in Bali, urging governments' immediate actions to address global issues highlighting the only alternative be devastating crises. In light of #AM2018Bali agendas, the paper explores the context of Myanmar's challenges and opportunities: how Myanmar could ensure its National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work for all its populations, including the vulnerable/marginalized by fostering inclusion, equality, rule of law and ensuring leveled playing field for free and fair competition. By honestly looking into the realities of the illicit and unaccounted-for economies, their thriving financing models, could the country capture and incorporate correct data to accommodate comprehensive policy and regulatory frameworks. Harnessing technology, innovation and investing in the future will help Myanmar achieve its full potential.
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-13: Formalizing customary tenure: How to make it work?|
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Uganda
Catalyzing Innovation: Lessons from Uganda: Innovating land governance in predominantly customary settings.
1GIZ, Uganda; 2ZOA, Uganda
This paper provides practical recommendations and lessons learned to build on the achievements of Uganda’s ongoing land tenure reforms. The authors draw on practical experience with implementing land tenure projects in two different regions of northern Uganda. Their findings are based on recent evaluations of these projects, current literature and the results of ongoing engagements with multiple stakeholders. The article highlights key elements for speeding up the current process of developing a comprehensive land governance system while ensuring its sustainability and taking into account opportunities for innovation.
Land governance is high on the political agenda in Uganda and land is ‘a national priority’. At the same time, the tools, processes and structures needed to register land, including customarily held land are at times unclear or even contradictory. Recent research suggests a strong demand for land registration among communities, but also strong insecurity about the best way to facilitate this.
Evaluation of the land inventory approach for securing tenure of lawful and bona fide occupants on private mailo land in Uganda
1Responsible Land Policy in Uganda (RELAPU), GIZ; 2Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Makerere University, Uganda
This paper introduces and evaluates the Land Inventory Approach to improve security of tenure for both landlords and tenants on private mailo Land in Uganda. The approach is a non-authoritative form of adjudication that takes into account the unique features of Mailo tenure and the various arrangements between landlords and tenants on Mailo land. It differs from adjudication because the verification and ascertainment of rights is not authoritative. The approach is based on a realisation that addressing the impasse between registered owners and tenants on Mailo land in a manner that is fair and acceptable to both parties requires appreciation and in-depth understanding of the dynamics on Mailo tenure. To attain such appreciation an inventory of the nature and extent of tenancy rights as well as gathering of other basic information such as opinions of both, landlords and tenants, on preferred long lasting solutions, areas of agreement and areas of conflict, is required.
Land use Policy; implementing the Physical planning Act, in the context of Malawi land reform program implementation
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
The new law regulating land use planning will help in management of physical development national wide. This new law has repealed the old law which in way had specific areas that were subjected to physical planning principles. Since implementation has started through pilots, there is expectation that administration and management of land will improve in the area of land use planning national wide once rolled out.
The role of customary authorities in land administration: Examples from Tanzania and Ethiopia
Often when land policies and land legislation are reformed, the existence of customary authorities is challenged, however, typically in agrarian societies they remain as well although their rules may partly contradict each other. This kind co-existence of customary and statutory authorities can be called legal pluralism. This paper will explore the practices of customary and statutory institutions in land administration in Tanzania and Ethiopia and discuss how customary institutions can to be involved in the formal land administration. The involvement of the customary authorities can as its best make the land administration more transparent, aid in land disputes and conflict situations, bridge the gap between legality and legitimacy and contribute to a practical land administration system but it might challenge the rights of women and vulnerable groups.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-01: Harnessing the IT & data revolution for African land policy|
Session Chair: Clement Adjorlolo, New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), South Africa
Using building footprint data to inform planning & monitor compliance with land use regulations: The case of Kigali & Musanze
Independent consultant, Rwanda
Investments in advanced technologies and building multiple information systems can leverage interoperability and integration to improve analytical processes informing policy and development. Rwanda has developed several systems to implement different obligations for citizen-centred oriented services. The comprehensive Land Administration Information System, Building Permit Management Information System, interactive physical planning and spatial information web applications to access physical development policies and guidelines are examples of systems that can be integrated to develop a land use monitoring system. The interaction of these systems and building foot print data using selected areas in Kigali and Musanze will demonstrate the importance of developing a digital land use monitoring system to conform to policy guidelines and development control. Regulated data structures, provided for in a national ICT policy and strategy, ensure that such innovations are cost effective and avoid replications and redundancies, where each system maintains its unique core function and information source of truth.
Establishing an interoperable land information system in Bamako for urban development
secretariat permanent de la reforme domaniale et fonciere au Mali, Mali
Strategies to ensure sustainability of Rwanda’s registry: Paperless registration of marriage/death, fee reductions, and regulatory change
Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda
Tenure insecurity and demand for land documents in Zambia: Evidence from a nation-wide household survey
1Central Statisticsl Office, Zambia; 2World Bank, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-02: Spatial transformation to achieve green urban growth|
Session Chair: Ede Jorge Ijjasz-Vasquez, The World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
Keynote: Urbanism and climate change – A holistic approach to climate change
Calthorpe Associates, United States of America
Can we solve our housing crisis and increase mobility through infill and next generation technology? As a case study, we evaluate the housing potential along El Camino Real, the 45-mile roadway through the heart of Silicon Valley and examine the potential of next generation transit. We dig deep into the costs and benefits of infill housing, revealing critical energy, water, transportation, and cost challenges. We also looked at how new innovations in transit and mobility such as Autonomous Rapid Transit (ART) technology can support growth along El Camino and countless corridors like it across the country. We discovered that 250,000 new dwellings are possible on the low density commercial land lining the boulevard and that enhancing a typical BRT system with Autonomous Buses can reduce operation costs by 48% and increase average speeds by 27%.
World Bank, United States of America
Centre for Livable Cities of the Ministry of National Development, Singapore
University of Minnesota, United States of America
Development Research Center of the State Council, China, People's Republic of
World Bank, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-03: Innovative technology in the land sector|
Session Chair: Steven Nystrom, FIG Commission 9, United States of America
Innovation through artificial intelligence
Emirates Real Estate Solutions, United Arab Emirates
Artificial intelligence is prime technology that catalyzes innovation. the abstract will highlight on different use cases where innovation is employed and catalyzed using AI, study is fusing the need of AI as technology and enabler for process change to increase innovation within major sector in industry ( real estate).
Beyond blockchain: technology in the land agenda
World Bank, United States of America
Recent discussions on the role of technology in advancing the land agenda have largely centered around blockchain technology. However, blockchain is just one of the many tools available to move forward the ambitious goal of the recording people’s rights and using such a system for other applications like disaster risk management, property valuation and taxation etc. The paper will examine eight technologies that have been launched or are being tested in different countries: blockchain, AI/machine learning, 3D models, drones, VHR satellite imagery etc. Overall, the paper will contribute to the ongoing discourse on the use of technology in the land agenda by presenting a wider scope of technologies along with their uses, challenges, and actionability. To conclude, the paper will present options for institutional innovation and demonstrate ways in which the private sector and donors/financiers can engage with countries to improve the uptake of technology.
Evaluating the hype: the current potential of blockchain for land
Future of Property Rights Program at New America
Last year, the Future of Property Rights Program at New America wrote about the applicability of blockchain for land registries. The report was presented at the 2018 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. We plan to revisit the companies we profiled in 2018, to see how they are doing a year later. Who was able to successfully implement their planned projects, and who was not? Why? Can we learn anything about the broad applicability of blockchain to land?
Digital identity, housing data, and disaster resilience in Puerto Rico
New America, United States of America
This paper -- based on both primary and desk research-- examines the post-hurricane housing crisis in Puerto Rico, the ways in which informal property ownership has contributed to that crisis, and how new technologies for the secure collection and sharing of data can help to the island’s housing sector recover and prepare for future disasters. The first section describes the nature and extent of the housing crisis in Puerto Rico and the government’s recovery plans. The second section provides a brief introduction to some of the emerging technologies that can be used to implement those plans, with a special focus on blockchain-based self-sovereign identity (SSI). The third section describes the model for an SSI-based mapping and data sharing platform that can be used throughout the disaster management process, from vulnerability assessments, to disaster response, to tracking the distribution of recovery aid.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-04: Can land administration foster gender equality?|
Session Chair: Rumyana Tonchovska, UNFAO, Italy
Improving gender equality in land tenure in the Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia
1Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia; 2UN Food and Agriculture Organization
Serbia is one of the countries participating in the Western Balkans regional initiative, aiming to address the challenges to increase female land ownership. Gender disaggregated data have been produced from the administrative systems in the region, indicating a low percentage of female land ownership across the region. After the adoption of the Global Agenda, the work is focused on developing capacities to collect data and report progress on the SDGs land indicator under target 5.a: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Serbia is one of the first countries in the world, which produced the baseline data for SDGs indicator 5.a.2. and is taking serious actions to achieve the indicator. The paper will present the results from applying the methodology for monitoring and reporting on SDGs indicator 5a.2 and good practices from Serbia in improving gender equality in land ownership and its impact in the next coming years.
From laws to action: Achieving SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans
1FAO, Italy; 2GIZ, Germany; 3UINL, Italy
With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, gender equality has become more and more present in the agendas of the governments and the international community. This paper will present how the countries of the Western Balkans, assisted by the German Government, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Union of Notaries (UINL) have moved forward in strengthening women’s access to land. The Session will focus on the implementation gap between the law (de jure) and the practice (de facto) in the region and introduce a set of practical guidelines that invite notaries and registration officers to use their unique position to protect and strengthen the rights of spouses, partners and daughters. It will also explore how the experience from the Western Balkans could be applied in other regions of the world.
Using open data to analyze participation in the labor market and property registration of women in Kosovo
Marin Sh.P.K., Kosovo
In this study two analyses are conducted on the participation rate in the labor market and the registration of immovable property of women in Kosovo. This analysis is conducted using two main open data sources such as the Labor Force Time Use Survey and the Kosovo Geoportal. Estimations from the adjusted sample size show that the labor participation rate for women in Kosovo is 22% and for men is 52%, while the employment rate for women is 14% and 47% for men. The analysis is extended by using real time cadastral data on the registration of immovable property by all men and women in Kosovo from 2014-2018. Large gender discrepancies are found among the data in regards to the registration of immovable property, particularly, in 2018, women's registration of immovable property was 17.05% and 80.96% for men, and the remaining percentage belongs to the legal entities registered as property owners.
Women, Financial Inclusion and the Law: Why Property Rights matter for Women's access to and use of financial services
World Bank Group, United States of America
Property (including land and housing) rights are a focus of the project analyzing linkages with underlying legislation such as family, inheritance laws and land laws, and its impacts on areas such as women’s ability to access credit. Owning and being able to leverage their property, especially land, is essential for women when pursuing economic opportunities, particularly as entrepreneurs. Women, Business and the Law sheds light on specific areas of the law that are relevant for women’s access to financial services.
For example, our new research shows that women's account ownership is lower in places where their legal rights to work or own property are restricted. Women, Business and the Law 2018 finds that unequal legal rights can affect women’s financial inclusion both directly and indirectly.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions|
Session Chair: Malcolm Childress, Global Land Alliance, United States of America
Land conservation for open space: spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors
University of Maryland at College Park, United States of America
Land conservation has been widely used as a policy tool to contain urban sprawl, protect habitat, and provide ecosystem services through conservation easements. This paper investigates spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors on private landowners’ conservation decision for open space. A spatially-explicit panel dataset is constructed to illustrate the patterns of private land parcels on conservation easements over time. In the empirical analysis, this paper identifies endogenous spatial interactions and employs a correlated random-effects model to correct for the endogeneity of time-varying covariates. The results show that there exist positive impacts of neighbors on the likelihood of private landowners’ conservation decision. This paper extends the literature by showing that such spatial spillovers diminish with distance and present a non-linear pattern as the number of neighbors increases. Land parcel characteristics such as parcel size and local land price are also found to influence landowners’ decision to place a conservation easement.
Smallholder crop market participation in Tanzania: The influence of transaction cost, asset endowment and producer cooperatives
Chr.Michelsen Institute, Norway
This paper assess the determinants of crop market participation among smallholder farmers in Tanzania, with a focus on the role of transaction cost, asset endowment and cooperatives. The study is based on household survey data from Southern Tanzania where cooperatives play a significant role in the cash crop market. We analyse market participation using Cragg’s double-hurdle model and control for potential endogeneity of cooperative membership using control function approach. We find that distance to market negatively influences cash crop sales while better access to information and communication encourages both food and cash crop marketing. Among asset endowments, only agriculture-specific resources have significant impact. The study shows that while cooperatives improve market participation among members, they also appear to stunt local food markets. Having a marketing cooperatives branch in the village reduces both the likelihood of selling food crops and the amount sold. It does not affect cash crop market participation.
Land access and household implementation of agroecosystems in rural Guatemala
Iowa State University, United States of America
Agroecology is increasingly promoted as a rural development and livelihood strategy that can reduce poverty and increase food security. However, this assumption is made without understanding how peasant households can access land on which they can implement agroecological practices. This research asks: How does differential access to land influence a household’s decision to implement agroecological practices? What types of land tenure statuses are conducive to adapting agroecosystems? Using a political ecology lens, I analyze the implementation of agroecological practices among households in San Martín Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango, Guatemala through qualitative research conducted in early 2016. I find that differences in land ownership and the size of the plots farmed or used for grazing are key factors to household implementation or use of agroecological practices. Agroecological practices can only be implemented and yield a sustainable livelihood if households have access to enough land on which they can implement the practices.
Land markets and transaction costs following institutional strengthening: A pre-post evaluation in Mongolia
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
High level interventions that focus on institutional and technology improvements at a national level or in a limited number of urban/provincial areas do not lend themselves to rigorous impact evaluations, as there is often no feasible counterfactual. Correspondingly, most quantitative research on land tenure has focused on measuring indicators and outcomes at the household or community level. The analysis of land administration and bank loan data is notably absent from empirical studies to-date. This paper seeks to fill this evidence gap and build the knowledge base on the effectiveness of national level land administration and capacity building interventions by presenting the endline performance evaluation findings of a Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Mongolia land registry strengthening project. Our paper utilizes a variety of data sources to test whether the project achieved expected outcomes, primarily increased efficiency of land transactions.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: Indonesia's 'one map' policy: Does it live up to its potential?|
Session Chair: Jill Pike, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Governance effectiveness evaluation and cost benefit analysis of one map policy delivery institutions at the sub-national level in Indonesia
1World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia; 2Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) of the Government of Republic of Indonesia
Indonesian national and sub-national government agencies produce their own maps, resulting in overlapping claims, land conflicts and hindering sustainable development. To address this, the government aims to compile, integrate and synchronize 85 thematic maps, involving 19 national agencies and 34 provincial governments through One Map Policy acceleration by 2019. Geospatial Information Agency is responsible to develop spatial data infrastructure, mandating national and sub-national government agencies to establish data management institution. The agency has commissioned research to evaluate governance effectiveness and conduct cost-benefit analysis on institutional arrangement alternatives at provincial level. Using a mix of qualitative criteria evaluation with quantitative weighting method, the analysis founded 15-year net present value of Governor’s Secretary (USD 137 Million) and separate Implementing Unit (USD 178 Million) as institutions with highest performance ratings. Investment and coordination factors show that the former could serve as short-term (quick win) alternative while preparing the latter as long-term (ideal) solution.
Mapping indigenous land: lesson learned from One Map Initiative in Indonesia
World Resources Institute Indonesia, Indonesia
The idea of One Map comes from the lack of integrated and synchronized geospatial data on land ownership and land use sector across Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to extract lessons learned of the process in an indigenous village in Riau, Sumatra where their settlements are declared as part of a Wildlife Reserve. The study suggests implementing an ideal inclusive, sustainable, and accountable One-Map in village level would require a greater emphasis on (1) a different community engagement approach to make all social class and gender within the community equally participate, (2) an incorporation of environmental impact assessment for land use planning, and, in context of One Map in forest area, (3) a mutual understanding among institutions about One Map and their support on sustainable practices.
Towards prosperity and sustainability: The progress of social forestry implementation in Indonesia
1WRI Indonesia, Indonesia; 2Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Sweden; 3Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Indonesia
Social Forestry (SF) in Indonesia had embarked on a new, exciting phase under the Jokowi administration. Despite the government’s ambitious social forestry goal, there has been no robust evaluation framework to assess whether the SF initiative is progressing toward achieving the program’s intended objectives, i.e. 1) tenurial conflict resolution, 2) welfare improvement, and 3) forest protection. After an extensive desktop review, we developed fifteen evaluation indicators covering the environmental, socio-economic, and institutional aspects of SF management. We then tested out the evaluation framework in two SF locations in Sumatra, where we conducted random household surveys, interviews, and focused group discussions. SF implementation in both locations is generally able to protect the forest from threats while also improving communities’ welfare through forest-based income and environmental services. Yet, overlapping boundaries between the proposed and approved maps also remained, suggesting the complexities of SF implementation in Indonesia.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-07: Supporting land management by customary authorities|
Session Chair: Stephen Brooks, US Agency for International Development, United States of America
Customary land secretariats in Ghana as change agents in land dispute management
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana
Innovative customary land governance in Zambia: experiences, lessons learned and emerging impacts
1People's Process on Housing & Poverty in Zambia, Zambia; 2Chamuka Royal Establishment; 3UN-Habitat/GLTN
Improving customary land administration in Ghana- CLSs shows the way
Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands, Ghana
Making Customary Land Secretariats financially and operationally sustainable from the ground up in Ghana
1Meridia, Netherlands; 2Innola, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-08: Remote sensing and automation for property tax assessment|
Session Chair: Amy Rasmussen, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Supporting local government administrations through public private partnerships (PPP).
1Cotecna Inspection SA, United Arab Emirates; 2Cotecna Inspection SA, Geneva
In a decentralised framework, local government is generally charged with the responsibility of delivering basic services to its constituencies, and for this system to work, local government entities are also given the right to raise their own revenues. The revenue from land & property tax is necessary if local government wants to achieve financial viability.
With the support of the WB, many governments have modernised their Land Information Systems, creating the platform for local government to collect property taxes. However, the failure of the vast majority of local governments to efficiently collect the property tax means that it is necessary for the private sector to provide support. Local governments undoubtedly need help to implement land & property tax systems.
This paper outlines practical and tangible measures of how innovation and collaboration with the private sector can help local government to be more successful in raising their internally generated revenue (IGR).
Land characteristics survey in Korea, utilizing spatial information
Korea Appraisal Board, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The purpose of this presentation is to show how the land characteristics survey method of Public Land Price Assessment System (PASLP) of the South Korea developed by applying spatial information science, with specific examples.
The Korea Appraisal Board developed the Automatic Land Characteristics Survey (ALCS) System with its own GIS and information technologies in order to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of land characteristic survey with less survey error.
By using geospatial technology, the said automated survey system of land characteristics influences pricing of land. It is especially used to analyze topography, parcel shape, aspect, road adjacency, area, zoning, land use, planning and accessibility to land parcels for public facilities. It allows quick and accurate field surveys of each land parcels throughout the country, improving time efficiency and saving human labor. Moreover, it enhances the accuracy, objectivity and consistency in field surveys, saving the cost of field surveys.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a satellite–based approach to maintaining a property database
Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom
Maintaining up-to-date and accurate information about all assets and services owned and operated by organisations is essential for good governance. Often insufficient attention or resources are provided to ensure this occurs and in rapidly changing environments, such as exist in the developing world, where increasing urbanisation is a major factor, information about land and property is all too often inaccurate, considerably out of date and not maintained in any meaningful way. The change detection project in Dakar, which uses the analysis of Very High Resolution satellite imagery to identify urban change, provides a means to keep the database of land and property up-to-date at reasonable cost. However it is only of benefit if, upon the completion of a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), the method adopted is demonstrably shown to be carried out at a lower cost than the alternative approaches, such as a field-only based approach.
The points-based method: simplification of valuation processes for property tax purposes
International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD), Cameroon
It is widely acknowledged that property taxation systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are severely underperforming due in part to ineffective valuation. The paper discusses the importance of simplifying valuation in contexts where property markets are inexistent, institutional flaws are rife and valuation rolls are incomplete. Drawing on experiences from Sierra Leone, Malawi and Senegal, it argues that simplified valuation like the Points-Based Method (PBM) are easier to administer and particularly more attractive options in resolving challenges linked to the more traditional market and surface area methods. Outcomes of the implementation of iterative processes of PBM clearly show that the method is: flexible, transparent and ensures efficient coverage of wider areas. It mimics market price trends and is easily managed using simple ICT systems. Therefore, a strong empirical case exists to take progressive medium-term steps to substitute traditional with more simplified methods that improve chances of optimizing property tax yields.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-09: Using cadastral information to value and govern natural capital|
Session Chair: Randall Bluffstone, Portland State University, United States of America
Valuing Natural Capital
RICS, United Kingdom
Natural capital has been defined by the Natural Capital Protocol (NCP) as the “world's stocks of natural assets which include geology, soil, air, water and all living things”. Green finance and green growth offers unprecedented opportunities for financial institutions to invest in natural features such as woodland, peatland and wetland. Natural capital can catalyse new partnerships and foster innovation between financial institutions, land owners, environmental organisations and government. With a range of “values” being attached to natural capital assets, it’s important to note the distinctions between the value of an asset as it stands for sale / notional sale, the evaluation of an asset for its deemed or perceived benefits / disbenefits associated with its existence, enjoyment, environmental or aesthetic contribution, and the evaluation of an asset for strategic decision-making purposes. Relevant parties need to be aufait with the range of “values” being calculated and their origins.
Improving natural resource management for developing nations through the implementation of online mining cadastre solutions
Trimble, South Africa
Government agencies world-wide acknowledge that the transparent and efficient management of their natural resources is a critical factor in the growth and stability of their economies and in uplifting communities.
While the extractive industry is often a complex and dynamic sector, with participation of stakeholders across many parts of the community, governments are able to effectively manage compliance and revenues, and attract responsible investment to their jurisdiction through a modern, fit for purpose, mining cadastre information management system.
This presentation will focus on how the implementation of a modern mining cadastre system, particularly for developing nations, can assist government agencies in meeting their extractive industry goals, while at the same time providing the industry with the confidence that their underlying mining tenure is protected and secure.
Open Interactive Map Platform Infrastructure to support projects on local and regional scale.
Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil
Brazilian Forest Services manages the Rural Environmental Register from Brazilian Forest Code for environmental planning. Non-governmental organizations, small hydrological basin committees and city administrators work closer to the people on the countryside. Some of these data clients had difficulties on usage and processing of the information and we helped with personalized versions of official interactive maps with changed coverage regions, available layers and tools.
We developed a platform in the most transparent, simple and open sourced way possible. This platform now allows anyone to connect to our data via web service, using the desktop GIS software of preference with the possibility to just use the updated information as needed instead of downloading every part every time. After studies on scale representativeness and rural properties characteristics we got service loading and data exporting times reduced on a 40 to 60% average to better attend each of the 5.570 municipalities in Brazil.
Restoration Opportunities Atlas of India - building information bridges for people, forests and landscapes
World Resources Institute India, India
Protecting forests, implementing tree-based landscape restoration, and securing tenure and resource rights are globally recognized as cost-effective solutions for combating climate change. In India, the landscape approach underpins achievement of international and domestic commitments to climate and development. However, critical gaps in data, particularly of key enabling conditions such as tenure, resource rights, risks and financial mechanisms undermine planning for landscape restoration at scale. This abstract provides an overview of the key enabling conditions that underpin success of landscape restoration and introduces the Restoration Opportunities Atlas of India. The Atlas is a web-based platform that brings together best available data and rigorous analysis to support development of pathways to achieve the NDC, plan for restoration at scale and understand status of enabling conditions.Importantly, it promotes data sharing, fosters adaptive learning within the restoration community and provides basis for developing a monitoring platform for tracking India’s progress towards the NDC.
The socio-economic impact of measures to avert or reverse land degradation in agriculture: a systematic review
1PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands, The; 2Wageningen University, Netherlands, The; 3IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Continuous processes of land degradation -losses of soil, nutrients and water holding capacity, pose a threat to maintaining or increasing agricultural productivity. Raising agricultural productivity is key to feeding a burgeoning global population and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, various options to promote sustainable land management are advocated to avert or reverse such processes of land degradation on agricultural land. While a positive impact of such interventions on socio-economic outcomes is often assumed, the actual evidence base supporting such claims is lacking. We set to fill this gap using a systematic review. We identify relevant studies on promoting sustainable land management that assess impact on socio-economic indicators, including changes in net income or food security status, and those that apply rigorous econometric methods. We estimate the average effect of the management options considered on socio-economic outcomes and explore potential sources of heterogeneity.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-10: Balancing rights, development and natural resources protection|
Session Chair: Omoding James Peters Opio, AfDB, Côte d'Ivoire
Land and resource tenure tensions driven by extractives on the commons of Karamoja – Uganda:
1Associates Research Trust Uganda, Uganda; 2Resource Equity, US; 3Global Land Expert
The Karamoja commons are richly endowed with minerals, including gold, limestone and marble. Both foreign and domestic companies have mining interests in the region. Open access defines the commons, is key to the success of herding, but, to mining it presents a dilemma; there is unimpeded access to mining claims, yet these are being individualized amidst changing land use. The status of the reversionary interest of the once common lands when mining is concluded, is at stake. Open access means high influx of miners, hence high mineral supplies and low prices. Not helping are blind spots between mining and land laws that allow mining companies to operate like ‘middlemen’ using their licenses to exclude competition. Open access and the legal and policy blind spots make it difficult to determine recipients of royalties and surface rights compensation. This leaves communities with neither the commons for herding nor the benefits from mining.
Emerging issues in convergence of conservation and development within wildlife protected areas in Kenya
Kenya Wildlife Service, Kenya
Kenya is implementing a national long term development plan aimed at transforming the country to a newly industrializing middle-income country by the year 2030. The development of physical infrastructure including transport and energy infrastructure, is considered as one of the catalysts for this economic transformation. However, national development requires the use of land reserved for conservation purposes including wildlife protected areas. In the recent past, the country has come up with innovative ways to avail conservation land for development while ensuring the necessary environmental mitigation measures are undertaken in order to ensure sustainable development. The paper presents the emerging issues in convergence of conservation and development within wildlife protected areas in Kenya.
The assault on sanctity of village lands in Tanzania by conservation initiatives
Lawyers' Environmental Action Team (LEAT), Tanzania
in 2009 Tanzania enacted the Wildlife Conservation Act (the WCA). Its section 16(4) required the Minister responsible with wildlife to publish a list of game controlled areas (GCAs) within one year after its coming into force and give reasons for their continuation. To this date, the Minister has not done so. Yet the repealed WCA of 1974 allowed habitation of GCAs by people. The Village Land Act likewise legalized villages created under the villagization program of 1974-75 and WCAthose that were created on GCAs. The 2009 WCA banned the existence of GCAs on village lands meaning the Tanzanian government was duty bound to re-gazette GCAs and ensure that none of them was on village land as GCAs were elevated into protected areas status barring human activities on them. The failure to resolve this conflict of laws many render many villagers landless.
Protecting the nexus between communities’ land and water tenure rights: a comparative analysis of national laws recognizing the freshwater rights of indigenous peoples and local communities
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2Environmental Law Institute, Malawi
Indigenous and local communities utilize and govern terrestrial and freshwater resources in an integrated manner, yet insufficient attention has been paid to community-based “water tenure,” linkages between communities’ water and land tenure, and the extent that communities’ rights to freshwater are legally recognized. A forthcoming analysis seeks to narrow this critical knowledge gap by assessing the extent to which countries’ national laws recognize freshwater rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Analysis of 16 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania concludes that communities’ recognized freshwater rights are largely dependent on their land rights. Laws governing freshwater and terrestrial resources commonly lack sufficient harmonization and gender sensitivity, while also burdening communities with onerous procedural requirements that prevent them from realizing their water rights. Findings emphasize that the security of communities’ land and water tenure demands an integrated multi-sectoral approach to legislative reform and natural resource governance.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-11: Fit for purpose land administration|
Session Chair: Rudolf Staiger, FIG- International Federation of Surveyors, Germany
Delivering land administration services at scale
Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, Malaysia
A proper land administration system should be established in order to ensure stability in society by creating security not only for landowners but also for investors, traders and the government. The improvements and changes have assisted more foreign and local investments to this country and further strengthened Malaysia’s position in World Bank Ease Doing Business.
As the country moved from an agriculture-based economy to manufacturing and technology-based one. The usage of physical documents and hard copy files can no longer cope with the surge of the economic activities, so manual land registration was converted to electronic system.
Despite the use of technology and the introduction of various systems to expedite and simplify conveyancing. Such improvements require both commitment and willingness at the government side as well as the business community.
Using participatory approaches and innovative technology to empower communities in securing their land
US Agency for International Development, United States of America
Land and resources documentation can improve rural livelihoods by increasing access to credit and encouraging long-term sustainable investments in the land. However, obtaining land documentation can be difficult due to the high costs of surveying land, stringent accuracy requirements, and outdated land registries. To overcome these constraints, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) supported the development of participatory approaches as part of Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure (MAST). Through participatory methods and innovative tools, MAST supports systematic mapping and documentation of community land resources in an efficient, sustainable, and participatory manner.Local community members and land resource managers receive training in resources governance, land rights, and participatory approaches to mapping land and resources.MAST has been tested in Tanzania, Zambia, and Burkina-Faso, where it significantly reduced claim processing times, led to increased awareness of land rights by community members, and resulted in unprecedented parity in women’s claims to land ownership.
Low-cost cadastre and valuation with lightweight technology
Esri, United States of America
Configurable off-the-shelf GIS technologies for cadastral systems and valuation systems are affordable and easy to use. There is no longer a need for custom programming, complex implementations, and special skills. Leveraging standard data models such as the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GIS data and technology deliver systems that are quickly implemented, scalable, evolve with changing requirements and supported by numerous public, private, and NGO communities.
This new approach addresses many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, accurate GPS use, scalability and security. This presentation will detail the technology used including Android, survey accurate GPS, LADM, and ArcGIS Online combined with innovative ways to collect ownership information. This presentation will detail technology used in pilot projects in Kenya and Colombia.
Digitization of the Land Registry within a Plural Legislative Framework: A case study of land registry innovations in Trinidad and Tobago
1Land Administration Consultant, Bolivia, Plurinational State of; 2Ministry of the Attorney General and Legal Affairs, Trinidad & Tobago
The practice of managing land involves policy, legislative and administrative structures. Technology-based land use solutions require standardization of data and countries that introduce land management technology often face difficulties in creating and sustaining accurate and complete databases. In Trinidad and Tobago, the approach to digitization of land records is set under a plural legislative framework that governs land transfers. With two islands, two levels of government (local and national) and two legal registration frameworks - Common Law and Real Property Act (Torrens-based), this twin-island republic faces ongoing challenges related to digitizing two types of records (Deeds and Titles) standardizing metadata fields, capturing non-land related transactions under the Deeds system; and improving quality, accuracy and completeness in an integrated database. The paper will focus on past and current approaches to digitization and the impact of the digitization outputs on future electronic systems in the country.
Taking matters into their own hands: why innovation in community land data collection matters
Cadasta Foundation, United States of America
This paper addresses practical, on-the-ground solutions to bridging the gap between government land systems and undocumented or informally documented communities. Case studies highlight how communities are using a digital platform and tools for community-collected data used for decision-making, advocating for land rights and tenure recognition, and accessing public and private sector services, such as loans, insurance, and other goods and services. This paper shares data on how putting accessible and appropriate land documentation technologies and training into the hands of local partners and vulnerable communities has transformed and empowered communities left out of the land registry system. Four case studies are highlighted to show different uses of land rights data: land rights for slum dwellers in Odisha State, India; supply chain transparency with Seed Change in Tanzania; rural community land governance with iCT-F in Mozambique; and prevention of urban settlement evictions and infrastructure upgrading with C-MAP in Nigeria.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-12: Can large investment catalyze agricultural transformation?|
Session Chair: Thomas Jayne, Michigan State University, United States of America
The Resource Impact Dashboard (RID) An innovative global framework to measure the local impact of landed resources exploitation by industries
1Institute for Social Research in Africa, Burkina Faso; 2Universidade de Lurio, Mozambique; 3Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
Within the larger goal of improving our understanding of the development impact of landed resource extraction on territorial management, the main focus of the RID research project lies on developing a methodological and technical framework that allows gathering field-based evidence across the diverse dimensions of outcomes, in a way that is readily available and understandable to both policymakers and local stakeholders. The RID framework is informed by a relational theory approach and integrating insights from research into the emergence of civil conflict and into the role of institutions in creating social capital. Mixed qualitative and quantitative data are collected through survey on wellbeing and perceptions; complementary data are collected from extractive companies and government bodies. The survey is currently being tested in two mining areas in Burkina Faso and Mozambique each, administering surveys to a total of 2'000 households.
Agricultural growth corridors in Sub-Saharan Africa - New hope for territorial rural development or another non-starter?
German Development Institute (DIE), Germany
Agricultural growth corridors - geographically bounded areas along a central transport line that receive intensive agricultural investments - are a recent approach to economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. They figure prominently in several national development strategies in the region. Agricultural growth corridors combine agricultural policies with agrobusiness and infrastructure investments. Since they are usually planned and managed as strategic private-public-partnerships, they promise to bring together expertise, funding and coordination that are usually dispersed and aim to benefit from multiple synergies that arise. There are, however, huge pitfalls to be overcome from agricultural corridor approaches, including social exclusion, land grabbing and ecological stress. The paper brings together literature on geographical approaches to rural development as well as empirical evidence from the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT).
A framework for the development of responsible agropoles in Africa
International Institute for Sustainable Development, Mali
Agropoles are simultaneous, coordinated investments in agriculture to support self-sustaining industrialization in a country. Ensuring that the new wave of agropoles in Africa is effective requires robust policies, laws and practices to ensure that a possible new trend of investment helps Africa achieve its sustainable development goals. There’s therefore a need for a clear framework outlining the key stages and steps, including the practices they entail, to follow in order to make sure they are developed in a responsible and a sustainable manner, i.e. in such a way that the risks associated with their development are minimized and the benefits maximized.
The present paper is a reflection on such a Framework for the development of responsible Agricultural growth zones. It identifies eight key steps spread across three main phases for a responsible agropole development framework: planning (1), Design (2) and implementation (3).
Changing farm structure and rural transformation in Africa
Michigan State University, United States of America
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-13: Gender aspects of land tenure|
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
Land reform and child health in the Kyrgyz republic
1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Georgia Tech, United States of America
Gender gaps in forest tenure reforms in Peru: The impact of expectations on the household incomes of native communities
Universidad de Lima, Peru
Land joint titling and its effects on household welfare in Vietnam
World Bank, United States of America
Gender differences in housing ownership in Dhaka, Bangladesh
World Bank, United States of America
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-12: Leveraging geospatial infrastructure to advance tenure security at scale|
Session Chair: Haishan Fu, World Bank, United States of America
Leveraging geospatial infrastructure to advance tenure security at scale
ESRI, United States of America
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-01: Building analytical capacity on land in Africa|
Session Chair: Emmanuel Nkurunziza, Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
NEPAD support to policy analysis capacity building in Africa
NEPAD, South Africa
Policy relevant research: Building on AERC's PhD course to strengthen analytical capacity on land governance in Africa
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
Harnessing the IT revolution for African land policies
World Bank, United States of America
Expanding the frontier for research on land in Africa
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-02: New ways of measuring urban extent|
Session Chair: Shlomo Angel, New York University, United States of America
Definition matters. Metropolitan areas and agglomeration economies in a large developing country
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Erasmus University Rotterdam
A variety of approaches to delineate metropolitan areas have been developed. Systematic comparisons of these approaches in terms of the urban landscape that they generate are however few. Our paper aims to fill this gap. We focus on Indonesia, and make use of the availability of data on commuting flows, remotely-sensed nighttime lights, and spatially fine-grained population, to construct metropolitan areas using the different approaches that have been developed in the literature. We find that the maps and characteristics of Indonesia’s urban landscape vary substantially depending on the approach used. Moreover, combining information on the metro areas generated by the different approaches with detailed micro-data from Indonesia’s national labor force survey, we show that the estimated size of the agglomeration wage premium depends nontrivially on the approach used to define metropolitan areas.
Densification vs. expansion: recent findings for a global sample of cities
New York University, United States of America
When the populations of cities grow, they can be accommodated within the existing footprints of cities or in newly-built expansion areas. Urban planners, have called for the densification of existing footprints, but there has been little data to measure the extent to which densification has been effective. Using a new dataset, a global stratified sample of 200 cities of 4,231 cities that had 100,000 people or more ind 2010, we explore the share of the populations added to cities between 1990 and 2015 that were accommodated in areas built before 1990, and compare it with the share accommodated in expansion areas built between 1990 and 2015. We also explore the extent to which the built-up areas in pre-1990 footprints increased in density, and the extent t to which vacant areas within pre-1990 footprints were built upon. We then seek to explain why some cities densified while others expanded.
Accurately monitoring urbanization at global scale – the world settlement footprint
1German Aerospace Center - DLR, Germany; 2Google Inc., USA
Reliably monitoring global urbanization is of key importance to properly estimate the distribution of the continually expanding population, along with its effects on the use of resources, transport, socioeconomic development, human health, etc. To this purpose, in order to accurately outline the actual settlement extent globally we generated the World Settlement Footprint (WSF) 2015 , i.e. a 10m resolution binary mask derived by jointly exploiting multitemporal optical and radar satellite imagery, which outperforms all other existing similar layers. Furthermore, to characterize the urbanization occurred in the last three decades, we are currently generating the WSF Evolution, i.e. a novel dataset aimed at outlining the growth of settlement extent globally at 30m spatial resolution and high temporal resolution (i.e., 5-year or even finer) from 1985 to 2015. The WSF Evolution will be released in 2019 and is expected to become a revolutionary product in support to a variety of end users.
Characterizing and managing urban expansion for higher equity, productivity, and environmental quality in the global south
1World Resources Institute, WRI, United States of America; 2Yale University, , United States of America
This paper examines how urban expansion can be managed in a way that achieves more equitable access to core urban services for the under-served, while bringing wider economic and environmental benefits to cities. It presents new remote sensing analysis of the growth in urban built up area over a decade in 499 cities with population greater than one million and develops new metrics to measure changes in their outward and upward growth. The analysis highlights regional trends in urban expansion, differences in urban structure within and between cities, and combines this information with urban population and economic growth projections. The paper then discusses some driving forces for outward expansion, highlighting key equity challenges of the phenomenon in cities of the global South. We argue that while some urban land expansion is inevitable with increasing urbanization, the pace, scale, and nature of this expansion can be managed through some proven strategies.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-03: Low-cost ways to establish cadastral systems|
Session Chair: Andy Wickless, Trimble, Inc., United States of America
Precision geolocation at the service of least developed countries
GNSS is a technology that enables location of objects, points and maps anywhere in the world with the same level of accuracy. In particular, it allows emerging countries to set up internal databases in perfect complementarity and continuity with international information.
In France, the “Ordre des Géomètres-Experts” launched the TERIA project in 2005 to deploy a network able to offer an NRTK satellite data processing service with centimetric accuracy. This network served as a basis for the deployment of the Géo-Foncier digital portal, which is today the keystone of the management of land rights and public constraints.
The TERIA process can be replicated in least developed countries and participate in their autonomy. It is a powerful lever for setting agricultural policies and boosting the global economy by offering a leading basic tool for advanced technologies (robotics, navigation, transport ...).
Fit for Purpose, scalable GNSS data collection
Leica Geosystems, Germany
It is not uncommon for the user of a software or hardware product to touch only a small percentage of the tools available to them. Functionality correlates highly with cost and can be a contributing factor to users being excluded from innovative new technology. GNSS data collection vendors have a responsibility to ensure their products are not only fit for purpose but also flexible enough to reach a wide range of users.
Scalability has become an expectation of the user and you no longer have to be locked into a large, complex workflow when you can pick and choose which elements of a system are relevant for you. Software and hardware should align to user’s needs as their own industries are developing and changing as rapidly as the technology is advancing. Users need a solution which is tailored to their knowledge and experience. This is especially important for developing countries.
Customized earth observation based information services
1GeoCodis Ltd., Slovenia; 2ZRC SAZU, Slovenia
Earth observation (EO) data enables a quick assessment of regions of interest. This is particularly relevant for areas undergoing social and economic change that may lead to increased pressures on natural resources. The present work focuses on the development of a cloud-based end-to-end processing chain which provides easy-to-use services for rapid overviews of on-the-ground conditions. The resulting EO-based information including maps, time series graphs and derived statistics can be integrated into geospatial systems or reports.
Using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data, and customized generic modular workflows to provide Information Layers (IL), the product is designed to assist monitoring and safeguarding actions by International Development Banks.
Broader areas of interest are arid zones, where there have been conflicts, big population changes, and/or urban expansion. Four thematic IL are conceived: Extent and status of dwellings of forcibly displaced persons, Surface water extent, Grassland extent and status, and Degradation risk assessment.
Deploying titling and customary land registration systems with a blockchain element
Medici Land Governance, United States of America
Medici Land Governance, working with communities and governments, has written systems to gather ownership claims and also to register titles with governments. We describe the work in Zambia for a systematic titling project, which includes features for transparency using a public blockchain network. We then describe an approach that applies to customary land, where the communities are able to assert their ownership and later verify their claims on a public blockchain in a semi-public way; this approach requires smart-phones and thus currently applies to areas outside Africa (eg. Peru), but it allows for independent affirmations. We will discuss the designs and tradeoffs for these systems, mostly from an engineering point-of-view but including lessons learned in policy and logistics.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-04: Recognizing women's rights over common resources|
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource Equity, United States of America
Securing women’s property rights in utilization of commons: Lessons from the Kadenge community of Yala Swamp
National Legal Aid Service, Kenya
Women in Kenya, as in the rest of the world, continue to suffer from both structural and systemic gender based discrimination. Indigenous women and women living in the rural areas have since time immemorial been particularly vulnerable to marginalization in the management and utilization of commons resources. Despite progressive laws in Kenya which attempt to stem out gender based discrimination, this paper establishes that the gender neutral approach to the management of and access to the commons, leaves room for perpetuating discriminatory practices thus promoting marginalization. The study takes case study of the effect of land reclamation, adjudication and sale of part of Yala Swamp to Dominion Farms ltd on the women of Kadenge community who depended on the Swamp for their livelihoods. This paper proposes a framework to ensure inclusive and participatory governance of the commons to guarantee the property rights of the women who depend on the commons.
Customary land tenure systems and gendered land rights in Ghana’s northern region: Results from phase II gender equity and land tenure focus groups
Mississippi State University, United States of America
We present results from Phase II of the Gendered Equity and Land Tenure (GELT) focus groups, conducted in Ghana’s Northern Region in 2018 to further investigate gender equity and customary land tenure systems among men and women smallholder soybean farmers in Ghana’s Northern Region. Preliminary GELT Phase II results reconfirmed that the primary way a woman farmer can acquire agricultural land is with the permission and assistance of an adult male. The primary way that women acquire land is through their husbands upon marriage. However, it is important to note that in some communities custom dictates that if a husband wishes, he can ‘reclaim’ his wife’s land and allocate her a different plot of land. In a feedback loop, this lack of tenure security made some women reluctant to make improvements to their farm plots, for fear their improved plots would be taken away from them.
Women’s tenure security on collective lands: Implications for measurement and policy
1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Namati; 3University of Oxford
Most of the growing attention to women’s tenure security has focused on individual or household-level land rights, with relatively little attention to women’s rights under collective tenure and common property systems, such as forests and rangelands. This paper presents a framework for assessing women’s tenure security on collective lands. Key dimensions include the bundles of rights held, duration, robustness, and how rights are shared. Women’s security of land rights under collective tenure depends on the extent to which the collective has secure tenure, and the extent to which women’s rights are recognized and exercised within the collective. The paper recommends indicators for in-depth research and for monitoring and reporting women’s tenure security, and identifies implications for policies and programs to protect or strengthen women’s rights to collective resources.
Exploring the role of gender equity in customary land administration to boost production
1International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Uganda; 2UN Habitat/GLTN, Uganda
Land security contributes greatly to the realization of basic human rights and the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In Uganda, registered land is still at 20% with registered women owners constituting a meagre 20%. Gender equity in rights to land can thus increase women’s social and political power. The most significant challenge has been the problem of insecurity of tenure which has affected ability to invest in production.
Against this backdrop, the current initiative supported by UN Habitat GLTN and Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands, IIRR is supporting 1000 indigenous households who are rural small holder farmers through promoting pro-poor, fit-for purpose and gender responsive strategies to secure land tenure rights. Considering that 70% of land is owned under customary tenure, the issuance of certificates of customary ownership is also an important element of the initiative in order to contribute to the right to food and poverty reduction.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-05: Land price determinants|
Session Chair: Dieter von Fintel, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Does the Real Estate Trading Management System (RTMS) affect housing price and tax base?: Evidence from Korea
Korea Development Institute, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Spatial distributions of job accessibility, housing rents, and poverty in Nairobi, Kenya
World Bank, United States of America
Monopolist land supply, housing cycle and entrepreneurship in urban China
The Economist, China, People's Republic of
Growth of cities and urban influence on agricultural land prices in Malawi
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-06: Land policy to improve agricultural land use|
Session Chair: Wordsworth Odame Larbi, FAO, Ethiopia
Can group farms outperform individual family farms? empirical insights from India
School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, UK
Can group farms, wherein farmers voluntarily pool land, labour and capital and farm collectively, outperform individual family farms? This paper tests this, using the author’s primary survey of two experiments begun in the 2000s in Kerala and Telangana, India. Constituted only of women, the groups collectively farm leased-in land and share labour, costs and returns.
Kerala’s groups perform strikingly better than the largely male-managed individual farms in the state, both in annual value of output per hectare and annual net returns per farm, while Telangana’s group farms perform much worse than individual farms in annual output, but are equivalent in net returns. In both states, groups do better in commercial crops than foodgrains. The factors underlying the differential performances of Kerala and Telangana, and lessons for replication, are discussed. Overall, the paper demonstrates that group farming can provide an effective alternative under specified conditions and local adaptation of the model.
The effect of land sizes and land holdings on “transitions” in and out of income poverty in Uganda.
1Ford Foundation, United States of America; 2Associates Research Trust, Uganda
This paper explores transition out of “income poverty” for land-owning and land-secure agricultural households using national data (UNHS 2016/17). Given Uganda’s strong performance on income poverty reduction, we show the contribution of land holdings and impact of land sizes to this drastic drop from 54.3% to19.7%. We establish which households are; asset-richer; more food secure; less vulnerable to shocks and with access to varying proportions of productive agricultural land. We find that escape from income poverty, is driven in part by the size of land holdings not falling below the average of one acre per household and peaking at four acres for smallholder market-oriented producers. At this acreage incomes from enterprises rise, the ability of households to mitigate shocks improve, while simultaneously keeping in the food secure zone. This pathway to reducing income poverty, it is better recognized by economic growth and investment policies than by land sector policies.
Land as the enabling asset on a value chain for rural development in Colombia's rural reform
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
Colombia’s rural policy for the next four-year period aims to create a value chain process in which four elements are mainly taken into account to develop rural territories. The policy seeks to achieve equity in rural territories by providing equal opportunities to population and by closing the gap between urban and rural environments. Therefore, the public policy must add up the elements that together contribute for rural development and productive development. These elements take into account land access, productivity, public goods’ provision and rural population as a transversal element through all the process.
Land tenure regularisation for sustainable urban and agriculture development in Rwanda
The need to improve land governance is often informed by issues like increasing demand for land tenure insecurity. Land registration has often been embraced as the panacea to the problem of land tenure insecurity (LTI) and based on this, it is further posited that land registration guarantees access to formal capital. However, there is an ambivalent literature on whether or not it guarantees land tenure security and access to formal credit in improving. Rwanda embarked on an ambitious land tenure reform (LTR) with a national-wide systematic registration of all land that was primarily aimed at among other things, establishing LTS. This culminated in the registration of over 11 million land parcels, a feat considered unprecedented in Africa. The aim of this paper is to examine whether or not land registration assures LTS as well as to holistically assess how the results of the LTR are contributing to urban and agriculture development in Rwanda.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-07: Land policies for smart city development|
Session Chair: Rachelle Alterman, Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
Experiments of urban land supply and development: India
RICS School of Built Environment, India
In India, approximating a business-as-usual scenario, an average of 15 square kilometers of land needs to be planned and serviced for urban use every single day up to the year 2050 (WRI India, 2016). However, compulsory land acquisition and traditional planning instruments/apparatus have continually failed to achieve the entrepreneurial dreams of 'worlding cities' of India. The answer thus is found in increasing private sector participation in land assembly, planning and development, and metamorphosing public development agencies from providers to facilitators. This research throws light on a few of these innovative methods of land supply and development. This research tries to investigate urban sprawl and excessive reliance on real estate business for land development, in the garb of land supply for urbanization, the ever-increasing role of parastatals morphing into pseudo developing authorities by involving private planning consulting firms leading to privatization of development planning with a meager public consultation/participation.
Citizen-centric digital land and asset management in the greenfield city development: case study of Amaravati
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, India
Smart cities across the world are deploying digital systems and infrastructure, that is helping achieve various objectives on efficiency, transparency and in general, improved governance. Amaravati, a greenfield capital city that is being developed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh is taking lead in deployment of various technologies to streamline its efficiency of operations whilst keeping the citizen at the center of such activities. Several initiatives such as a Citizen mobile application, blockchain deployment for land registry, development of a digital twin for the city, implementation of BIM and 3D City modelling all emerge as an array of best practices that cities can learn from. It is important to note how various data sources and applications converge in a manner that positively and systematically drives city outcomes – and it can only be achieved by design and policy.
Egovernance initiatives of slum rehabilitation authority, Mumbai
Government of Maharashtra, India
Slum Rehabilitation Authority, Mumbai has initiated lot of eGovernance initiatives which are beneficial for slum dwellers as well as common citizens. It is SRA’s vision to have a digital workflow for all the citizen services so that there is transparency and efficiency in the functioning of all the Departments.
The aim of this paper is to showcase the GIS based Slum Information Management System (SIMS) solution which consists of four components; Topographical Survey of Slum Clusters & Slum Rehabilitation (SR) Schemes, LiDAR Survey of Slum Huts, Mobile Application for gathering slum dwellers information and Web Application with Web-GIS feature for determining the slum dwellers eligibility for free housing under SR Schemes.
SIMS has facilitated Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) in sector-wise micro-planning of slum cluster, speedy implementation of SR schemes, availability of digital data in real-time, easy dissemination of slum information and bringing transparency, and effectiveness in identification of eligible slum dwellers.
Imagine and design the legal framework for the cities of the future: the example of Mauritian ‘smart cities’
1Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France; 2Conseil Supérieur du Notariat, France
By 2050, the proportion of the world's population living in urban areas is expected to reach 66% (54% in 2014).
Planning efforts will therefore be essential to ensure essential services to populations, such as access to energy, water, waste treatment, housing, health and transport.
In 2015, Mauritius launched the creation of fifteen new intelligent city projects, that are supposed to rely on the capacity of self-organisation of inhabitants. Nevertheless, it is necessary to provide in advance an appropriate legal framework, because these new cities will consist of land or buildings for common use and others for private use.
However, the provisions of the Civil Code have so far proved insufficient to support the construction of such complexes, which include private owners, companies and condominiums.
To meet this urgent need, Mauritius mandated a multidisciplinary team to develop a new regulatory framework for real estate complexes, and co-ownership in particular.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-08: Making property tax systems transparent and equitable|
Session Chair: Ronald Worth, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
Open Government - Building trust and strengthening the delivery of valuation services
1Council for Real Estate Assessment, The Netherlands; 2Valuation Office, Ireland
Based on experiences of the Valuation Office in Ireland and the Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment in this presentation different methods to achieve transparency and to improve citizen participation are explained.
In Ireland valuation for taxation purposes are carried out by the central Valuation Office. This paper describes how the Valuation Office, through a pilot approach known as Occupier Assisted Valuation (OAV), encouraged taxpayer participation. The outcome of this enhanced interaction between the VO and taxpayer is a more open, transparent and responsive valuation service with a better understanding by taxpayers.
In the Netherlands the responsibility for property valuation for taxation purposes lies with the municipalities. The Netherlands system promotes transparency of municipalities with the goal to advance the public trust in the property valuation. We will present results from municipalities involving taxpayers in checking quality of data but also results of measuring taxpayers trust in the assessed value.
Customer relations and communication in land administration
Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom
As land administration and property tax reforms gain pace around the World this paper focuses on the need to develop the methodology and techniques that public entities can use to communicate with customers. The citizens and tax payers must be informed about their and rights and responsibilities in any reform or on-going process. In essence the overall objective is to put in place innovative approaches to communication which
• Ensure proper public participation in the reform process
• Improve potential tax compliance, by ensuring that open and clear information is provided to those with interest in the land or taxpayers;
• Improve the credibility of the public entity, by promoting concepts such as attitude, efficiency, integrity, service quality and professionalism, and
• Are “future” proofed.
This is a paper that provides details on the various tools that can be utilised in the communication process to achieve a successful outcome.
Property Taxation in India: Issues impacting revenue performance and suggestions for reform
World Bank, United States of America
Rapid urbanization in India means that Indian cities face a tremendous challenge to finance and deliver the increasing demand for basic municipal services. When compared to OECD peers, India performs poorly in terms of generating revenues from the urban immovable property tax. Several factors lead to low property tax revenue in India: undervaluation; incomplete registers; policy inadequacy; ineffective administration and lack of accurate property tax rolls in the jurisdiction of the urban local bodies (ULBs). Property tax reform in India would need to undertake a range of activities: updating property tax laws, getting rid of ineffective exemptions, completing property registers, adopting more effective valuation approaches, and strengthening administration.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-09: Linking tenure to planning in forest land|
Session Chair: Anne Larson, CIFOR, Peru
Best-bet options for ensuring tropical forest conservation and livelihoods development: Evidence from the community forest concessions in Petén, Guatemala
1Bioversity International, France; 2World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), France; 3Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Guatemala; 4Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) in Petén, Guatemala, is a prominent example for the devolution of forest rights to local communities. Community forest concessions have been established on about 400,000 ha, reducing deforestation to a minimum. While the conservation benefits of the concessions are well documented, there is little insight into their socio-economic performance. This in-depth study of currently nine active and three inactive concessions focuses on the community forest enterprises (CFE) operating them, with emphasis on: 1) the benefits accruing to CFE members, local communities, and society at large; 2) the degree to which forest-based income allows member households to move out of poverty; and 3) how such income is reinvested in livelihood and business assets. We show the critical importance of the findings in support of the communities' claim for renewal of the concessions, which is due over the next years, and broader implications for natural resource governance.
Forest restoration and afforestation in India
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2University of Toronto, Canada
India’s regreening ambitions are second only to China’s, with vast investments having been made in afforestation and restoration of degraded forests and lands. It is estimated that India has planted over 19 million ha. of forestry plantations between 2003-2014, even though the forest cover has barely increased. Its forest policy aims to increase forest cover from 23% to 33% of the country’s land area. The regreening thrust is also captured in its INDC, wherein India seeks to sequester an additional 2.5-3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent and plans to take up at least 5 million ha. of afforestation. A $7 billion fund called the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF), derived from statutory offsets for diversion of legal forest lands, is targeted to be spent for afforestation and forest restoration. Additional funds are allocated by the government for afforestation through Green India Mission, Rural Employment Generation schemes etc.
Integrating forest recovery and low-carbon agriculture in priority watersheds of Brazilian savannah: The FIP-Landscape Project
1Brazilian Forest Service (SFB), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 2Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4World Bank, Brazil
The article shows the methodology of prioritization of watersheds in Brazilian Savannah Biome ("Cerrado") for the activities of the new project of the World Bank's Forest Investment Program (FIP) in Brazil - Integrated Landscape Management in the Cerrado Biome Project or "FIP-Landscape". This project integrates, in a innovative approach, practices of Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Recovery for landscape management. It is coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service-SFB and the Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply-MAPA with technical cooperation of GIZ.
Tenure security and forest landscape restoration: Results from exploratory research in Boeny, Madagascar
1Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America; 2Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques (ESSA); Université d'Antananarivo – Madagascar; 3Independent consultant
Madagascar aims to restore 4 million ha of degraded forests by 2030 under the Bonn Challenge. Chief among the constraints identified to forest landscape restoration (FLR) are a lack of tenure security for smallholders and weak forest law enforcement. We present preliminary results from research in Boeny Region, Madagascar to improve understanding of local tenure systems and how they might affect FLR investment. We identified two land tenure models: an endogenous model rooted in the local customary system with weak state intervention, and an exogenous model heavily influenced by external actors and where customary systems have limited legitimacy. These differences will affect FLR investment choices and success of tenure securitization. We recommend that FLR actors be trained to use tenure diagnostic tools that distinguish between different hybrid systems. Such training will provide FLR actors with the conceptual tools needed to design and implement FLR programs appropriate for complex tenure systems.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-10: Can participatory land use planning help secure tenure?|
Session Chair: Christopher Mulenga, University of Lusaka, Zambia
Rural land use planning, the integration of shared resources mapping for improved communal tenure security: experiences from Zambia
1University of Lusaka, Zambia; 2Chipata District Land Alliance, Zambia
Rural areas in Zambia are characterised by encroachment of important historical sites and natural biodiversity such as burial sites and natural forests. This is mainly due to lack of co-ordinated land use planning. Although the chiefs act as arbiters of land disputes and have ultimate authority over the management of customary lands in Zambia, the methods they employ are of a curative nature. In most chiefdoms there are few records kept on land allocation to subjects, on land management rules or decrees, or on rulings from land disputes. Due to these numerous problems facing customary land governance structures in resolving land disputes and help in the preservation of historical sites and natural biodiversity, long lasting preventive land administration techniques are inevitable across chiefdoms. Land use planning has been identified as one of the tools that can be employed to effectively resolve the chiefdom problems identified above.
Context, power, equity and effectiveness in territorial planning multi-stakeholder commissions: a comparative analysis of two very different Brazilian States
1University of Florida (UF), United States of America; 2University of Florida (UF), United States of America; 3Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Peru
Multi-stakeholder forums (MSFs) gained popularity in territorial planning as an innovative method that brings diverse actors together to advance “good governance” and “sustainable development”. However, both territorial planning and MSFs constitute a double-edged sword. Advancing certain goals, strengthening certain land-use rights and benefiting certain actors can come at the cost of others, with the potential to both challenge or reproduce power asymmetries. MSFs may present the shortcomings, and profit from the lessons, recognized by scholars and practitioners. Based on mixed methods research, we comparatively analyze equity and power dynamics in the Ecological-Economic Zoning (ZEE) commissions of Acre and Mato Grosso, two Brazilian States with different contexts. We reveal that territorial planning MSFs have better chances to promote equitable power relations and environmental benefits when they emerge - and operate in - a historical context that embraces social-environmental movements, the “common good”, trade-offs and subjectivities, rather than from technocratic top-down initiatives.
Clarification, recognition and formalization of land rights in a landscape restoration project in Burundi
1Independant consultant, France; 2World Bank
The World Bank “Burundi Landscape Restoration and Resilience Project” mobilizes an integrated landscape approach for sustainably managing land, water and forest resources. It includes a land certification subcomponent that aims at clarifying and securing land rights. This subcomponent is made possible by the existence of a land reform undertaken in Burundi for 10 years: political and a renewed legal and regulatory framework, pilot implementation experiments and first phase of scaling-up. The creation of Communal Land Services enables the clarification, recognition and formalization of the land rights through a local, public and contradictory procedure which leads to the issuance of land certificates. This system also allows to solve amicably a number of land disputes. The land component will consist in the creation or the reinforcement of Communal Land Services in the project intervention communes and the implementation of systematic land rights recognition operations in the hills concerned by the project.
Participatory Community Land Use Planning (CLUP ) as a means of conflict prevention and poverty alleviation in rural areas through pilot experiments in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo: provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Tituri
UN-HABITAT, Congo, Republic of the
The communication aims to present the PCLUP as an approach that can contribute to the fight against the root causes of land conflicts in the DRC while developing good practices in terms of peaceful, fair and secure access through a process in which all actors from the locality took part.
The added value of the CLUP : A process based: on the participation of communities and institutional, administrative and political actors ; on ownership by the political authorities; on consensus building on land regimes and uses.
A process contributing to the improvement of the security of tenure rights (formal, informal, collective, individual). A process that responds to land access needs of the vulnerable (women, displaced); Anticipates the causes of land conflicts: social dialogue, consensus on rules of access and land use;develops appropriate tools for integrated and participative management of space and land. and sets up a Community Land Use Plan (CLUP).
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-11: Interoperability of land data: Conceptual issues|
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Land administration data integration – modern concept
Innola Solutions, Inc., United States of America
Building a national scale land administration system inevitably depends upon existing data digitization, migration and ultimately, integration of the digitized data into the system as a pre-requisite of the system rollout. Separating data digitization from system implementation makes it easier to early start the data production processes using different available tools - mainly serving specific needs such as scanning, indexing and maps digitization. However, the real content of the land administration records requires a more complicated data structure and, accordingly, more elaborate technologies to ensure the quality, completeness, sequence and integrity of the produced digital data. Based on the experience gained in several national-scale projects, the authors describe a holistic “top-down” approach of data digitization and acquisition. Modern concept is in evaluation of different data sources from a prospective of the future services and system functions, and defining a clear schema of how those various data are going to be integrated.
Land Administration Models - A central register and land information system containing as much information as possible about a property
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
We review the benefits of centralised land information and registration systems, defined as an integrated land information system, where formal registration of legal information as well as technical information about land is supervised, controlled and operated by one authority, so that all matters affecting one parcel of land can be easily accessed.
Land registration and cadastral functions are more effective under a centralised system. Decentralisation of land administration may help to develop local democracy and skills, but in the longer run could hold back progress. Local conditions may mean that it is difficult to implement a centralised system and innovative decentralised solutions may help in the short term. However, improvement of a centralised system is likely to be more advantageous in the long term than developing a decentralised model where there is a risk of introducing or perpetuating a fragmented system of land registration and land information.
An applicative approach for cadastral processes implementation in multi-dimensional land management systems
Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
The world’s population is expected to reach 9.7 billion in 2050, 66% of them will live in urban areas, resulting in the crucial need for multi-dimensional cadastral systems that are required for an efficient management of the urban space. Our study aims at setting an approach for augmenting existing 2D cadastral systems to multi-dimensional ones. The full integration of the height, time and scale dimensions, including all topological aspects within the same system, will prevent the need of handling management and functional properties in segregated systems to support decision-making and multi-purpose applications, as well as providing the opportunity of sharing geo-data by diverse users. A simulation of planning a new 3D project in a complex urban environment, offering functionalities and data model for performing complex 3D analysis and editing, is presented. Our solution is a first step towards the implementation of multi-dimensional cadastral systems.
The impact of the agricultural land management information system on the work of local self-government units and directorate for agricultural land
GIZ- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, United States of America
This Impact Study assesses the impact the IT-solution for the management of state-owned agricultural land has had on the work of municipalities and the Directorate for Agricultural Land in Serbia. It analyzes the biggest changes the system brought to the local and national level, as well as the influence it had on the end beneficiaries. Data was collected from three sources: document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews, and an online questionnaire sent to all 145 municipalities. Analysis of all data shows that DAL and municipal officials are spending significantly less time creating Annual Programs and Contracts. They are printing, filing, and mailing many fewer documents, all while increasing transparency in a previously opaque system. There are already measurable improvements in the quality of products from the new IT system. There is evidence that customer service will be enhanced and communications among DAL, municipalities, and clients is easier and clearer.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-12: Can large farms attract local growth?|
Session Chair: Derick Bowen, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
How and why large-scale agricultural investments induce diverse trajectories of regional development in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique
1Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition; 3University of Pretoria; 4CIRAD / University of Pretoria; 5CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier Madagascar; 6CIRAD, France; 7CETRAD, Kenya
If a consensus emerges regarding the necessity of additional investment into agriculture, it is less evident whether large-scale agricultural investments (LAI) are a vector for broader agrarian and socio-economic transformations in a sustainable manner.
Against this backdrop, this paper presents the results of a study aiming, on one hand, at assessing the changes and impacts of LAIs at various (individual, household, regional) levels within target regions, and on the other hand, at a nuanced account of how and why LAIs subsequently induce diverse regional development trajectories in these regions. We focus on LAIs in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. Specifically, this study provides a cross-national comparative analysis of business models, land-use changes, governance dynamics of LAIs and their socio-economic, food security, and environmental impacts in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique.
Investing in land versus land use: analyzing investment decisions by transnational forestry and agriculture companies
1Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2F.R.S.- FNRS, Brussels, Belgium
Our work in Southern and Eastern Africa aims at understanding investor decisions in shaping the emergence of new commodity frontiers and the different trajectories of land use change that may result from these decisions. Based on our findings, we derived two key approaches to choosing land for agricultural investments. One approach (‘crop-to-land’) was to choose a land that suited a specific crop or an agricultural “project” that had been identified already. The other approach (‘land-to-crop’) was to choose a land that was suitable for agriculture in general, and then identify a crop or a set of crops that would suit the land. The two approaches show noticeable differences in the types of investors involved, decision rationales, types of crops grown and land area acquired and developed. These differences are also reflected in the broader land use patterns and its implications for the land and its people, and warrants further investigation.
Large-scale land aggregation for transforming and scaling up African agriculture
African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire
Untapped agricultural potential in Africa has contributed to persistent poverty and deteriorating food security, resulting in a projected increase in the number of undernourished people. Population growth and urbanization increase food demand and changing consumption habits that lead to rapidly rising net food imports. Access to land and land rights in both rural and urban areas remain major challenges that hinders agriculture productivity across the continent. The main question is whether large scale land acquisition by public and private sector facilitates access to land and fast-track agriculture productivity. The implementation of the AfDB’s Feed Africa Strategy for Agricultural Transformation that ensures productivity and alleviates poverty requires land that is accessed and secured equitably. The paper argues that large scale land acquisition can immediately resolve food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, appropriate land policies and regulation for large scale acquisition are necessary to ensure access to land and Land rights are provided.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-13: Drawing policy advice from land data analysis|
Session Chair: Hamady Diop, NEPAD, South Africa
Predicting deprivations in housing and basic services from space in slums of Dhaka
1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Inter American Development Bank, United States of America; 4GiSAT, Czech Republic
This paper develops a novel approach to identify and enumerate housing deprivations in slums of Dhaka using Earth Observation data. We integrate household survey data with very high resolution remote sensing data to build a robust econometric model to estimate housing and basic infrastructure deprivation such as water and sanitation in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Such a model could be used to predict housing and basic services deprivation in areas where household surveys are not available. Identification of most deprived areas from space could be used to inform policymaking and targeting beneficiaries of such policies. We argue that spatial data, which have become increasingly available and affordable, could answer the following questions: ii) How to identify and delineate slums spatially in a metropolitan area using Earth Observation data? ii) How to detect and predict deprivations in housing and basic services as a function of factors from Earth Observation data?
International collaboration: capturing the impact of emerging trends
Columbia University, United States of America
The surge in global population, over the past decade, has fueled technological innovation. Many advancements are developed to manage and forecast population growth rates while complexities in the political and economic landscape increases. With this in mind, the research how international collaboration can strengthen our ability to achieve the poverty reduction targets in the 2030 Agenda. The research methodology used to explore the potential impact of data collaboration among the World Bank, United Nations, and Internal Monetary Fund is a case study. In the case, the research captures how data collaboration can strengthen the Partnership Framework for Crisis-Affected Situations between the World Bank, IMF and the United Nations. The research examines the mandate and goals of the framework then explores how data collaboration strengthens or weakens the group’s ability to achieve the desired goals. The primary sustainable development goal highlighted in the case is goal 1.A.
The effects of agricultural income on Internally Displaced Persons: Evidence from Colombia
Universidad Icesi, Colombia
Colombia has the largest population of Internal Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the world. Not only IDPs suffer a significant welfare loss suffered after migrating, they also generate an enormous cost to the Colombian society in several respects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of agricultural income on the number of IDPs expelled from Colombian municipalities. To address the possible endogeneity and omitted variables bias, we use an instrumental variables’ approach. The standardized deviation of precipitation from its mean serves as an instrument for municipal agricultural income. Our main result indicates that agricultural income has a negative and statistically significant impact on forced displacement: an increase in agricultural income of one percent reduces forced displacement in the municipality by 1.2%. As a robustness check, we use alternative definitions of economic activity at the municipality level such as agricultural loans, GDP, and energy consumption finding similar results.
The consequences of increasing block tariffs, magnitude and distribution of electricity and water subsidies for households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America
In Addis Ababa the increasing block tariff (IBT) is used to calculate households’ monthly bills for both electricity and water services. We estimate the combined water and electricity subsidies received by households with private connections to both the electricity grid and the piped network water in 2016, and evaluate the distribution of these subsidies among wealth groups. We use customer-billing data and match those data with socioeconomic information collected from a household survey. Results show that the combined subsidies are large. The average household receives a subsidy of US$26 per month, about 6% of household income. Also we find that both the electricity and the water IBT subsidies disproportionately target richer households, with even worse poor targeting outcomes when both sectors are considered jointly. The poorest quintile receives 12% of the cumulative subsidies provided by both electricity and water services, while the richest quintile receives 31% of the cumulative subsidies.
|3:30pm - 3:45pm||Coffee Break|
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-01: Scaling-up land programs - African experiences and global solutions|
Session Chair: Michael Roth, World Bank, United States of America
Translation English - French
African Union Commission, Ethiopia
Setting the scene
Consultant, United States of America
Power Point presentation setting the stage for the 2019 African Roundtable, Scaling Up Land Programs: African Experience and Global Solutions. Power Point reviews questions raised and addressed at last years 2018 Roundtable, announces five panelists for this year's roundtable, poses four questions for plenary discussion and sets out the format for panel comments, questions and answers and next steps for reporting.
Agence Foncière Rurale, AFOR, Côte d'Ivoire
La Côte d'Ivoire a adopté la loi n° 98-750 du 23 décembre 1998 dans le but de transformer les droits coutumiers en droit de propriété.
Afin de faciliter et accélérer l'application de cette loi, un cadre institutionnel adéquat a été mis en place à travers la création de l'Agence Foncière Rurale (AFOR), chargée d'assurer la maîtrise d'œuvre de l'ensemble du Programme National de Sécurisation Foncière Rurale.
Au niveau local des comités villageois et Sous-préfectoraux, ont été créés avec pour rôle l'approbation et la validation des dossiers de sécurisation foncière. Interviennent également dans ce système, les Commissaires Enquêteurs, les Préfets de département, les Sous-préfets et les chefs de villages.
L’amélioration des compétences de ces acteurs nécessite un accompagnement sur plusieurs aspects, à savoir une définition claire des rôles et des responsabilités, l’élaboration d’un mode opératoire simple, la formation des acteurs. Un appui financier, matériel et logistique est un complément indispensable.
Ministry in charge of Land Affairs, Madagascar
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
World Bank, United States of America
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-02: Registry interoperability and data protection|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Interoperability model for land registries (IMOLA) project in the European Union
Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
European Land Registry Association is developing an amazing project regarding the interconnection of european land registries. The name of the project is IMOLA (Interoperability MOdel for Land Administration). The development of the project is based on a complex methodology ment to maximize the knowledge acquired. A standardised structure of information is already available (ELRD - european land registry document).
The project is perfectly aligned with LRI (Land Registries Interconnection) project of the European Commision.
The evolution of the Chilean land registry system: from the 19th century to the implementation of new technologies
Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Chile
Land Registry in Chile is governed by statutes dating back to the 19th century. The Civil Code of 1855 called for the creation of regulations on a system of property records and, on June 24, 1857 with the enactment of the Regulations on the Land Registry that mandate was brought to fruition. And yet, both the Code and the Regulations were representative of an era far different from modern times. An opportunity for an upgrade arose in 1943 in the context of new regulations on Notaries and Land Registrars enacted along with the Organic Court Code that year. Unfortunately, however, the existing shortcomings were not corrected at the time. As a result, there is no doubt that current regulations require an overhaul to bring them up to modern standards.
Registry of True Owners according to the European Directives to fight money laundering
Really, The Land and Poverty conference presents the latest research and innovations in policies and good practice on land governance around the world.
Following this trend, I wanted to give a brief presentation to you all from the “Registry of Real Estate Ownership” (RETIR) in Spain. Its purpose is to learn who is behind corporations and it can be an important instrument in the fight against poverty, ensuring that investments made in a determined country are used effectively for their intended purposes and are not fraudulently misused at the hands of people, through the creation of interposed societies.
It deals with, definitively, a bet of transparency.
The interconnection and interoperability between Business Registries in Europe
Registrars of Portugal, Portugal
The implementation of Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS).
Main aspects of Directive 2012/17/UE and the Regulation (EU) 2015/884, regarding interconnection of central, commercial and companies registers.
Also refer to Directive (EU) 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council, relating to certain aspects of company law.
Accessibility to the European e-Justice portal.
Within the scope of the “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice”, the Decision 2008/615/JHA incorporates into the legal framework of the European Union the substance of the so-called Prüm Treaty on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation.
Administrative and technical provisions for the implementation of Decision 2008/615/JHA (above), aiming the automated exchange of information, in particular, the vehicle registration data, by the use of the European Vehicle and Driving Licence Information System (EUCARIS).
Overview of the main aspects of EUCARIS accessibility and content of information displayed.
The interconnection between Land Registries in a Federal State such as Mexico
Transformative initiatives concerning the delivery of land title registration services in British Columbia
Director of Land Titles, British Columbia, Canada
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-03: Interoperability of spatial data: Examples and regulatory framework|
Session Chair: Gitanjali Swamy, IoTask, India
Policy person’s guide to navigating past the map
Hexagon Geosystems, United States of America
How new production technologies and business models increase affordability of geospatial data...
One can’t manage that which is not measured. However, projects can’t simply exhaust the entire budget on the measurement phase, leaving nothing for the management portion. Primary geospatial data acquisition should not be the end, it should be the beginning, from which policy, projects and management can commence. But, how to get the needed data at reasonable cost and leave more of the budget for the real work at hand? This presentation examines alternatives for both business models and acquisition technologies that help minimize the front-end costs for obtaining geospatial information and allowing its utilization for multiple applications. Examples are given for various large-area geospatial acquisitions of both image and point cloud (LiDAR) data, with an eye towards two key objectives: (1) minimizing cost per pixel or data point and (2) acquire once/use many models.
The future role of official geospatial reference data in a fully digital environment
State Agency for Geoinformation and State Survey Lower Saxony (LGLN), Germany
This presentation will describe the approach taken for shaping reference data and customer services according to customer requirements. It will then focus on a pilot implementation for mobile devices developed for real estate market data and designed for improving real estate market transparency. It explains how the components used could serve us as best practice for a redesign of all other official geospatial reference datasets and services.
Our open source based project will provide a very useful tool for maintenance and delivery of highly relevant official real estate market data, and the geographical context. The presented approach paves the way for improving dissemination of all other official geospatial reference data (cadastre and topography) and substantial improvement of relevant land administration services. It enables a smart mapping solution for the discharge of public services in the field of land administration meeting customers’ needs for the next decade.
Legal and policy frameworks for geospatial information management
Centre for Spatial Law and Policy, United States of America
Governments around the world have recognized the importance of geospatial information to achieve critical societal and economic objectives and to address global challenges such as climate change. However, many are finding that their existing legal and policy frameworks hinder the collection, use and/or sharing of geospatial information. As a result, the potential for geospatial information is not being realized.This paper will discuss why geospatial information management is a challenge from a legal and policy standpoint. It will also identify ways in which governments can develop a legal and policy framework that suits their legal system and geospatial management objectives.
Geospatial Data points the way to integrating government for sustainable development
Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom
Improved availability of fundamental geospatial data, a foundation for better government, leads to more transparency, effective urban planning, improved resilience and environmental management, and new business opportunities. But little investment is being made into national geospatial capabilities, the arguments still need to be won.
In Summer 2018, the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management endorsed the Integrated Geospatial Information Framework, a landmark step in guiding nations. It provides a strategic approach and the means to justify, plan and deliver geospatial enablement. The Committee also endorsed 14 fundamental geospatial data themes deemed appropriate for all nations.
Two powerful tools were unleashed onto the global community in one meeting. These global frameworks will enable better data integration and interoperability in the public sector. This paper explores how these tools will support sustainable development and in particular catalyse innovation, demonstrating that a national approach is the only sustainable approach.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-04: Legal and normative aspects of making law gender sensitive|
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Tetratech, United States of America
Land and womanhood- ethnography on propertied women in Bengal
Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Germany
This paper argues the tentativeness rather than the inevitability of the established knowledge that possessing land titles empowers women by placing them in a stronger position of better bargaining power within the home and community that is characterized by discrimination and intra-household inequalities. Based on ethnographic data in rural west Bengal this paper captures the nuances of women’s subjecthood as shaped by their socio-cultural existence as well as their ‘purposive actions’ shaping their life situations. I address the particularity of women’s experience of poverty and their specific locations as subjects in relation to property and livelihood. A gendered analysis of land in a certain social context, therefore, requires critical consideration of diverse social relations of women in distinctive subject positions, tracing the historical trajectory of her subjectivities along life courses, the kinship and familial relations they involve and ideological and juridical pattern of inheritance in which land has particular significations.
"Innovations to protect women’s customary land rights: Practical experiences from Sierra Leone."
1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Sierra Leone; 2Lafayette University, USA; 3Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Italy
Since the end of the conflict in 2002, Sierra Leone has made significant progress in rebuilding its economy. However, these gains have not sufficiently translated into an equal distribution of development dividends for the population, and particularly women. As the government considers feasible NLP implementation strategies, priorities have been set to ensure rural women and men in the provinces are able to negotiate women’s rights and access in order to overcome prejudicial cultural practices.
Within the framework of implementing the VGGT, Sierra Leone is piloting Solutions for Open Land Administration (SOLA) geospatial tools for recording and mapping women’s land rights to ensure that rural women are able to negotiate their rights of access, use, and ownership of land. This paper presents the findings from nine villages in three chiefdoms in Sierra Leone. The findings are significant in influencing the call for innovative fit-for-purpose solutions for land administration in Sierra Leone.
The farmer and her husband: legal innovations for women in contract farming
Contract farming is increasingly seen as a promising alternative business model to the negative impacts associated with large scale land-based investments. This is because contract farming leaves the farmer in control of their own land while potentially providing them with a steady, predictable income, and helping them access higher quality inputs such as seed, fertilizer and technical assistance. However, contract farming schemes tend to be dominated by better-off male farmers and have very poor gender outcomes. The research points to two key disadvantages for women farmers; doing most of the work but not being included in the contract, and having their subsistence farming activities displaced by contracted crops.
This paper proposes innovative legislative and contractual solutions to be applied to contract farming relationships in order to address these disadvantages and better protect women, and provides model legal drafting that can be adopted and adapted by policy-makers and contracting parties.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-05: Assessing impact of Infrastructure investments|
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
How do mass transit investments affect land values? evidence from MRT-3
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Ecological footprint of transportation infrastructure
1University of California, San Diego, United States of America; 2World Bank; 3Dartmouth College
How large are the contributions of cities to the development of rural communities?
1London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom; 2Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP); 3Food and Agricutural Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 4The National Statistics Institute of Chile (INE)
From municipal investments to functional subregions: new territorial planning units in Colombia
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-06: Kenya's land policy reforms: Did they deliver?|
Session Chair: John Bugri, KNUST, Ghana
Land policy implementation in Kenya: achievements, challenges and lessons ten years later
Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya
Having enacted its national land policy ten years ago, Kenya has had experiences with implementation whose progress, challenges and lessons need to be shared. This will be helpful for the review of the policy which will be done in the year 2019, and will also inform scholars and other regional jurisdictions with similar circumstances and levels of development as Kenya’s.
The paper discusses the institutional framework established under the land policy and the constitution and how this has played out in practice, including the conflicts and solutions engaged. It also brings out the laws and regulations enacted, the roles and programmes driven by the land commission, the national and devolved governments. The paper also analyzes how some of the contentious issues in the land policy have played out at implementation. Recommendations to inform the 2019 policy review are made.
Smallholder settlement schemes in Kenya: A retrospective and prospective analysis of Trans-Nzoia county
National Land Commission, Kenya
Smallholder settlement schemes have played a central role in the economic and development strategies in postcolonial Kenya. Adhering to the ‘land re-distribution’ agenda, these schemes marked a critical turn in the land question. Hence, in the transition to independence, settlement schemes helped de-racialize land ownership, and offered land to landless Africans who had been displaced in the struggle against British colonial rule. These land transfers were varied and became instrumental linchpins in the agrarian land re-distribution and economic development strategies. In the context of increased land fragmentation, astronomical rural-urban migration and changing rural population demographics the transformations occurring in these schemes especially in high potential agriculture Trans-Nzoia County call for considerable evaluation of the settlement scheme program. Research was conducted in Trans-Nzoia County with the aim of offering insights into the history and development of settlement schemes as pillars of rural development and agrarian reform.
By the communities for the communities: A holistic approach to community-based natural resource governance:
Kenya is in the midst of land reform that has far-reaching implications for securing the land rights of rural people, and promoting political stability and economic development. The reform is based on a National Land Policy (NLP), adopted in 2009. Since then the country has also adopted various laws and policies including the Constitution 2010, The Land Act, The Land Registration Act, the Community Land Act etc .
This paper aims at demonstrating how Kenya’s land reforms have led to the improvement of tenure security and increased participation investments at the community through Constitutional categorization of land into Community, Public and Private. will highlight how the reforms done at national level have opened opportunity for the securing tenure rights for communities. It is anticipated that the actualization and implementation will scale up of this enhanced of tenure security will result in the positive transformation of the livelihoods of more communities.
The political economy of Kenya land policy review
KENYA LAND ALLIANCE, Kenya
The political quest to review the Kenya National Land Policy has been on the cards since it was formulated and endorsed by Parliament on December 3, 2009. This is despite the fact that the policy document was developed in tandem with the African Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy (F&G), which spelled out a comprehensive process of restructuring three major components of the land system, namely its structure of land ownership (property system), land use and production structures, and the support services infrastructure for land delivery. Important to note is that the Kenya National Land Policy was endorsed after the Heads of States and Governments had declared their commitment to the shared vision, objectives and principles on land policy matters in July 2009. The blueprint was to govern ownership, access, use and management of land resources to enhance productivity and contribution to social, economic, political, environmental development and inclusive development.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-07: Managing sprawl: From data to policies|
Session Chair: Neeraj Baruah, Vivid Economics, United Kingdom
Anatomy of Density
New York University, United States of America
We have found a novel way to decompose the average urban density of a city--the ratio of the total population of a city and its urban extent--into three, five, or seven factors that, when multiplied together yield urban density. Decomposing density into its factors--crowding, the occupancy rate, floorpan efficiency, building height, plot coverage, residential land use share, and the saturation of the urban extent by the built-up area--allow us to form a set of pragmatic policies that can increase average urban densities and to assess the potential effectiveness of such policies. We have collected data on the seven factors that together constitute average urban population density in a global sample of ten cities--Dhaka, Hong Kong, Kinshasa, Bangkok, Madrid, Baku, Minneapolis, Wuhan, Cairo, and Bogotá. We will present and discuss these data, much of it surprising, and discuss their implication for the potential for densification in cities in the world at large.
Measuring urban economic density
The London School of Economics, United Kingdom
This paper evaluates the use of different measures of economic
density in assessing urban agglomeration effects, by examining how well they explain household income differences across cities and neighborhoods in six African countries. We examine simple scale and density measures and more nuanced ones which capture in second moments the extent of clustering within cities. The evidence suggests that more nuanced measures attempting to capture within-city differences in the extent of clustering do no better than a simple density measure in explaining income differences across cities, at least for the current degree of accuracy in measuring clustering.
Master scheme for the simplification and digital transformation of urban land management
1IGN FI, France; 2Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLAU), Ivory Coast
In April 2017, the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLU) created by decree the Steering Committee for Simplification and Digitization (CP-STD). By setting up this committee, the Ministry is strengthening the coordination and leadership mechanisms for managing the tasks involved in modernizing its administrative functions in line with the vision of reforms recommended by the “Doing Business” program – improving the business environment by simplifying administrative procedures relating to construction, housing, sanitation and urban planning.
In order to implement this transformation within the Administration, the Department has chosen to develop a blueprint of the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of urban land. This study, led by the Permanent Secretariat to the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of the MCLU, and conducted by IGN FI with technical assistance from the BNETD, marks the willingness of the Government to implement reforms.
The National Urban Policy as a Framework for managing Urban expansion and land use change in Malawi
Mnistry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Malawi has experienced rapid urbanization since independence with 15.3% of the national population living in urban areas in 2008. Estimates by the National Statistics Office (NSO) indicate that 30 % of the population in the country will be urban based by 2030, escalating to 50 % in 2050.
Rapid urbanisation coupled with limited technical and financial capacity among urban development institutions has contributed to unregulated urban growth among others. Government has in the past implemented Rural Development programmes in an attempt to manage urbanization by reducing rural urban migration. .
This paper looks at these programmes and the impact they had on managing urbanization and the lessons learnt from their implementation. The paper concludes that sustainable urbanization can only be achieved through the implementation of a proper guiding framework like the National Urban Policy.
National Physical Development Plan; National Urban Policy ,Secondary Centres;
Rural Growth Centres,urban expansion. Urbanisation;
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-08: Implementing urban land value capture|
Session Chair: Riel Franzsen, University of Pretoria, South Africa
The role of transferrable development rights in emerging economies
1Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom; 2World Bank, Washington DC, USA; 3World Bank, Ankara, Turkey
In recent years a number of emerging economies have experimented with the use of transferrable development rights (TDRs) to support urban development, including Brazil, India, and Turkey. Most TDR schemes are found in USA and are used to protect vulnerable land and buildings from being destroyed by development by persuading their owners voluntarily to accept restrictions on their ability to undertake legally permitted development in return for credits which can be sold to developers for use in designated receiving areas. The paper examines the potential uses of TDRs and the economic and governance environment needed to make them effective. It considers how effective a spatial planning tool TDRs are likely to be in emerging economies and whether there are better alternative ways of achieving the objectives aimed for in TDR programs.
Is there a role of Land Value Capture Instruments for financing infrastructure investments in a messy urban growth scenario?
Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
Many cities experienced a highly disorganized urban growth resulting in severe under-provision of urban infrastructure due to institutional and budgetary fiscal weaknesses. This study explores the feasibility of widening public funding of infrastructure investment using LVC tools in Metropolitan Buenos Aires, taking into account the wide income dispersion of households. A simulation model, estimates the potential collection from alternative LVCs and their feasibility in terms of the impact on income distribution due to income dispersion in each municipality where specific infrastructure is to be developed. Novel data on land values, household income/expenditures and land regulation are used, adding to local/state land revenues which are combined with the infrastructure plans advanced by the government. A general estimation of the share of land value increases that could be captured through various LVC instruments is provided, as well as the comparison of this projected revenue relative to public funds generated via other mechanisms.
Unlocking the potential of urban land in Kenya
1World Bank, Kenya; 2Walker Kontos Advocates, Kenya
An ambitious public infrastructure program funded by public debt has positioned Kenya as a regional economic hub with growth in the financial, technology, service and hospitality sectors. Kenya has become an attractive and preferred destination for foreign companies who set up assembly plants in Kenyan business districts to penetrate the lucrative markets in the region. Ideally, the substantial investment in infrastructure should result in similar or higher return to the government through increased revenue collection. This is however not the case as the revenue generated in these business districts is less than optimal. The government is not getting a fair return on its investment and has to contend with rising public debt. This paper recommends innovative alternative funding sources such as land value capture, as a way of ensuring direct beneficiaries of infrastructure developments pay their fair share towards reducing the mismatch between public expenditure and revenue collection.
Institutional arrangements as a catalyzing instrument for land value capture processes in public transportation projects
JFP & Asociados, Colombia
Land value capture (LVC) tools and policies are arousing as innovative mechanisms that could serve to accomplish a two-way goal: to fund public construction and to enhance accurate urban development.
Among other urban processes, public transportation projects in cities in developing countries represent at the same time an opportunity and a challenge for public administrations to execute LVC policies.
Three cities in Latin America, have started the path to build and urban strategy to adavance LVC and TOD policies in their metro systems: Bogotá, City of Panamá, and Quito. From different contexts the cases are showing that is crucial to look close to institutional arrangements and found ways to set a solid basis for the dialogue between urban planning and transport.
Lessons learned in each case should bring important conclusions to understand how institutional arrangements could work as an innovative mechanism that could catalyze LVC processes implementation.
The untold story of Taiwan's land-based financing program - land readjustment or land grabbing?
1National Chengchi University, Taiwan; 2China University of Technology, Taiwan
Land-based finance (LBF) has become an important topic in recent years. To a local government this represents a valuable source of income from which to fund services, infrastructure development and maintenance programs. LBF encompasses a variety of taxes, charges, income from the sale of development rights and public lands, and land readjustment. Urban land readjustment (ULR) is one of the major ways in which Taiwan's LBF programs have accrued great revenues for government. However, the untold story is that ULR deprives landowners of their human rights, especially for those powerless to object. Who owns the power to decide the ULR zone? Can landowners say no to it? Can the ULR be justified only by its financial contributions to the government? These are important questions that this article aims to explore.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-09: Approaches towards sustainable land use management|
Session Chair: Kim Thompson, USAID, United States of America
Development of an informal land use register for South Africa
Data World (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
Spatial Planning is an important driver for promoting sustainable development and improving quality of life. It organises land uses to cater to the demands of development with environmental considerations. The effectiveness of planning hinges on the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of information. However, in South Africa, there is a critical gap in the availability of information that can genuinely depict the status of rural areas regarding current land. The problem is aggravated by the fact the no spatial reference can be made for large parts of the country’s rural areas as the cadastre does not cover them.
This paper presents a case study of a project that has recently been undertaken to create an informal land use register and a spatial database of infrastructure for rural areas of South Africa. This project is to assist all local municipalities in creating a single, wall to wall land use scheme.
Rural Environmental Registry in the priority municipalities for Cerrado deforestation combating, in Brazil
1The World Bank, Brazil; 2Brazilian Forest Service / Ministry of the Environment, Brazil; 3German Agency for International Cooperation - GIZ
The Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) is an important source of landholdings information for environmental and economic control, monitoring and planning, as well as to combat deforestation in Brazil. This publication provides CAR information declared until August / 2018, for the geographical context of the priority municipalities for Cerrado deforestation combating, a set of 52 municipalities located in the Cerrado Biome for priority actions to monitor and control illegal deforestation, land management and the encouragement of environmentally economic activities maintenance of native areas and recovery of degraded areas. Furthermore, the area registered in the CAR and the municipal boundaries were crossed with MapBiomas land cover – a database that provides the Cerrado land cover for a historical series between 2000 and 2016 – to evaluate the evolution of the land cover on the municipality and in the area registered in the CAR.
Environment and land use trends in the Ethiopian lowlands
The World Bank, United States of America
This study examines environmental and land use trends in Ethiopia focusing primarily on the lowland areas. Unlike the Ethiopian highlands which have been studied much more extensively, land-use trends, environmental threats and socio-economic challenges facing those living in the lowlands (i.e. areas below 1500m elevation) are much less understood as are the types of policies and practices promoting resilience among vulnerable groups. To support better decision making and more efficient delivery and targeting of programming, this study analyzes trends in the environment and land use to better understand the challenges faced by lowland changing vegetation patterns and expansion of cropping in traditional rangeland areas. The approach adopted draws heavily on a variety of remote-sensed (i.e. satellite) data in combination with environmental station monitoring data, field observations and local expertise to look at long-term (i.e. 1986-2017) as well as short-term (2000-2017) trends to better understand challenges faced by the lowland population.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-10: Addressing the challenges of pastoral tenure|
Session Chair: Stephanie Burgos, Oxfam America, United States of America
Innovative electronic pasture committee software
KYRGYZ JAYITY National pasture users' association, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan today: 15 pasture users unions (PUU) use an innovative approach to manage pastures. The information system “Electronic Pasture Committee” (EPC) allows to keep automated records of the pasture committee's work through the formation of a database of pasture users, livestock, data on pasture plots (capacity, optimal load, seasonality, etc.), calculating the pasture use fees, control of payments made, distribution of pasture plots, vaccination. Before EPC the whole process was carried out manually, not always correctly and regularly, there was no single approach and a unique tool for making operational decisions. Planning, management and use of state pastures in Kyrgyzstan has been legally transferred to local communities and the EPC has already proved its effectiveness, resulting in improved pasture conditions, reduction of pasture load, and overall improvement of pasture infrastructure. Currently, “Kyrgyz Jayity” is working on improving EPC in order to form a consolidated database of all 454 district PUUs.
Pastoral rights to mobility in Senegal: unpacking paradoxes and reimagining sustainable management
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Unites States of America
While national governments increasingly acknowledge the need to protect livestock mobility, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Current approaches to pastoral governance focus on internal dynamics among pastoral groups to regulate access and collectively manage rangelands. To operationalize rhetorical commitments to pastoral tenure security we need to broaden the focus on pastoral governance to address the types of protections and institutions requirements needed to maintain livestock mobility in mixed use landscapes. Drawing on participatory GIS mapping of over thousands of kilometers of livestock corridors and qualitative data collection in 18 communes, this paper integrates institutional analysis with an assessment of the structure and function of two corridor networks in eastern and central Senegal. Three institutional functions are crucial: (1) flexible access to distant pastures, (2) coordination to maintain landscape scale connectivity, and (3) mechanisms for conflict management.
Some issues of reducing pasture degradation in Mongolia
Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia
In recent years, many factors have been adversely affected by pastures due to climate change and human factors, such as crossroads, mining non-rehabilitation, pest rodent damage, and water supply limitation. Pasture area has decreased by 9.0 million ha over the last 50 years, 31.9 percent has been degraded, 1.2 percent has been affected by wind and water erosion, 38.4 percent is affected by rodents, 24.6 percent is desertified and 0.8 percent is polluted by mineral extraction.
It is important to define ways to develop sustainable pastoralism in mining areas and find out solutions to reduce pasture degradation, such as to decrease the negative impacts of mining, to manage well herder organization, to spend a portion of the profits earned from mining in the region, land and environmental offset.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-11: Are PPPs the future of land administration?|
Session Chair: Jacob Zevenbergen, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
The importance of public private partnership in cadastre: Turkish experience
1FIG, Turkey; 2Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü, Turkey
The aim of maintained cadastral works in Turkey is to determine both the legal and geometric position of all the real property. In this way, the modern land registration which is anticipated in Turkish Civil Code will be founded.
There are approximately 57 million cadastral parcels in Turkey. As of the beginning of the 2000’s, Turkey’s cadastre had been completed in 75% as villages and district based by its own staff of the institution. The legal and geometric parts of cadastre were separated and PPP model was created by the institution. Within the scope of the World Bank MEER – MERLIS and ARIP Projects, initial cadastre and cadastre renovation tenders were made according to this new model. As a result, 13 million cadastral parcels in 5 years has been completed by the private sector. The institution has also completed the renewal of the 10 million cadastral parcels by PPP model.
A review of public-private partnerships in land administration
1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Equity International, Australia
This paper reports experiences in public-private partnership in land administration and provides lessons learnt from these partnerships. The review results suggest several factors contribute to the success of a PPP in land administration. The factors encompass political will of the public sector and government, support by the community of stakeholders, transparency in the bidding process and documents, a clear set of expectations from the partnership, active engagement of stakeholders during the partnership and strong leadership of the public partner in times of crisis. The review suggests, there is often a need for a legislative reform when adopting PPPs in land administration. The legislative changes are more pronounced in the regulatory framework of land administration than those of PPP. The literature suggests that the technology developed for one jurisdiction can be customised and adapted for other jurisdictions. There was not a notable first registration of land under the PPP schemes.
PPP in land administration - why now and what are the risks and benefits?
Ordnance Survey, UK
Demands and expectations on land administration services change radically as new technologies, environmental challenges, urbanization, requirements for completion of first land registration and other social and political influences now gradually transform our practices and mindset. The authorities need to provide greater choice and control, more transparency, process inclusiveness and equity, on-demand access to information, adequately capture RRRs, better utilize geospatial information as mean to integrate other thematic data for e.g. smart cities, utilities and e-government etc. They also need to be capable to innovate and maintain systems and services that can evolve over time. The ability maintain highly skilled employees is another constraint. In combination with uncertain budget allocation for modernization of land administration an increasing number of nations now consider public-private partnership as an attractive alternative to adequately respond to these needs. This paper discusses benefits and risks associated with this approach for the land administration domain.
Exploring PPP opportunities for improved Land Administration Reforms, emerging lessons from the Ghanaian Case
Office of the President, Ghana
The idea that capital, technology and skill can be leveraged from the private sector to enhance land administration is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries such as Ghana where donor funded land administration reform processes are not achieving the desired transformation after 15 years of implementation.
Among others, inadequate financing, weak technology base, human capacity issues and poor corporate governance practices are some of the underlining factors for the current state of affairs. In order to address these challenges, government of Ghana has resorted to PPP which is a non-convention but promising alternative strategies which can support government to achieve the anticipated transformation in land administration including reducing the turnaround time for first registration to within 30 days.
This paper examines a 11 point evaluation criteria to guide Ghana and others developing countries in order to ensure effective implementation that yields mutual rewarding outcomes for all stakeholders.
From client satisfaction to happiness: the front-office and back-office innovative concession models for fostering land registration in Dubai
Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
SDGs provide a framework for governments, multilateral organisations and donors to drive social investment on sustainable development. Among the 17 SGDs, SDG1(No poverty) SDG2 (Zero hunger) and SDG5 (Gender equality) directly highlight the importance of land tenure systems as a mechanism to achieve sustainable development.
This paper proposes strategies for practitioners to involve the private sector in land administration services while at the same time ensuring there is a contribution to the achievement of the SDGs. These are: (i) to target areas where the private sector can do a better job; (ii) find cross-services approaches within the land administration system (iii) build the participation in a trusted private sector; (iv) revenue should be based on achieving tangible social results aligned with SDGs. Analysis of SDG relation to Dubai registration trustees is presented.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-12: Gender impacts of large-scale investment|
Session Chair: Kerstin Nolte, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
Winners or losers: a gender analysis of the economic and social impact of corporate large-scale land acquisition on rural women in Cameroon
1University of Buea, Cameroon; 2University of Yaounde I, Cameroon; 3Islamic Relief Worldwide, Kenya
Cameroon like most sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed increase in large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) by local and foreign investors requesting huge hectares of land for investments. The underlying assumption is that LSLA is a win-win undertaking for investors and host countries/communities. Foreign investors are seen as catalysts of development whose capital will put ‘unused land’ into production and modernize agriculture, leading to growth and prosperity. This paper interrogates the situation of rural women in Cameroon based on primary investigations. It argues that, rural women are generally worse-off in the process of LSLA and even when they seems to benefit (jobs, social welfare, and amenities), these benefits are short-lived and replaced by far-reaching negative effects (exclusion, landless, poverty) on their reproductive and productive roles. These effects are obvious since LSLA is presently conceived from investors’ rather than investors/host countries’ perspectives. The current architecture of LSLA thus needs to be inclusive and engendered.
New research about gender, land and mining in Mongolia: deepening understanding of coping strategies in pastoral communities
1Mokoro Ltd, United Kingdom; 2People Centered Conservation (PCC), Mongolia
This paper shares findings from new research on gender and land in a pastoralist community in central-western Mongolia, with a complex structure of investment and operations in gold mining. The paper examines what has been learned from the research about people's coping strategies in the face of social and environmental change, specifically in the context of the development of mining since the transition from socialism and in a relatively isolated area. Comparisons are made with similar studies in other communities in Mongolia, where it is found that in some ways female-headed households are less vulnerable in this new research community, while many men are in fact the vulnerable members of the community.
Strengthening women's voices in land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land
1IIED, United Kingdom; 2IED Afrique, Senegal
Over the past two years, IIED has been working with local partners in selected communities in Senegal, Tanzania and Ghana to develop, test and when possible upscale tools and approaches to strengthen rural women’s voices in local land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land.This paper will distil insights from this work, documenting the tools and approaches developed and implemented in each country and presenting key challenges and lessons learned.The paper will explain the rationale behind each approach and provide a step by step description of the implementation process. It will also explore the challenges met during implementation and the mitigation strategies developed to overcome them. It will draw specific lessons for each geography, compare and contrast the approaches and identify broader lessons exploring their potential for replication.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-13: Land rights regularization and common property resources|
Session Chair: David Ameyaw, International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
Identifying best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale in relation to emission reduction programs
1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Bioversity International / World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), France; 3University of Papua, Indonesia
Benefit sharing is an important incentive for many actors who would otherwise not reduce GHG emissions. However, sharing schemes must be transparent, legitimate, and fair, especially because payments are often based on avoided actions rather than tied to specific goods. Earlier thinking focused on financial returns, but new thinking encompasses a broader set of ‘monetary and non-monetary benefits’, including tenure reform, local climate regulation, and community resilience. However, there is a gap in understanding best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale, reflected in the limited guidance for jurisdictions to develop such plans. This study aims to address this gap by assessing, compiling, and communicating best practices across the spectrum of data currently available in multiple programs with a case study approach in two focal countries using sound scientific methods including semi-structured interviews, surveys, Strengths Weakness Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, Q-sorting, and statistical analysis.
How Does Scarcity Affect Extraction of Resources? A study about land use as a common-pool resource dilemma using survey and field-experimental data collected in northern Namibia
University of Marburg, Germany
The aim of this study is to analyze how scarcity of resources affects at what rate users decide to extract or appropriate resources. We investigate this by conducting a survey and an economic field experiment in northern Namibia. The participants in our study are small-scale farmers who regularly make decisions about either staying on their old fields or clearing forest areas for new ones. We compare environments where resources are abundant against environments where resources are scarce.
Results from both the survey and the experiment show that a scarce environment does not cause faster extraction, but under scarcity the rate of extraction is lower than in an abundant environment. Survey results also reveal that abundant stocks tend to attract additional users.
Impact of land certification on cash crop expansion in Southwest China
Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany
We analyze the impacts of forest and farmland certification on cash crop cultivation in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China. Our analysis is based on the panel data from two socioeconomic surveys of 612 smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN covering the period of 2012 and 2014. We apply a multinomial endogenous switching model along with a counterfactual analysis to estimate “ratio of land allocated to other cash crops relative to rubber” under different land use certification.We divide households into 4 groups, namely, (1) households with only farmland tenure certificate, (2) households with only forestland tenure certificate, (3) households with both farmland and forestland tenure certificates and (4) households without any land certificates. Results show that expansion of other cash crop takes place in households with either (a) only farmland certificate or (b) only forestland certificate. Households with both land use certificates and those without certificate are less likely to expand cash crops.
Forest carbon supply in Nepal: Evidence from a choice experiment
1Portland State University, United States of America; 2Indian Statistical Institute, India; 3Smart Start Evaluation and Research, United States of America; 4Forest Action, Nepal
In this paper, we use a choice experiment conducted in 2013 to estimate household-level willingness to participate in a REDD+ program that requires reductions in fuelwood collections as a function of various CO2 prices. We find that robust participation occurs at prices that are higher than the early literature on developing country sequestration. Rather than prices of $1.00 to $5.00 incentivizing participation, we find that relatively little carbon would be supplied at such prices. This basic finding is in line with more recent literature focusing on Nepal REDD+ pilots, which suggests that the early optimism about low-cost carbon supply in community forestry settings may have been somewhat misplaced.
Formal community forests will almost certainly be the core institution within which REDD+ is implemented in Nepal and likely other countries.
|5:30pm - 8:00pm||OAS: Inter-American Network on Cadastre and Property Registry: innovation to improve land governance in Latin America (followed by a cocktail reception)|
Public: By invitation only (Registered participants for the land and Poverty Conference from the LATAM region)
Language: Spanish only
Deadline to RSVP: Tuesday March 19, 2019 - RSVP
|Organization of American States (OAS) - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC|
|5:30pm - 8:00pm||Red Interamericana de Catastro y Registro de la Propiedad: Innovación para mejorar la gobernanza de la tierra en América Latina (seguido por un coctel de recepción)|
Público: Por invitación (participantes registrados en la conferencia de tierras y pobreza del Banco Mundial)
Fecha límite para reservar participación: martes 19 de marzo del 2019 – RSVP
|Organization of American States (OAS) - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC|
|Date: Wednesday, 27/Mar/2019|
|8:00am - 6:00pm||Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-01: Private sector roles in Latin America's land administration|
Session Chair: Ivonne Astrid Moreno Horta, WORLD BANK, Colombia
Colombia: The private sector’s roles in land tenure formalization in post-conflict areas
Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia
Modernizing land information systems in Panama
Ministry of the presidency, Panama
Session Title: The Role of the Private Sector in the Modernization of Land Administration Services.
Before the creation of The National Land Administration Authority “ANATI”, Panama had the National Program for Land Administration, better known as “PRONAT created in 2001, whose purpose was the execution of regularization and massive titling projects.
With Law 59 of October 8, 2010, The National Land Administration Authority is created, subrogating the functions of “PRONAT”.
ANATI, by Law 22 of 2006 regarding Public Contracts of Panama, carries out contracts for cadastral regularization and titling, broadening the radius of action, and seeking not only to know the predial situation, but also to issue property titles to that part of the population that did not have it and that was exposed to suffer social damage in the absence of legal security.
Honduras: improving registry and cadastral service delivery through public and private outsourcing
Instituto de la Propiedad, Honduras
Contracting and direct implementation in systematic land formalization. 25 years of experience in Peru.
Global Land Alliance, Peru
When is contracting out private firms for “systematic registration” preferable to direct implementation by government agencies? Is such outsourcing an appropriate solution for developing countries with limited capacities to manage contracts, monitor performance and quality, and to access the latest technology? The Peruvian urban and rural mass-scale titling programs over the past 25 years have transformed the property system of the country. Most of the titling activities were directly executed by governmental agencies with varied results. Only recently -after a large experience have been accumulated and there exist a local market of private professionals and companies- the first outsourcing experiences are being tried in an ongoing project. A balance of the experiences and conclusions will be presented.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-02: Implementing land readjustment|
Session Chair: Patrick Lamson-Hall, New York University Marron Institute, United States of America
Using land readjustment and FAR bonuses to create high-density development in fringe areas of fast growing cities
Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States of America
Using a unique application of the self-financing land readjustment technique, planners in Ahmadabad, India created an outer ring road to address transportation challenges and to supply developable lands in fringe areas of the city with much-needed infrastructure and developable real estate. This idea is diffusing to other growing cities. This paper presents a case study of an outer ring road project in Surat, India. Surat in addition to the techniques of land pooling (LP) and land readjustment (LR) to create space for the outer ring road’s right-of-way (ROW) and other infrastructure, will also incorporate FAR bonuses -- additional incentive to create greater urban density along the ring road and thus enhance the financing of road. This case study presents opportunities for planning professionals who face the challenge of supplying infrastructure and addressing transportation deficiencies in financially constrained, and rapidly growing cities, especially those in developing countries.
Surrender and re-alienation of land in Johor, Malaysia: a planning tool and mechanism for sustainable property development
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
In Malaysia, land laws are governed by the National Land Code (NLC) 1965. There are rules and restrictions imposed by the NLC 1965 which control and guide the property development. Uniquely, the implementation of the NLC 1965 is different in each state and state has govern on land matters, such as the application of conversion, sub-division, partition or amalgamation. In Johor, the state authority was implementing surrender and re-alienation mechanisms, as part of property development approval. This paper discusses on process and procedures, practices and some key challenges of the mechanism. The unique process has contributes fruitful significance for sustainable property development industry.
Land Assembly through Land Pooling Scheme in Amaravati, Challenges and land value capture for greenfield city development
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA), India
Amaravati, the greenfield capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India undertook one of the largest land pooling schemes in the world, wherein 28,000 farmers voluntarily pooled over 34,000 acres of land to develop a city designed to host a population of 3.5 million by 2050. The land owners received a benefit sharing package comprising of a reconstituted urban plot, social and economic benefits. While in peri-urban areas and redevelopment projects, the land value appreciation is rather directly discernible due to the presence of economic activity in the adjoining urban agglomerations, land value capture in a large land pooling exercise for a greenfield development remains unprecedented. This paper attempts to critically examine the challenges in land value capture and innovative measures adopted by the Authority in aspects of market speculation, density, infrastructure spread, affordability, connectivity and peripheral development.
Community-based feedback to improve land pooling for planned urbanization: a case study of Thimphu, Bhutan
Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Land pooling can be an effective strategy for public infrastructure projects, especially in small but growing cities where rural-to-urban transition gives rise to greenfield development. This paper outlines a model comparing outcomes of land acquisition and land pooling; reviews the literature on the negative effects of land acquisition on displaced households; and evaluates land pooling using original data from 1200 households in four Local Area Plans (LAPs) in southern Thimphu, Bhutan. Land prices in the LAPs increased, due in part to additional public services but in large part to a rise in urbanization over time. Land pooling participants benefited from increased land prices but not all were satisfied with the quality of works, particularly in terms of a lack of maintenance, nor with the consultation, planning and building phases. The case study has implications for government and multilateral development bank policy for land pooling and similar mechanisms for planned urbanization.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-03: Towards the registry of the future|
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
Digital street: Exploring the future of land registration through new technologies
HM Land Registry, United Kingdom
Digital Street is the ground-breaking research and development function of Her Majesty’s Land Registry in England and Wales, which aims to transform the way HM Land Registry operates and to stimulate the land and property market.
In collaboration with industry innovators and experts we have created a vision of the future; which demonstrates how the use of data and cutting-edge technologies could positively disrupt the land and property market in the future.
This paper describes the approach that HM Land Registry has taken to explore the use of innovative technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts, and how we have engaged with the wider industry to explore and collaborate over problems such as identity verification and the digitisation of data.
Preventive administration of justice – an economic catalyzer for the future?! – an analysis of the economic relevance of reliable and transparent public registers –
The sustainability of market economies depends on a mutually enabling interrelation of private business activities and infrastructure provided by the State. One of the pillars of social infrastructure is the administration of justice. In most civil law jurisdictions, the administration of curative justice is complemented by preventive justice. The objective of preventive justice is the establishment of legal certainty and to catalyze market exchange; its instruments are the codification of (land) law as well as the authentication of private legal acts and the registration of title and other rights to land. Private persons may unfold their innovative capacity on the market without having to fear that the results of their activity are taken away arbitrarily.
The administration of preventive justice costs time and money. These costs are set off by a significant reduction of litigation as well as the elimination or at least the reduction of other transaction costs.
How to introduce a complete new land registry system in a rapid changing world
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands
Due to daily practice in the real estate market, more and more legal possibilities and structures have been created. Because of densely populated areas, the need of social or medical healthcare and the emerging sharing economy, people start organising and changing the way they live in other ways. This also has an impact on the ‘classic’ land registry system as we used to know it. The Dutch land registry has been working on the renewal of the current land registry system in the Netherlands. The system will be introduced at the end this year (2018). With its implementation so-called legacy (1980`s) and the end-of-life-status of the software will be a thing of the past. The paper describes the changing daily practice, the incremental introduction, the migration of the registered data, the various decision points and the lessons learned.
Land Administration and the role of a Land Registrar Network
The Open Geospatial Consortium, United States of America
Only approximately 40% of nations operate with mature land administration systems of practice. An extremely important goal of the OGC's LandAdmin DWG is to focus on the needs of developing nations to establish “fit for purpose” land administration capabilities leveraging innovative technologies that are sustainable based on a given nation’s infrastructure, capabilities, and policy environment. Accessing the experts on the ground to understand and address practical, real-world requirements in the developing world is paramount to successfully guiding the community towards innovative ways to ensure sustainable basic land administration capabilities. This is well known, and there is a long history of substantial global investment in the developing world at all levels. What is missing is providing a mechanism for land registrars to have a coordinated voice in the process. This paper will report on progress and the importance of creating a global land registrar network.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-04: Land tenure for sustainable rangeland management|
Session Chair: Liz Alden Wily, independent, Kenya
Strengthening traditional institutions of nomadic herders for sustainable management of public rangelands in Mongolia
1National Federation of Pasture user groups of herders, Mongolia; 2National University of Agriculture, Mongolia
According to National rangeland health assessment report released in September 2018, 56% of Mongolian rangelands are degraded. However, about 85% of these degraded rangelands still maintains the natural capacity to regenerate itself provided that animal grazing pressure us reduced. Absence of responsibility mechanism between owner of the land which is the State, and users-herders has been identified as a major cause of rangeland degradation. This paper explores the outcome of combined approach strengthening customary institutions of nomadic herders governing the use of their shared seasonal rangelands and regulatory tools embodied in the Rangeland use agreement between pasture user groups of herders and local government. According to survey carried out among herders adopted Rangeland use agreement, conflicts with access to shared rangelands have declined, planning and enforcement of improved grazing management is in place and investment from local government and herders on sustainable rangeland management practices has increased.
Landscape approach for addressing land use conflicts in pastoral areas: the case of Tanzania
1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries; 3International Livestock Research Institute
Conflicts between farmers and livestock herders are increasingly becoming common place in Tanzania due to a number of different factors. For decades conventional village spatial planning has further restricted pastoral movement within village jurisdiction boundaries. Recently, spatial planners have embarked on developing Joint Village Land Use Plans and Agreements to enable more space and diversity for pastoral mobility, protecting shared grazing areas across village boundaries as part of this. As a starting point for identifying future intervention areas a pastoral landscape stretching from central Tanzania to the northern coastal area was mapped. This paper will provide details on how the landscape approach and mapping was developed and the results of this. It will highlight how such an approach is important for planning development and land-related interventions, as well as providing opportunity for improving local ownership of the process and as and advocacy/lobbying tool.
Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya
1The University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Sweden
This study aimed to characterize the forms of emerging land market participation and how they impact on pastoralists' livelihoods in Kenya. A sample of 336 agro-pastoralists was used to obtain information on the forms of land market participation and the transactions in place occurring in the counties of West Pokot and Laikipia. From the findings, land sales, and land rentals were the common emerging forms. However, land rental markets were more prevalent since its timeline was only one year and the agreements were mostly oral, based on friendship and trust. Moreover, it equalized land access between the land-rich and those with less land holdings. In addition, they acted as an avenue of income diversification for the households who rented out land for pasture and cultivation. To increase land markets vibrancy, which will stimulate the local economy growth and hence sustainable livelihoods, policies like tenure security should be made a priority.
Securing land rights for marginalized communities - Experience from working with Pastoralist, hunter and gathers in Tanzania
Oxfam projects in the Northern part of Tanzania targets marginalized tribes of maasai found in Arusha region and Barbaigs found in Manyara region. Project aim at reinforcing people’s capacity on livelihood restoration, environmental protection and land tenure security for both short term and long term basis.
Customs of majority of tribes in Tanzania, do not allow women to own, manage and control productive assets like land and natural resources. For women living in marginalized community their lives are affected twice, first as communities and second because of being women
Oxfam has been exploring approaches to help communities to secure land rights ensure those rights are protected under the law. This has been done through rough creation of awareness on legal frameworks, facilitation of land registration and linking Citizen with duty bearers.
This paper gives describe the project and give recommendation to different stakeholders working in the land targeting marginalized communities
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-05: Impact of informal tenure upgrading|
Session Chair: Remi Jedwab, George Washington University, United States of America
High delinquency rates in Brazil’s Minha Casa Minha Vida housing program: Possible causes and necessary reforms
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2University of Pennsylvania, United States of America; 3Independent, Brazil
Backyarding: theory and evidence for South Africa
1University of California, Irvine, United States of America; 2Independent consultant, South Africa; 3World Bank, United States of America
Impact Evaluations of Informal Settlements Upgrading Interventions: Evidence assessment and new topics for research.
1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina; 2Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina
Measuring housing deprivations in India: an alternative approach to slum enumeration
1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2The World Bank Group, United States of America
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Institutionalizing bottom-up monitoring|
Session Chair: Rueben Lifuka, Transparency International, Germany
Prindex: putting global tenure insecurity into perspective with results from 33 country surveys in 2018
1Global Land Alliance, United States of America; 2ODI, United Kingdom
This paper reviews findings from the initial 33 countries in which data is being collected during 2018 of Prindex (The Global Property Rights Index), a survey designed to measure tenure insecurity on both a global and national basis. With this initial installment of what is planned as a 140-country baseline study by the end of 2019, Prindex will begin providing national policymakers, researchers, entrepreneurs, and non-governmental organizations in the land rights community with a new dataset to assess the scope and nature of tenure insecurity. Based on nationally-representative samples of individuals 18 and older, Prindex measures tenure insecurity in terms of respondents’ perceived likelihood of losing use rights to their home or other property against their will within the next five years. It does so both on an aggregate level, and disaggregated by gender, location, income, age, household size, tenure type, and length of tenure.
Perceived tenure insecurity among renters and its implications for ongoing urbanisation
1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2Global Land Alliance, United States of America
As urbanisation increases, especially in African cities, so too does the number of people living in rented housing. Initial findings from the Prindex survey show that people in rented housing feel 21% more insecure about losing their property than those who own theirs. There are many reasons as to why renters feel so insecure – primarily, they are worried about being evicted by the owner of the property, but lack of money, family disagreements and government seizures also play a part. A lack of land tenure security has large negative impacts on the poor and vulnerable. If managed poorly, settlement of incoming urban migrants can heighten tension and destabilisation, meaning cities are not able to realise all the benefits of urbanisation. To address the situation renters find themselves in, city governments should improve urban land management to ensure that formal sector housing and land markets can respond with adequate supply.
Indigenous data sovereignty
EWMI-Open Development Initiative, Myanmar
The Mekong region is home to over 100 indigenous and ethnically distinct communities who have struggled to retain their autonomy. While each group of indigenous and ethnic minorities (IEM) have unique struggles, a general theme emerges: access to land and natural resources. Despite global recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN General Assembly, 2007), IEM rights have in some cases been rendered meaningless because of the colonization and repatriation of IEM. IEM claims to land and livelihoods based on the related natural resources have suffered, in part because IEM-produced data and knowledge have usually been delegitimized by governing powers.
This paper discusses how open data policies focused on Indigenous Data Sovereignty, applied to create a coordinated network, has contributed to the public provision of data and its use in land claims in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
National land observatories: a tool for transparency, accountability, and informed decision making over land for all
1International Land Coalition, Senegal; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy; 3CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier à Madagascar; 4CIRAD / ISRA-BAME; 5Centre for Development and Environment; 6International Land Coalition, Italy; 7IPAR, Senegal
Data regarding land governance is often considered "inaccurate", "incomplete", "biased". In order to overcome these shortcomings, national land observatories are being developed, as structures, on one hand, of data collection, storage and management, and on the other hand, of production, analysis and reporting of information and knowledge. As such, as they are nationally managed and promoting an eco-system of data, land observatories are privileged instruments for reducing information asymmetries, promoting data transparency and accountability, supporting informed decision-making, strengthening debates on land tenure issues and promoting citizen participation in land governance. This paper presents in detail the results of a study on land observatories in Africa. It identifies four types of land observatories in Africa with different structures, roles and mandates, for which it assesses the factors of success and failure in order to better equip them in view of informed decision-making over land for all.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-07: Improving access to land for urban expansion|
Session Chair: Rebecca Leshinsky, RMIT University, Australia
Urban planning orientation tools implementation in Bamako District
University of Law and Political Science of Bamako, Mali
Growing cities across the globe face a number of changelings and problems which posse threat to their dwellers. In the world today, the fastest growing city in Africa and the sixth in the world, Bamako currently faces huge challenge of implementation urban planning tools which sooner or later might be difficult to be addressed. In attempt to have a holistic view of the challenge, 646 questionnaires were given to its common citizens, 32 questionnaires were given to Neighborhood Development Committee (CDQ) members, and 11 interviews had been conducted in 32 Neighborhoods (quarters) in the 06 Communes of Bamako District. Through the use of simple percentage, this study discovered that planning orientation tools are not implemented and plans are not respected in Bamako District. The city is progressively demolishing and the village is set up for the change of public facilities into dwellings and the residents are not satisfied of that.
Urban planning and land shortcoming in Morocco: Aspects of injustice and perspectives
1National Institute of Urban Planning, Morocco; 2University Qadi ayyad, Morocco; 3Institute of agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Morocco; 4National Council of Licensed Surveyors, Morocco
Urban planning tools in Morocco are a source of land injustice. Urban planning documents continue to reflect a prescriptive and normative urbanism based on a functionalist logic of equipment distribution and zoning, constantly generating spatial divisions and correlative social segregations. Land inequity is a source of social injustice for those who have suffered the consequences of prejudicial planning. The idea discussed by this paper follows three basic frameworks: the first focuses on revealing the scope and limits of the normative and legal framework for urban planning. The second aims to highlight the forms of land injustice arising from urban plans. As for the third axis, it focuses on the principles, rules and prospects for a possible renewal in this area.
Urban planning and land issues in the city of Antananarivo
Ministry of Regional Development, Building, Housing and Public Works - Madagascar
As the Malagasy population is still composed of 75% of farmers and most of them do not yet have their own land, the development of urban areas can not keep pace with the rural exodus which is constantly increasing;
Given this fact, we thought that it would be essential to focus on the study of this phenomenon, in order to know the realities that surround it and in what perspectives they can be improved.
After the ten years of land reform, a new Land Policy Letter has been initiated in 2015.
Land issues involve actors in a perspective of sustainable planning development. The synergy of all stakeholders is therefore essential to resolve the problmes in an urban area, especially local authorities, environmental managers, specialists in urban planning and housing, civil society, land administration and local land offices.
Assessing suitability and acceptability of development plans and town planning schemes in small and medium town: a case of Gujarat
CEPT University, India
The paper focuses on urban plan preparation in Gujarat, which is backed by the robust legislative framework. This two-stage plan preparation process is popularly known as Development Plan (DP) and Town Planning Schemes (TPS). The intention of this plan is to support future growth and develop it in a planned manner. Large cities have comparatively better governance structures and hence are generally able to prepare these plans. However, it has been observed that these urban plans are facing challenges to gain momentum in small and medium towns. Local bodies of these towns are unable to defend urban plans prepared by them. Hence, these plans faced severe resistance and opposition from the community and had to be withdrawn or updated the urban plans. This paper reviews and ascertain the issues faced by urban local bodies and stakeholders during the preparation and implementation of these plans and followed by the recommendations.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-08: New ways of registering customary land|
Session Chair: Janet L. Banda SC., Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
Addressing fuzzy boundaries in community delimitations for systematic cadaster in Mozambique
1National Directorate of Lands, Mozambique; 2EXI, Lda, Mozambique; 3Verde Azul, Lda, Mozambique; 4Kadaster, The Netherlands
This article draws from experiences conducted regarding the systematic land tenure registration in Mozambique, both for communities and individual occupants. It is constitutional obligation of the State to recognize these rights. The recognition of land rights involves the definition of limits and boundaries. While boundaries are interpreted as discontinuities in people to land relationships, cases have been found of harmonious joint use of the same area by different communities. Disputes over boundaries have potentially serious consequences for social and economic stability, and must then be avoided.. The proposed solution is the explicit incorporation of the knowledge of these discrepancies, overlaps and uncertainties in the tools for systematic registration of community and individual land rights and its maintenance. Field staff and communities shall be trained to adequately employ such tools. A specific land use category of areas with overlapping community land use rights.
Moving from debate to implementation: Opportunities for Community Land Registration in Kenya
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya
Drawing lessons from the experience in implementing of the European Union (EU) funded Communal Land Governance Programme by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in the 8 ASAL counties of Kenya, this paper highlights opportunities the government (national and county) of Kenya should take advantage of to ensure that registration of community land is participatory, practical and cost-efficient. Additionally, the paper discusses these opportunities with an awareness of the history of inter-community conflict over territory, and forms of elite capture that happen during community engagement on access and use of land and land-based resources. The paper takes into account the realities of communities' nomadic way of life, and the vastness of the land to be registered as well as the limited technical personnel to carry out the registration process.
“Grazing agreements: negotiated resource access and conflict mediation at the private property-common property nexus in Kenya’s rangelands”
Independent Consultant, United States of America
Pastoralist access to private property is increasingly being mediated through formal, contractual arrangements. This paper explores how formalizing access provisions through the grazing agreement contract provides significant benefits to both parties of the arrangement. The engagement of formal access agreements observed in this case study
demonstrates institutional innovation on the part of both ranchers and pastoralists. Drawing on original field work as well as academic reference literature, this paper expands on the grazing agreement concept and explain its benefits from the perspective of private property management, natural resource management, conflict management and prevention, and its contributions to pastoralist rangelands property rights strategy. Grazing agreements can be leveraged to maintain and defend property rights while also creating additional opportunities for the pastoralist production strategy. This arrangement involving resource allocation has implications for resource access in pastoralist production and for rangelands governance.
Social and institutional innovation in land reform: local land charters in Burkina
DID international, Burkina Faso
Customary land right is one of the most challenging issues which need to be adequately addressed if land is to play its proper role in African development. The Burkina land reform adopted a bold innovation known as the “local land charters” (LLCs), inspired by principles of decentralization and empowerment of local communities and aiming at reflecting the diversity of land customs.
While LLCs seem a promising avenue for making the land laws more effective on the ground, the innovation fosters resistances from land administration agencies as it it challenges the dominant perception of land as a set standardized norms applicable at national level. It also questions the short term nature of donor led land projects
The paper discusses the generating factors of LLCs and analyses the conditions under which social and institutional innovation in land can be not just a theoretical construction, but a powerful change factor
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-09: Implementing REDD in practice|
Session Chair: Peter Veit, World Resources Institute, United States of America
Practical guide for the creation and management of conservation space
1National Cooperative Business Association CLUSA International, United States of America; 2Independent Consultant, Burkina Faso; 3World Bank, United States of America
Burkina Faso’s Ministry of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change (MEEVCC) is developing solutions to secure rural commons used by multiple actors. MEEVCC received the support of the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA CLUSA) to design a practical guide to help local governments to secure the sustainable use of forest reserves in Burkina Faos’s effort to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). NCBA CLUSA conducted a field assessment and consultation process in four communes to draw lessons from the resource use and practices at the village level. From this assessment and with local actors involved in NRM and land tenure, the study identified lessons, analyzed institutional constraints and the legal options offered for the securing of commons. 32 communes will use this practical guide to secure their commons, with the objective of reaching impact at scale in the reduction of carbon emissions related to land use change.
Development of a practical guide to support local actors in the development and management of conservation areas in the context of REDD+
NCBA CLUSA International, United States of America
The National Cooperative Business Association drew on experience in natural resources management in West Africa to develop a practical guide to secure the sustainable use of forest reserves in the context of REDD+ objectives for Land Degradation Neutrality. Over an eight-month period, our team in Burkina Faso worked with the World Bank Forest Investment Program, a technical advisory group and ministries. We conducted a literature review, interviews with policy makers, and field assessments of resource use and practices at the commune (the lowest level of political and administrative districts) and village levels in four communes: Gassan, Sapouy, Siby and Zambo. Issues emerging include a diversity of land uses (forest resources, as well as non-timber products including fauna); degraded resources; accommodating private interests, such as traditional hunter associations or across multiple villages with claims; lack of institutional memory and documentation of previous planning efforts; and reconciling legitimate and legally recognized actors.
Rethinking land development and offset mechanisms in cambodia
Heinrich Boell Foundation, Cambodia
This publication is on "Green Growth" and natural Resource Development in Cambodia. In view of this factual situation, the question arises whether member countries of the OECD or the developed countries could expand their influence in Cambodia by means of other actions. The two offset mechanisms (CDM and REDD+) will be explained in detail, which will then be used to investigate environmental projects in Cambodia provinces. In view of the controversial situation, the REDD+ is supposed to help to ensure sustainable forest use. It is particularly clear that this form of land grabbing is justified by the advocates of “Green Growth”, "maximizing sustainability" and "preserving ecosystems". This type of "optimization" as well as the heterogeneity of the very different actors in the face of common interests underline the difference to the phenomenon of land grabbing, also because the exploitation of natural resources such as oil or wood is not directly in their focus.
Environmental justice in the REDD+ frontier: indigenous experiences from the scholarly literature and proposals for a way forward
Center for International Forestry Research, Peru
We present the findings of a systematic search of the scholarly literature dealing with how projects and national processes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) framework have affected, positively or negatively, the rights of indigenous peoples. Our review is intended as a follow-up to early warnings that REDD+ might violate indigenous rights, and to positions held by proponents that REDD+ can be a vehicle to achieve further recognition of indigenous rights. By exploring the question of indigenous rights in the REDD+ frontier — the national and local contexts in which REDD+ is being rolled out — we aim to inform ongoing related discussions in scholarly and practised-based circles.
This presentation engages with Theme 4 of the conference — Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples.
How the climate protection strengthens the indigenous territories in the Amazon: The REDD Early Movers Program (REM) in Mato Grosso - Brazil
1GIZ, Brazil; 2FEPOIMT, Brazil; 3ICV, Brazil
Brazil is a signatory of the Paris Agreement to tackle the Climate Change. The Mato Grosso State, located in the Amazon, commited with the end of the lllegal deforestation which allowed the launch of the REDD Early Movers (REM) Program supported by KfW and GIZ. It rewards pioneers for their success in reducing deforestation, based in payment for results under a stock-flow methodology that rewards several actors, especially the conservationists. The Program, coordinated by the State Government, includes a Subprogram for Indigenous Territories whose consultation process (of 43 ethnicities) fully respected the Convention 169 of ILO. It has the partnership of the brazilian NGO Instituto Centro de Vida (ICV) and has the Federation of Indigenous Peoples of Mato Grosso (FEPOIMT) as the protagonist. The article aims to demonstrate how the REM Program, supported by German Cooperation, has strengthened the Indigenous Territories in Mato Grosso-Brazil,
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-10: Overlapping jurisdictions at the peri-urban fringe|
Session Chair: Shikha Srivastava, Tata Trusts, India
Peri-urban land governance: understanding conflicting and competing interests for peri-urban land in Ethiopia
Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
Understanding the competing and conflicting interests on peri-urban land is crucial for informed land governance decision and well managed urbanization process. However, research on understanding of the conflicting and competing interests for peri-urban land and the role, interaction and power relation among actors and its implication on land governance has not received adequate attention by scholars and policy makers. Thus, this study aimed to identify land governance gaps arising from the roles of different actors, interaction and power relations in Ethiopia. Finally, the key findings of this study show that land governance in the transitional peri-urban areas is twisted by divergent or complimentary roles of formal and informal actors.
The policy incompatibility nexus between urban expansion, land use and land value in Nepal: the case of Pokhara metropolitan city
Pokhara University, Nepal
With the implementation of the federal structure and the reorganization of local governments there have been policy conflicts between urban expansion, land use and land value in Nepal. This study collecting data on land use from the profiles of the Pokhara Metropolitan City (PMC) in the Gandaki Province of Nepal and its 33 wards, PMC guidelines on land values implemented for land registration purposes across the city by streets and lane sites, and primary sample data collection on land use and land value has analyzed the land factor for expansion of urban activities in the predominantly agricultural and rural setting for public establishments and private economic activities. The result of the analyses has brought out various problems on land-based investment in public infrastructure, the establishment of business and economic activities in peri-urban areas of PMC. An integrated, improved and strengthened urban expansion-land use-land value policy nexus is required.
Urban expansion and the emergence of informal land markets in Namibia's communal areas
University of Namibia, Namibia
Fifteen years ago, access to land in Namibia's communal areas has only been in the confinement of traditional authorities, as the main institutions through which land can be accessed. Today, land can be accessed through existing individual landholders through the emerging informal land markets. The informal land markets are found in highly populated demographic zones, and mostly villages adjacent to the local authorities areas. According to the Communal Land Reform Act, 2002, trading of communal land is prohibited, however even with this legal prohibition land markets are rampant. This paper presents the dynamics around the emerging informal land markets in Namibia's communal areas, the drivers, and its long-term implications and structural transformations in the landscapes once considered confines of subsistence agriculture.
Who owns the land? Legal pluralism and conflicts over land rights in Ghana
Appalachian State University, United States of America
This paper examines contemporary contestations over ascertaining the ownership of land in Northern Ghana. Presently land in Ghana is characterized by a plural legal system where customary and statutory systems overlap. The 1979 Constitution handed back land in the North to its “traditional owners,” opening up possibilities for earth priests, chiefs, families, and individuals to re-interpret the language of the Constitution and claim ownership. In the North, the hierarchies of land tenure interests are commonly enshrined in contesting oral histories. Drawing on field research in Ghana, I view these contestations not merely as struggles over access to “resources” and land but also as conflicts over competing models of political authority and governance. By elucidating how traditional authorities and state land agencies draw on, revise, and add to these models, this project aims to contribute to broader policy and scholarly debates about land rights and governance in Africa.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-11: Implementing NSDI: From guidelines to practice|
Session Chair: Kathrine Kelm, World Bank, United States of America
Research on access and use of geographic information in Moldova
1Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova, Moldova; 2Kartverket - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway
Norwegian support to the land sector in Moldova has started in 2006. During the last twelve years, Norway has assisted Moldova with production and delivery of geospatial information: Orthophoto, Digital Terrain Model and Base map. The assistance from Norway has significantly contributed to improvement of public services providing open access to geospatial data on the Internet. Norway as a donor was concerned that the geospatial data produced with Norwegian funding used and maintained effectively. In 2017, Norwegian Mapping Authority and Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova have executed a research on the access and use of the geospatial information funded by Norway. This paper describes the findings of the study with emphases on the measures to improve the use of available geodata by a wider range of users in Moldova, as well as to indicate the target areas for potential support from Norway and other donors.
UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework towards achieving the 2030 Agenda – from global to national. Guyana experience.
1UNFAO, Italy; 2Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission, Guyana; 3ConsultingWhere Ltd., United Kingdom
In August 2018, the United Nations endorsed an Integrated Geospatial Information Framework (IGIF), which provides a strategic guidance that enables country specific action plans to be prepared and implemented. The Cooperative Republic of Guyana is one of the first countries in the world, which is taking actions to align its national policy on geospatial information management to the newly endorsed UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework and to develop an Action Plan that can serve as an example to other countries and regions. The Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission in cooperation with the FAO will present how the IGIF coupled with an SDI Analysis methodology developed by the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM), World Bank and FAO is being applied in Guyana to help rapidly accelerate delivery of a fit for purpose infrastructure.
Integration of Crowdsourcing and digital platform of National Spatial Data Infrastructure for efficient decision-making
Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia
Digital transformation of the national economy and public administration are among the key priorities of Serbian Government. Government of Republic of Serbia and Republic geodetic authority works together on the development of framework for the crowdsourcing technology utilization, combined with the National Spatial Data Infrastructure digital platform. Objective is to provide credible, quality and effective data acquisition, to provide both local and national government with a framework for making decisions needed for a more efficient decision making and achieving the objectives of the Sustainable Development Strategy and Agenda 2030. For this purpose, a mobile application has been developed which, using the crowdsourcing technology, provides for creating and updating the official registers. The evaluation of the proposed approach shows the efficiency of the implementation and assuring interoperability between the crowdsourcing system and the NSDI digital platform, thus providing for the authoritative data usage in a completely new context, and new level.
Additional considerations for the successful implementation of a CORS GNSS Network in Developing Countries
Leica Geosystems, France
A Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) GNSS Network is essential to provide a regional positioning service that can provide fit-for-purpose positioning. In developing countries, this represents significant challenges, but offers significant benefits. This paper is mainly dedicated to National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations and focus on some key benefits dependent of specific related tasks for land parcel and utility mapping which are often under-estimated or ignored, hence leading to an incomplete implementation missing a fundamental foundation for a successful use of the CORS GNSS Network.
This paper will present best practice for GNSS surveys within a CORS infrastructure, deliver recommendations to compute and publish new local or national transformations to maximize sustainable development of the system and explain how to implement Quality Controls to evaluate and reject any survey which will not fit to standards defined and published by the beneficiaries like National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-12: Protecting land rights in the course of land acquisition|
Session Chair: Joan Kagwanja, UNECA, Ethiopia
Land rights protection in the pulp and paper production system
University of São Paulo, Brazil
This article explores how the quality of institutions influence the strategic choice of agents in the pulp and paper production system based on planted forests sector.
In order to proceed with the study, we employ the Economic Analysis of Property Rights (Barzel, 1982, 1989, 2002) as foundation and test the proposition: in federative states where the institutional environment is fragile and therefore the State has a high cost to enforcement property rights, private mechanisms stand out in the protection of property rights
The analysis of three business cases of companies with plantations in more than one federative units revealed the broad range of private mechanism in place to cope with insecure land rights in Brazil. In the federative units where government fails to be a good ruler, we found a multi stakeholder platform under use to define and enforce land rights.
Land acquisition in Malaysia: Policy context and praxis for oil and gas hub project in Eastern Johor.
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 3Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Land acquisition involves the compulsory taking of land. In Malaysia, land acquisition can be a complex and time-sensitive process. The land acquisition process in Peninsular Malaysia is governed by the Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 1960 (Act 486). Even though all states in the Peninsular Malaysia are adopting the law, however the way of how it is implemented would be different according to each state. The Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) is one big project in creating value to the downstream oil and gas value chain in Johor, Malaysia. Sited in Pengerang, it is involves largest scales of investments and compulsorily acquire villagers land. The acquisition process for the PIPC project is in compliance with the LAA 1960 (Act 486). This paper discusses the action taken, best approach and success story associated with or derived from land acquisition of the project.
LSLA in Mozambique: impact on rural and urban communities
Centro Terra Viva, Mozambique
Since 2010, the Mozambican economy has experienced significant increase in investment projects that require large tracts of land for extraction of minerals, large agriculture projects, and development of physical infrastructure. The increase in demand for land acquisition was significant enough that in 2012, the laws and procedures governing ‘resettlement caused by economic activities’ were revised and made more stringent, with clear guidelines on how to compensate and resettle affected communities. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences in the resettlement process in the rural and urban communities, and in the infrastructure and extractive projects, how the affected communities were consulted, the extent to which legal procedures and guidelines were carried out and the impact of the processes of large scale land acquisition on rural ( Afungi Penninsula of Palma in Cabo Delgado Province) and urban (Malanga neighborhood, Maputo City, resettled as a result of the construction of the Maputo-Katembe bridge) communities.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-13: Providing policy advice through applied research|
Session Chair: Ammar Alhamadi, Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Beyond climate change: how tenure reform aggravated grassland degradation in north china
1University of California Davis, United States of America; 2Renmin University of China, China
Grassland plays a vital role in human society and in the ecosystem. Maintaining the vulnerable natural assets---grassland resources, though challengeable, is very significant. However, comprehensive studies on the detailed process of and mechanisms leading to the degradation are still to be presented. This paper will combine the environmental monitoring data with the policy impacts, then arrange them along the timeline to explore how the tenure reform aggravated the grassland degradation in North China. The results illustrated that despite the climate change, tenure reform could be a strong driver of grassland degradation through two mechanisms - “livestock distribution - livestock increase – Tragedy of Commons” and “grassland distribution - grassland fragmentation - Fence Trap”. This finding reminds countries/regions undergoing grassland tenure reform to be aware of both the Tragedy of Commons and the Fence Trap which have taken place in North China.
Unrecognized opportunities for pastoral tenure: Re-framing variability, mobility, and flexibility
University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America
Among scholars and practitioners involved with land tenure in pastoral areas, there has existed a tension between the benefits of clearly established property rights and the dynamic land access needs of pastoralist communities. In describing the institutional demands of pastoral mobility, those advocating for pastoralist communities often explain that the climatic variability of pastoral areas necessitates flexible property arrangements. The seemingly inherent incompatibility of formal registration and clear boundaries, on the one hand, with flexible access rights, on the other, is the crux of the problem of pastoral property rights. This paper clarifies the often conflated concepts of unpredictability vs. variability and mobility vs. flexibility. While climatic variability and livestock mobility are intrinsic to pastoral systems, the relevance of “uncertainty” and flexibility are context specific. Looking for predictability can help form the basis of institutionally viable tenure arrangements that meet the livelihood demands of pastoralists.
An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to understanding the correlation of land use regulations on residential property values in Windhoek, Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Windhoek city in Namibia continues to experience an acute shortage of affordable housing, a situation that has reached a socio-economic crisis proportion with an estimated housing backlog of 21,000 units out of the national backlog of 100,000 units. The aim of the study investigates the impact of the newly introduced urban land use regulation on single-family residential properties in Windhoek. Using mixed methods approach, the study combined survey interviews and observational checklist to develop a hedonic pricing model in understanding the variables that significantly contribute to residential property values in the study area from 2005 to 2017. Hedonic pricing analysis revealed that proximity to commercial or office uses has a positive correlation in the short run. Further, as distance from non-residential uses increased, the positive effect on property values increases. The results also indicate that being too close to commercial or office uses yield negative effects because of nuisance factors.
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-14: Research on land markets in Ukraine|
Session Chair: Oleg Nivievskyi, Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
Do land rental markets contribute to efficient land allocations? Ukrainian experience
Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), Germany
This study analyses how agricultural land rental market contributes to efficient land allocation in Ukrainian agricultural production. Ukraine has been struggling to introduce land sales market for the last two decade. Nevertheless, agricultural production has grown substantially in the recent years. We assess how current land relations in Ukraine have contributed to agricultural growth. In particular, we examine whether agricultural land tends to flow towards better skilled agricultural producers, thus, improving agricultural efficiency. Utilizing a rich panel of Ukrainian commercial agricultural producers for 2006-2017, we examine the determinants of participation in the land rental market. We show that the likelihood of renting in land does not depend on proxies for agricultural ability. Furthermore, exit-entry of farms seems to be associated with their agricultural ability but less so in regions with predominant large-scale production. We examine the factors that may contribute land rental markets failing to facilitate efficient land allocations.
Implications of land market imperfections on policy design
Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
The evidence on welfare implications of land market imperfections is relatively scarce in academic literature. Partial equilibrium models currently available consider welfare implications and land redistribution in presence of significant market power and credit market imperfections in rental land markets. However, land and credit market imperfections are treated separately.
Moreover, only rental markets are discussed in the literature in this regard, leaving sales markets out, thereby leading to a major and important simplification, as rental markets have different weights in the total volume of land market transactions.
In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework that integrates land and credit market imperfections, and explore an interplay between rental and sales land markets. This model can be used to provide innovative insights for welfare implications and distributional impact of various policy design options, which would come in handy for carrying out land reforms in developing and transition countries.
Land market institutions and agricultural productivity in Ukraine
Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine
All over the world, institutionalization of property rights and its impact on economic growth have become of high importance. New institutional economists contrast institutions and organizations (including individuals), indicating that a market comprised of individuals requires institutions to avoid inefficiency and failures.
In Ukraine, agricultural sector is responsible for a significant share of GDP. In addition, there is a moratorium on land sales still in place, and therefore agricultural producers almost completely cultivate the rental land. However, institutions behind land tenure are still in the nascent stage of formation, which is why it is important to analyze the impact of property rights institutionalization on achieving political goals mentioned above.
The main contribution of this paper is thus to establish a theoretical model of relationships between the agricultural productivity and development of institutionalization, check existence of correlation between these phenomena, and try to explain possible cause-effect relationships.
|10:00am - 10:30am||Coffee Break|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-01: Simplified planning for systematic tenure regularization|
Session Chair: Anne Odic, AFD, France
Opportunities and challenges of planning to provide tenure security to existing dwellers and ensure effective service delivery in the course of urban expansion
Ministry of Land and Physical Planning, Kenya
Applying Simplified planning to facilitate title issuance in Lusaka
City Hall Lusaka, Zambia
Scope for simplifying planning procedures in Zimbabwe
Harare City Municipality, Zimbabwe
Addressing physical urban planning to speed up tenure regularization
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-02: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy|
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The
Modern technology in land administration - a call for governance and structuring data in view of privatising land administration processes
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
The Emirates` (legal) framework and governance model for using emerging technologies in Land Administration
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Digital assets & data to be published on a blockchain / What should we do (or not do) with the land administration data?
Union Internationale des Huissiers de Justice (UIHJ), Netherlands
The Irish challenges to be prepared for future Land Registry
Property Registration Authority, Ireland
British Columbia's land titles: private, public or somewhere in-between?
Land Title & Survey Authority of British Columbia, Canada
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-03: How to realize the potential of blockchain for land administration?|
Session Chair: John Reynolds, BLOCKCHAIN DIGITAL, United Kingdom
Blockchain property titles and land use recording – is it only about trust, or is there space for compliance and enforcement?
RMIT University, Australia
Blockchain can provide for an immutable recording of land ownership and land use interests. To date there are no accepted global standards for blockchain land transfers or recordings. The paper argues that guidance is available from traditional land management compliance and enforcement processes, and this is situated in the space where blockchain land recordings are shifting the paradigm from property law to the realm of private company participation with contract law establishing a need for good governance and global standards for blockchain transactions. The paper discusses global experiences to date of blockchain land recordings, with an emphasis on the need not to forget how compliance and enforcement processes have operated to date.
Smart contracts and land administration: a new framework for property conveyance
1ChromaWay, Sweden and United States of America; 2Land Title and Survey Authority, British Columbia, Canada; 3Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia
Smart contracts on the blockchain can provide a secure, auditable, more easily distributable solution to support property record changes among buyers, sellers, the land registry, financial institutions, attorneys, and other parties connected to property transactions.
In the longer term, the approach supports reduction in transaction friction (including cost) overall and could lead to other ownership models potentially allowing citizens to participate in derivative markets including fractional property ownership and other unbundled property rights, restrictions, and responsibilities.
Built around active research, and utilizing multiple case studies, this paper reports on findings from pilot projects on the use of smart contracts on the blockchain in Sweden, Australia, and Canada. The paper explores models of trust, centralization vs. decentralization, data security, and cost and business dimensions of different implementation approaches
Blockchain for Land Administration: Smart Land Registries - a tangible model seeking value for all parties
1Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom; 2Trimble Land Administration Solutions Group, USA; 3IBM, United Kingdom
There has been much media excitement about blockchain’s potential to revolutionize commerce, trade, supply chains, and, indeed, Land Administration. But, is it real, and where is the value to our citizens, economy and society?
Trimble, Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, and IBM have come together to provide insight into the upsides, and into the risks associated with this technology-lead transformation. This partnership combines land administration domain experience, government technology and guardianship, and technology leadership to bring a measured perspective to the topic.
This paper will give decision-makers insight to 1) assist with understanding the value of blockchain for their particular jurisdiction, 2) place blockchain among the arsenal of other potential technical approaches that could be leveraged, and 3) put these technologies, a.k.a. Smart Land Registries, into the context of the problems that society and government need to solve.
Furthermore, we will propose a value-focused and achievable roadmap to their adoption.
Catalyzing innovation: Dubai real estate blockchain
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Blockchain is one of the latest innovations that has been implemented in Dubai. The abstract illustrates many benefits to government sectors as well as private sectors in enhancing user experience when conducting procedures related to property, not only procedures related to registration or regulation in real estate sector, but also other procedures and services that are around real estate, Such as utilities, survey, furniture and moving to a new house. The term" Real Estate journey" is term we call when providing a unique experience to real estate services in Dubai. The abstract shows how Dubai is catalyzing blockchain technology to enroll property developers, managers, brokers and service provides to the new technology platform, and to how to address many challenges that face all entities, such as payments, Single-sign-on and laws related to real estate and transactions.
An example of the use of the Blockchain by the French Notariat: enforceable copies
International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
Presentation of the “proof of concept” established and validated by the French Notariat in 2018 to find a solution for processing enforceable copies of loans’ contracts in digital format, collateralized by land and real estate. These copies are not intended to be in digital format unless there is a means of demonstrating the authenticity, integrity and uniqueness of the enforceable copy held by a creditor who wants to assert his rights and compel a debtor to pay his debt.
This POC made it possible to approve the launch of an operational implementation project for this consortium blockchain, which will be used by notaries, banks and bailiffs.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-04: Gender and land policy|
Session Chair: Renee Giovarelli, Resource Equity, United States of America
Evaluation results of a program aimed at reducing property grabbing among widows in Uganda
International Justice Mission
This paper discusses the research results and evaluation findings of a program aimed at combatting property (land) grabbing from widows in Mukono County, Uganda. Unlike many other ongoing efforts, this program focused on capacity building of local government actors, particularly within the criminal justice system, as the primary approach to ending this overlooked form of violence against women. In 2012, baseline prevalence and justice system performance data were collected. Endline data collected in 2017 provided impact and outcome-level data for a summative evaluation of the program conducted in late 2017/early 2018. The program contributed to approximately a 50% reduction in the prevalence of property grabbing. While challenges remain in the formal justice system’s response and sustainability of program gains, government actors substantially improved in their performance addressing property grabbing. Learning outcomes for attendees include applications for local, national, and international actors implementing similar programs affected by culturally-embedded gender norms.
Women's tenure rights across the rural urban continuum: implications for a gender responsive urban land reform in Namibia.
1Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia; 2GIZ Office Namibia
Namibia is considered as one of the unequal societies where poverty is prevalent. The land question and its role in development remains a pivotal source of livelihood to get people out of poverty. The country is also fast urbanizing with issues of urban informality and security of tenure becoming a concern as one million people are residing in informal settlements. In the absence of concrete interventions the informal settlements could become the dominant form of housing by 2025. Consequently, at the recent Land Conference the President declared the housing needs a “national emergency”. The Flexible Land Tenure Act is targeted to provide security of tenure in informal settlements. This paper will provide an overview of the land reform agenda, the purposive policy and legal framework adopted by the Government to promote gender equality. An investigation of the impact of urbanization on gender issues in urban areas is undertaken.
Community land titling: a contextual analysis of women’s land rights in Kenya
Namati, United States of America
Over the past decade, several African countries have introduced new legislative protections for community land rights. Ensuring that group title sufficiently protects the rights of women and minorities presents significant challenges. Based on a case study analysis of women’s land and resource rights in pastoral communities, we identify the opportunities and potential threats that registering land under Kenya’s 2016 Community Land Act creates for women’s tenure security. This includes considering challenges associated with customary norms around women’s land use, participation in collective decision-making, and inheritance rights. Data collection included 30 focus groups and nearly 70 individual interviews with women and key informants in six communities across three counties in Kenya (Kajiado, Laikipia, and Isiolo). The study sites fall into two categories: (1) communal grazing land held in “trusts” by county governments and (2) former group ranches that must be converted into community land.
Innovations to secure women's land rights and build resilience
1Huairou Commission, United States of America; 2UCOBAC, Uganda
Although the precise magnitude of climate change is subject of debate, there is growing consensus of its impact on access to resources and livelihoods. Globally, its grassroots women who face the worst effects of climate change on agriculture, with socioeconomic impacts due to lack of coping mechanisms. Tools and processes have been developed to support grassroots women resilience work through securing their access to and control over land, such as the Community Resilience Fund which is a mechanism through which grassroots women invest in collective actions to reduce disaster and climate related risks and vulnerabilities highlighting the importance of local adaptations. Drawing from the country experiences, this paper will provide insights into how these tools could be applied more globally to help mitigate the effects of climate change and foster local adaptation through improving grassroots’ women access to and control over land which is considered as perquisite for building resilience.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-05: Land markets at the rural-urban fringe|
Session Chair: Songqing Jin, Michigan State Univ./Zhejiang Univ., China, People's Republic of
Land transactions in the rural-urban fringes of Dar es Salaam and Nairobi: driving forces, stakeholders and challenges for land governance
Sciences Po Bordeaux, France
Land market determinants and outcomes in Rwanda: an econometric analysis
1University of Rwanda, Rwanda; 2iLand Consulting; 3RLMUA; 4DFID
How horizontal integration affects transaction costs of rural collective construction land market? An empirical analysis in Nanhai District, Guangdong Province, China
Huazhong Agricultural University, China, People's Republic of
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: National Land Policy Documents: Potential & Challenges|
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa
Zambia’s Land Policy formulation pitfalls-points of divergence
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia
Zambia’s attempts to land policy formulation after the return to multi-party politics started in 1993 with a National Conference on Land Policy Reform in the Third Republic which led to the enactment of the Lands Act of 1995. Ever since then attempts to formulate an overarching and consistent Land Policy for the country have proved futile. This has largely been because of divergent views from traditional authorities and other stakeholders who have perceived government intention in the policy to be one of usurping all powers over land to itself.
This paper will discuss the points of divergence especially from the chiefs and the current state of play in the draft land policy with the view to see how these can be harmonized in order to reach consensus.
Demarcation of traditional land management areas in Malawi
Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
The Government of the Republic of Malawi, through MLHUD, enacted 10 land related Laws in 2016 and were assented to by the State President in January 2017. One of the new laws is the Customary Land Act 2016.The Act provides for the creation of customary estates through adjudication, demarcation and registration of Traditional Land Management Area (TLMAs) followed by adjudication, demarcation and registration of Group Village Areas GVAs and individual land parcels belonging to the local communities. The Ministry undertook the TLMA demarcation and created a Geodatabase of captured geo-spatial information for TLMAs for 280 out of 293 TLMAs. The work is to be completed soon
The Namibian 2nd National Land Conference has passed, how the resolutions taken will influence the politics and reluctance to register tenure rights in the Kavango West and Kavango East regions.
Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia
Lack of tenure security has negative effects of land grabbing by elites, eviction of the poor and vulnerable communities. This paper researched and analyzed the resolutions taken at the just ended Namibia’s 2nd National Land Conference that took place from 01-05 October 2018 to determine if such resolutions will influence the registration of tenure rights for the rural communities of both Kavango West and Kavango East regions.
The current impasse between the government of the Republic of Namibia and the Traditional Authorities affects the communities. It is estimated that a total of 12032 households are without tenure security.
Such communities are exposed to eviction, while the rights of women and vulnerable communities are affected.
The study suggests, interventions to entice demand for the registration of tenure rights, the establishment of Registration Committees, recruitment of Agents of Change etc.
Tenure security promotes sustainable development, reduces land grabbing and avoid evictions.
Land rights as an imperative for sustainable land and resources management in Kenya.
National Land Commission, Kenya
Key land reforms in Kenya were postulated in the land policy of 2009, and subsequently in the Kenya Constitution 2010. However, failure to fully implement the intentions of the policy and the Constitution has put the goals of sustainable land and land resources management in jeopardy. A major contributor of this phenomenon has been the political economy in the country. Vested political and economic interests have ensured that radical reforms in the land sector do not see the light of the day. without these reforms land rights of the minorities a nd other weaker sections of the community may not be realized.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-07: Regulations for urban planning|
Session Chair: Peter Mwangi, Walker Kontos, Kenya
Spatial planning, urban expansion and land use conversion: a study on urban form of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnamese-German University, Vietnam
This paper aims to present the transformation of urban form and identify challenges of spatial development and planning in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The paper starts with an overview on the Geographical Information System (GIS) dataset developed from various data provided by technical departments of HCMC such as street network, population time-series, topography, land use, housing and infrastructure. After that, using equidistant concentric annulus analysis and overlaying techniques, the paper attempts to (i) understand urban expansion process and associated risks for sustainable development, (ii) analyze population distribution by direction and by distance to city centre, (iii) identify land use factors influencing population distribution in HCMC, especially the development of industrial parks. The findings point out significant differences between spatial development directions in the city’s Master Plans and actual development directions during 1999-2015 period. In the conclusion, policy implications for sustainable urban development of HCMC will be discussed.
Exploring options for leaseholds in the Mukuru special planning area
1Cardiff University, United Kingdom; 2Akiba Mashinani Trust, Kenya; 3Katiba Institute, Nairobi
The declaration of the informal settlements of Mukuru Kwa Njenga, Kwa Reuben and Viwandani slums as a Special Planning Area (SPA) was momentous given the numerous challenges that have been occasioned by lack of, or poor planning in the area. Extensive discussions have been held with the aim of finding solutions to the longstanding concerns of inadequate access to sanitation and lack of proper housing within these areas. Actualization of proposed solutions in the past have however stalled as a result of the unresolved question of land ownership within the slums. It has been noted with concern that the land question in the slums continues to be a barrier to planning imperatives that may be beneficial to these settlements. This paper explores some possible options available to Nairobi City County Government to deal with the leaseholds in the Mukuru SPA to enable proper planning and upgrading of Mukuru.
Aligning land use policies to community vision in regulating land beyond urban: an initiative in Odisha, India
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, India
The paper brings in the need for a community vision-led landuse policy that governs land beyond urban. As per Census of India 2011, 68.84 percent of India is rural. Except for few states, land in rural areas is not governed through spatial tools and policies. The state of Odisha, located in the south-eastern part of India being 83.32 percent rural (Census 2011), lacks a landuse policy and spatial regulation tool for all rural areas and many of its urban areas. Due to absence or inadequacy of a comprehensive policy for landuse development, investments are not guided to villages and small or medium towns. To make the denied areas thrive as productive and livable territories, it becomes essential to distribute land development benefits equitably over space. The paper examines how formulation of a state specific land use policy for Odisha, can integrate the aspirations of local communities for better decision-making.
Spatial Planning as an instrument for the sustainability of investment and efficient provision of services - Comayagua Case
1Property Institute, Honduras; 2World Bank, United Stated; 3Comayagua, Honduras
Honduras is a country located in Central America and its territorial extension is 112,492 km², with a political division composed of 18 departments and 298 municipalities. The municipality of Comayagua is located in the department of the same name, which is located in the central part of the country.
Comayagua is the municipality with the most complete and up-to-date Cadastre in the country, and several initiatives have been developed for it to become an Associated Center of the property registry of the Property Institute. Therefore, the municipality of Comayagua administers the National Cadastre within its territorial scope, making use of the Unified System of Registries (SURE), which is the official tool of the Government for the subject of Cadastre-Registry.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-08: Providing low-cost housing|
Session Chair: Rajan Samuel, Habitat for Humanity India, India
Understanding multiplicity of urban governance and planning regulations for a metropolitan region with focus on land and private development – Case study NCR – Delhi, India
University of Tokyo, Japan
Through this research we like to bring forth the urban land use pattern and Urban morphology created in absence of a comprehensive land and private development regulation within a metropolitan region. The aim for this study is to identify the actors/agents and their corresponding network within the governance framework of land and private development.
Wrong-Headed policies in the name of the poor: Case of Mumbai’s Cessed-Buildings
Mumbai School of Economics and Public Policy (MSE-PP), University of Mumbai, India
This paper is based on the premise that good governance and policy design must be informed by sound economic principles since, policies create incentives that influence behavior of the agents and agencies leading to take actions that in turn lead to outcomes. Such outcomes, when undesired, can distort the respective markets. Indeed, policies in the name of the poor have often led to repositioning of the ‘agents and agencies’ that lead to situations that ultimately harm the interests of the poor. Hence, we believe that, upon noticing the undesired outcomes, a critical evaluation of the underlying policy framework is paramount to deal with the root cause instead of symptomatic treatment. As an illustration of the above argument, we scrutinize the case of an important segment of housing market in Mumbai viz., cessed- buildings that came about as an outcome of the Rent Control Act 1947 and its surrounding offshoots/ tributaries.
Community resource mobilization for informal settlements regularization: impact of private community partnership in Tanzania
Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) Company Limited, Tanzania
The need to mobilize resources from alternative sources beyond government revenues and donor grants is very critical towards achieving not only Tanzania urban development, but also the global goal of ensuring inclusive and sustainable cities and communities by 2030.
This Paper offers practical approaches from a Private Community Partnership that strategically addressed resource gap for financing sustainable urban planning, development and management with a special focus on Informal Settlements Regularization. It presents best practices from the Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) – a private Urban Planning firm that mobilized over 1.5 Billion TZS (equivalent to 639, 577.02 USD) from informally developed communities in Dar-Es-Salaam city. The ongoing Partnership has so far put in regularization over 30,404 land parcels that benefit over 148,979 lives in a span of 8 months.
It concludes that there is a huge potential of resources at community level that, if well tapped, can finance public developmental projects.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-09: Enhancing tenure security for forest land|
Session Chair: Jintao Xu, Peking University, China, People's Republic of
Multi-stakeholder forums as innovation for natural resource management? Results from a Realist Synthesis Review of the scholarly literature
1CIFOR, Peru; 2University of Maryland, College Park, United States of America; 3PUCP, Peru
This article presents the results of a Realist Synthesis Review (RSR) of global scholarly literature on Multi-Stakeholder Forums (MSFs) set up to address land use and land use change (LULUC) at the subnational level. The article contributes not only empirically to the study of MSFs and similar participatory processes, but also methodologically to the social sciences more generally, through the application of the RSR over the more common systematic reviews. The review is a timely examination because MSFs –an integral part of ‘landscape approaches’ and ‘multi-stakeholder initiatives’– have received renewed attention from policy makers and development and conservation practitioners, in light of the growing perception of urgency to address climate change and transform development trajectories.
Examining relationships in forest governance quality: Insights from forest frontier communities in Zambia´s Miombo ecoregion
1Thünen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics, Hamburg, Germany; 2Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Good forest governance is considered a prerequisite for combating deforestation. Several countries including Zambia have formulated policies taking this into account. Several methodologies have been developed to track progress of forest governance. We apply the Governance of Forests Initiatives (GFI) indicator framework by the World Resource Institute to compare governance performance of different arrangements, with differing tenure and restriction to forest access and use in Zambia´s Miombo. Additionally, we test the applicability of the GFI indicators, on basis of community perceptions. Results reveal that: forest governance quality is low in all arrangements. However, tenure security and use restrictions are scoring relatively high in the non-restricted and culturally restricted arrangements, respectively. Implying the opportunity for strategies that build on existing customary tenure rights and cultural use restriction to improve forest governance. Concerning its methodological applicability, preliminary results show that some underlying governance factors cannot be exclusively summarized by the GFI thematic indicators.
Land Tenure Regularization in the Brazilian Amazon: perspectives on identifying social, economic and environmental variables for assessing its impacts
1Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM); 2Consulting for Sustainable Development GITEC-IGIP GmbH; 3Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Amsterdam; 4Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH; 5National Colonization and Agrarian Reform Institute (INCRA); 6Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp)
Land tenure regularization and occupation have been a longstanding challenge in the Brazilian Amazon where land grabbing and land conflicts have been present for centuries. Few studies have been able to identify how much influence effective land tenure regularization can have on socioeconomic and environmental factors for the local population in the Amazon region.
The research proposed here builds on existing literature, field visits and geospatial analysis to identify a set of variables which can contribute to the creation of a methodology to understand social, economic and environmental impacts of land tenure regularization in the context of Brazil’s Terra Legal program, created in 2009 to regularize 57 million hectares of federal public lands in the Amazon as one of the main governmental strategies to combat deforestation.
Local perception of indigenous titling programs in the Peruvian Amazon
Center for International Forestry Research, Peru
This paper analyzes local perceptions of communal land titling programs for Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. It is based on field research conducted in the regions of San Martin and Ucayali by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in collaboration with the GIZ project ProTierras Comunales. This research assessed the progress made by land titling programs to provide information for decision makers that could improve tenure security and livelihood outcomes for indigenous people in the selected regions. In general, participating Indigenous people viewed land titling programs positively and believed these initiatives increased property rights security, however gaps in government support and confusion over land zoning are areas of concern.
Governance structures of native forests' management policy in North Argentina: the role of policy forums in mediating between conservation and production
1University of Bern, Switzerland; 2Modul University, Austria; 3Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
Native forests are complex systems and the institutions governing them affect their ecosystem.
The forest policy in Argentina aims to achieve a compromise between production and conservation objectives. Furthermore, there are efforts promoting mediation between forests’ conservation and cattle production, aboriginal peoples’ rights, family farming survival and large estate land titles. It is therefore at the crossroad between different visions of sustainable development and of land tenure systems.
There is gap in the understanding of social mechanisms that drive collaboration among forest governance stakeholders. This paper aims to develop the understanding of the role of policy forums in connecting stakeholders with different core beliefs on forest management.
We study this complex policy arena via a mixed methods research design, which integrates social network analysis with stakeholder analysis, combining quantitative and qualitative analytic techniques. We combine the study of the policy networks topology, with the analysis of stakeholders’ core beliefs systems.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-10: Ensuring use of public land for public good|
Session Chair: Jorge Espinoza, GIZ, Brazil
Social and human rights impact assessment for development project within Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Sahmakum Teang Tnaut, Cambodia
The reclassification of a public space within Phnom Penh in order for it to be sold as part of a larger land package to a Chinese company has sparked concerns for the rights of the public to the commons and the possible impacts of its loss and re-development. A Social and Human Rights Impact Assessment was conducted and found the project could have a variety of negative social impacts, such as loss of livelihood for informal sector workers, and that human rights could be impacted upon through relocation of boat operators. The paper also outlines mitigation strategies to limit impacts, such as the relocation of boats to a nearby dock rather than a faraway location. An additional significance is that this research contributes to ownership of the city through proper public consultation, which is provided through consultation within the research and its subsequent publication.
The right of use on non-awarding state lands, an innovative tool for legal certainty regarding land tenure.
COLOMBIA RURAL SAS, Colombia
There is a new model of access to lands in Colombia by means of rights of use on non-awarding state lands; legal security is important to legitimize the state lands tenure located in this area for the development of legal activities. Those are the Forest Reserve Zones; playones and communal lands; and state lands located within a 1.500 miles ratio around the zone where non-renewable natural resources exploitation is being carried out.
The state set restrictions to ownership access, without making an appropriate management on these areas, without awareness of the territorial reality, without informing or socializing the actors, or proposing relocation or land titling before the restriction which generated social unrest among the inhabitants.
The agreement 058 of 2018 was created to address this situation allowing the state lands located in those areas to be awarded to its occupants by means of rights of use.
Stimulus for land grabbing and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon
1Imazon, Brazil; 2University of Wisconsin, United States of America
We assessed the impact in the Brazilian Amazon of a 2017 land law that reinforces a mechanism for acquiring land rights historically linked to deforestation, since land grabbers clear the forest to signal land occupation and claim land rights. In particular, we assessed two significant potential impacts: i) the loss of government revenue due to the sale of public land below market prices and ii) the risk of future deforestation in 29.2 million hectares allocated to expand land privatization. The short term revenue loss ranges from U$ 5 to 8 billion for 8.6 million hectares; the future revenue loss ranges from U$ 23 to 34.1 billion for 29.2 million hectares; and between 1.3 to 2 million hectares would risk being deforested until 2027. The Brazilian government should review the decision about this area allocation; prioritize land allocation for conservation and, if selling part of this area, charge market prices.
Allocation of public land and the terra legal regularization program in the Brazilian Amazon
1Universidade Estadual de Campinas; 2SERFAL, Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4Nexucs; 5GITEC-IGIP GmbH
The Terra Legal Program was established in 2009 to address the problems related to the large amount of unallocated federal public lands in the legal Amazon, mostly through land tenure regularization for rural and urban families and allocation of land for specific purposes of public interest.
Since its beginning, Terra Legal has been subject of criticism claiming that the program may promote land grabbing and land concentration on the hands of big landlords.
This article shows that the beneficiaries have in fact been primarily small-scale farmers, through regularization of their tenure situation, the creation of settlements and the creation of protected areas.
In addition, the article compares the rules and mechanisms for the allocation of federal public lands with those adopted by the Federal States, showing that the federal legislation (Laws 11.952 and 13.465) is in fact more robust and comprehensive than the legislation used by the state land institutes.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-11: Land administration: Cases from Asia|
Session Chair: Suzuka Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
Land registration innovation and decentralised administrative reform: Success stories from the State of Johor, Malaysia
1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Land title is the evidence of ownership on land. The purpose of registration is to recognise property rights, which includes information pertaining to land area, location, boundaries, as well as ownership and title of immovable property. However, interestingly in Malaysia,land is exclusively a state matter and there are differences over state land policies implementation on the process of registration. The kind of situation provides further challenges in the forming of uniform land policies to be practiced by the different states. This paper will discuss the innovations and reform of land registration and administrative in Malaysia, lesson learned from the State of Johor. It is include the successful and challenges on law and regulation implementation, accrual practices and reform experiences, decentralised organizational arrangements and harmonization, and new technology and computerisation adoption.
Land registration authority's linkages through the land titling computerization project
Land Registration Authority, Philippines
The Philippines’ Land Registration Authority is the central repository of records on original registration of land titles and the public repository of records affecting registered/unregistered lands and chattel mortgages. It is implementing the Land Titling Computerization Project through a public-private partnership.
With LTCP, following were established: Database of titled/registered land, Database of transactions affecting titled/registered land; Database of transactions affecting lands under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program; Database of transactions affecting Chattel Mortgage and Personal Properties; and Geographic Information System.
Several Government Agencies are connected to LRA Network and LRA continues to talk with other agencies involved in management and disposition of lands to ensure seamless processing of transactions across agencies. Significantly, it is implementing the Title Upgrade Program, where manually-issued titles are converted into System-generated titles for allowing LRA and Titleholders to come up with better and more convenient ways in transacting and verifying land titles.
A step to grow collateral markets through one window
Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab Land Records Management & Information System turned out to be one of the success stories for the Province of Punjab. Project has scanned more than 10 million pages of old records, digitized over 5.5 million landowners’ records, addressed more than 5 million inconsistencies of manual record and more than 23,000 revenue estates of overall 25,600 revenue estates across the province.
Project has now introduced a new one window intervention through this all banks / financial institutions have been linked through a secured link with central database of digital Land records. This has enabled all banks to instantly verify the current / up-to date status of land. Banks can generate copy of record of rights and initiate mutation for loan at their own. This intervention has greatly reduced time for loan processing and improved collateral resulting in enhanced productivity of agriculture markets.
Interoperability and land administration in Nepal
Department of Land Management & Archive, Nepal
Department of Land Management and Archive (DoLMA) is a central level agency in Nepal which is responsible for land administration. It delivers public service related to land through its 131 field-level offices. The department has successfully developed and implemented centralized web based software called Land Records Information Management System (LRIMS) on 54 Land Revenue Offices (LROs) to enhance quality of service delivery. The implementation of the system has shown positive impact on security of land records, revenue collections and e-governance.
Various government agencies are directly related with LROs and its data. The agencies have also their own computer systems but no provision to communicate with LRIMS now. The interoperability between LRIMS and agencies’ systems will reduce service delivery time, enhance the quality of service and reduce the operational cost. Service Oriented Architecture based system of LROs (i.e. LRIMS) can be made interoperable with their systems for data sharing among them.
Registering deeds in Delhi: challenges, innovations and prospects
Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India
This paper examines the institutional process of registering conveyance deeds in Delhi, the capital of India. This is in the context of administering one of the largest urban centres of the world; within a peculiar governance system as well as a very fragmented institutional apparatus. The paper will delineate in precise sequence, eight steps for registration. It will look at the current practices in each of these steps, identify the good practices within them, recent initiatives, as well as persistent gaps. Recent interventions in Delhi include institutional initiatives, interlinked databases and improved infrastructure. Associated agencies have also initiated digitisation of land records and allotment of unique property identification numbers, including the use of geospatial techniques. In such light, the paper will explore ways in which Delhi could create better urban land records, drawing from its own initiatives as well as from other innovations across India.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-12: Dealing with the impacts of failed land acquisition|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
Doomed to fail? Why some land-based investment projects fail and others succeed
Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
In recent years, an increased interest in farmland globally has led to the emergence of many land-based investment projects. Although most projects enter the production stage, a significant number also end in failure. This paper asks why land-based investment projects fail or succeed. This is a crucial question, as failed investment projects are unlikely to have any positive impacts on the host regions. I find that failure occurs globally but is concentrated on the African continent, with some countries exhibiting a particularly high risk of project failure. In addition, larger projects, projects growing agrofuels, and projects targeting land formerly used by smallholders or pastoralists are more likely to fail. In contrast, projects that involve domestic investors or take place in countries with better infrastructure are less likely to fail. The findings on the impact of host-country institutions on project failure are ambiguous.
Why we need a human right to land – empirical evidence from large-scale land investment deals in Sierra Leone and the Philippines
University of Tuebingen, Germany
A human right to land has now been codified in the ‘United Nations declaration on the rights of peasants and other people working in rural areas’, which has been adopted by the UN Human Rights Council in September 2018. This paper welcomes this development and argues that a human right to land can potentially close gaps in the regulation of large-scale land deals – if interpreted through the lens of the principle of free, prior and informed consent. Simultaneously, I do not deny that international public and private initiatives to regulate foreign land based investments can have positive effects for locally affected people. Through discussing under which conditions these instruments can help local actors in achieving their goals vis-à-vis investors, I show the potential as well as the gaps of the current global governance regime. My considerations are supported by empirical findings from Sierra Leone and the Philippines.
When good innovations go bad
Stratigos Consulting, United Arab Emirates
In the last decade, impact investing is a concept that has spurred innovative financing mechanisms in emerging economies. Many believe that impact investing is one sure way pool private sector funds to help solve some of the most pressing challenges facing our world today.
In many economies that are land reliant, this is good news and we have seen impressive private sector dollars in sectors like agriculture and renewable energy. But it is not all good news.
This paper discusses potential negative effects that land-reliant impact investments could have on host communities. Regardless of good intentions of innovations, sometimes these investments have the unintended consequence of exacerbating conflict, insecurity and poverty. This paper therefore advocates for a triple-bottom line approach where people, planet and profit are given equal stakes in transactions, so as to produce more responsible land-based investments.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-13: Providing policy advice through applied research|
Session Chair: Anna Locke, Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom
Governance challenges in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Land Guards and land protection in Ghana
Ghana Revenue Authority, Ghana
Land management policy in many developing nations has been riddled with conflict because of competing land tenure systems. Having transitioned through customary tenure systems to bureaucratic property rights regimes without a complete shift from the former, Ghana’s land management system, over time, has witnessed administrative challenges such that some desperate land protection schemes are taking root, including the use of unregulated security land guards. The fundamental objective of this research, therefore, is to explore and better understand the lengths to which people or groups will go to ensure land rights and protection in a regime of statutory rules and regulations. World Bank-sanctioned Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) framework (2015), underpinned my theoretical argument. Overall, the study found that the land administration system of Ghana has not fully achieved effective land governance and consequently occasions instances where people have the tendency to seek other means of exercising control over land rights.
Assessing institutional governance in balancing food production and environmental protection in urban wetlands of Kigali/Rwanda and tropical Kilombero floodplain/Tanzania. A comparative analysis
World Bank Group, Rwanda
Institutional Governance has been a challenge to balance the food production and environmental protection in wetlands of Rwanda and Tanzania, their peri-urban wetlands are getting more encroached by the population for livelihoods. This paper compares the institutional arrangements in the Nyabugogo- Nyabarongo peri-urban wetlands and kilombero valey floodplain. The major driving forces for alteration of Nyabarongo urban wetland’s functions in reparian urban community in kigali lie in social and economic factors such as policies, markets, demographic trends, and institution governing access to resources and poor enforcement. The Kilombero entire catchment which covers an area of 40,240 km with mountains around Kilombero valley are mainly covered with forest, and land cover in valley itself is dominated by urban areas of Ifakara, some smaller settlements, and agriculture; The area is characterized by diverse land uses, land use intensity gradients, and interactions between large-and small-scale crop farmers, landless herders, and urban populations.
Growth effects of banking development on agriculture and industrial GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa
University of Westminster, United Kingdom
In this study, we show that banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution exert a statistically and economically significant positive impact on local economic growth. This effect becomes more pronounced when the financial sector is more liberalized and deregulated.
The lifting of state controls in the banking sector in the 1980's and 1990's, created a more integrated and competitive financial industry ensuring efficient allocation of bank credits to productive areas.The economic thinking behind all this is that the financial entities, functioning under liberalized monetary regimes operate at higher levels of efficiency and productivity.
Using data from 14 Sub Saharan African Countries, we examined the growth effects of banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution over the period 1990 – 2013. We find evidence of significant growth effects of banking development in SSA on industrial components of GDP. Growth in agricultural GDP is positive but not significant.
Land related human rights in Pakistan: improving land tenancy as a pathway for agriculture development and food security
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Thailand
Secure land tenure rights are crucial for the realization of a number of human rights such as the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being, including food and housing. Land is also a key element for food security and well-being of rural people who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. In Sindh Province in Pakistan, land governance issues hamper tenure security and, consequently, food security and equitable social and economic development. Highlighting human rights principles encompassed in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), this document will outline innovative options for securing rural land access for the poor. Drawing on pilot experiences, the text will elaborate on alternatives to enhance land governance, which has been leading to improved tenure security and agricultural productivity and, ultimately, enjoyment of fundamental human rights.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-14: Mapping land rights for better socio-economic outcomes|
Session Chair: Jorge Munoz, World Bank, United States of America
Mapping for Peace and Prosperity: Applying participatory mapping in conflict-affected settings.
1ZOA, Netherlands, The; 2Cadasta Foundation, United States
The authors describe the process of setting up and implementing participatory land demarcation in a conflict-affected setting in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The necessary conditions for success are highlighted and particularly difficult aspects of the work are traced and underlined. These relate among others to the diversity of interests that need to be accommodated and the history of violent conflict in the area. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that locally oriented interventions need to be linked to the larger political-economic context in a dialogical way that allows for input from and towards higher levels of governance and policy-making. In this way, the paper combines discussions of very practical grass-roots experience with larger efforts at coordinating and improving land governance at the regional level.
Protecting rights to clan-based land in Acholi, Northern Uganda: Follow-up report on a research project of the Joint Acholi Sub-Region Leaders’ Forum (JASLF) and Trόcaire
University of South Carolina, United States of America
Following the 1986-2006 northern Uganda war, most Acholi returned to their customary, clan-based land. Because of multiple threats to this land, a consortium of Acholi leaders – the Joint Acholi Sub-Region Leaders' Forum (JASLF) – initiated a research and advocacy project to document the current organization and management of Acholi land and to help secure and protect it.
In partnership with the NGO Trócaire, the resulting 2016-17 project included a research sample of 141 land-holding clans from across Acholi, producing an unprecedented trove of primary, field-based data on the principles and practices regulating Acholi clan-based land. Hindered by numerous obstacles, project funding regretfully ended before researched clans were provided sufficient practical information and assistance to enable them to legally protect their land.
This paper will discuss the JASLF land project, outline the many challenging steps necessary for official clan-based land registration, and describe any subsequent efforts to help clans navigate those steps.
Flexible land information system as driver for change, peace and development: The case of post conflict DRC
1Private Consultant, Kenya; 2Christian Bilingual University Democratic Republic of Congo; 3Global Land Tool Network/ UN Habitat, Kenya
The importance of building land information systems cannot be underestimated in support of land reform, public service provision and promotion of social economic development especially in post conflict areas. There are many opportunities for their applications particularly in context such as enabling access to land, resolving disputes, raising revenue, service delivery as well as providing information services for private investment and local economic development. They provide an elaborate framework for creating inclusive and integrated system thus facilitating collaboration and participation of many actors. The systems are more acceptable (and sustainable in the long term) if they adopt bottom up and participatory processes for gathering information and if they use affordable and appropriate systems as advocated for by the principles of fit-for-purpose land administration. The paper highlights the need for a flexible and affordable system coupled with participatory approaches for promoting stakeholder engagement, coordination, inclusive development, and effective land information management.
Putting forest communities on the map: Participatory land-use planning in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Rainforest Foundation UK, United Kingdom
By devolving greater powers to decentralized administrations, land-use planning reforms underway in the Democratic Republic of Congo present an opportunity to integrate community tenure rights and local development needs into wider planning processes. Yet there remain significant barriers to effective community participation in these processes including the lack of available geospatial data on their existing use and possession of forests, weak political representation as well as different technical and logistical constraints. The Rainforest Foundation UK’s land-use planning initiative in DRC seeks to overcome these barriers through participatory approaches and the use of simple, low-cost technologies to enable forest peoples to proactively engage in and shape land-use planning. This paper describes the methodology and results from two different pilot experiences to date, and considers some of the challenges for doing this at scale.
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Lunch|
|Front Lobby and Preston Lounge|
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||00-13: New initiatives in urban land policy|
Session Chair: Sameh Naguib Wahba, World Bank, United States of America
Expanding urban land access and housing in Ethiopia
Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, Ethiopia
Land as a key enabler for delivering affordable housing in Kenya
Ministry of Transport, Infrastructure, Housing and Urban Development
‘Chile Propietario’ program to regularize informal properties
Ministry of National Assets, Chile
|12:30pm - 2:00pm||Discussing on the Latin-American land administration ecosystem (light lunch, in Spanish only)|
Session Chair: Mike Mora, Organization of American States, United States of America
In this networking session participants will have an opportunity to hear an introductory lighting talk aimed at sparking informal conversations among the attendees about the state of the Latin-American land administration ecosystem. Also, participants will have the opportunity to contribute with their ideas to strengthen this ecosystem by adding thoughts to a wall dedicated to generate a narrative for the strengthening of the ecosystem in areas of regulation, technologies and institutional arrangements.
|MC 13-121 Lounge|
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-01: Land governance in the Arab states|
Session Chair: Wael Zakout, World Bank, United States of America
Setting the scene
World Bank, United States of America
Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Saudi Arabia
.In Saudi Arabia as in other countries, the management of land is a core function of government. As a consequence, the process of creation and maintenance of land registration and land information systems is, necessarily, administratively-driven. However, the benefits of improved of land registration and land information systems accrue overwhelming to citizens and private-sector companies in a range of forms, with potential for
• Increase in economic efficiency
• Expansion of economic opportunity
• Promotion of urban vitality
• Nurturing of citizen well-being
• Contribution to environmental sustainability
This paper describes the socio-economic impact of implementing improved land registration and land information systems in Saudi Arabia, with a focus on the contribution of this work to accomplishing urgent national objectives as defined in the Kingdom’s National Transformation Plan 2020 and Vision 2030 documents.
Ministry of Finance, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)
Georges Maarrawi is the Director General of the Lebanese General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre.
He holds an MBA from UQAM - ESIG and an honorary doctorate from the Lebanese Canadian University. Prior to his appointment as Director General, he was the head of Mount Lebanon regional tax office at the Ministry of Finance.
His career at MoF involved also the design phase of the VAT system and in developing strategies and policies. He was a short term Tax Expert for the IMF and the WBG, and as such conducted several missions pertaining to the modernization of tax administrations in the MENA region.
He has been teaching IAS / IFRS and Public Finance at the Lebanese University since 2001.
darfur land commission, Sudan
مفوضية أراضي دافور
اﻟﺳودان ھو ﺛﺎﻟث أﻛﺑر ﺑﻠد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎرة اﻷﻓرﯾﻘﯾﺔ بمساحة ﻗدرھﺎ 1,882,000 ﻣرﺑﻊ ﻛم .
- ﯾﻌﯾش اﻟﺳودان ﺣﺎﻟﯾﺎ ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﻼم ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌد اﻟﺻراع وﯾطﻣﺢ إﻟﻰ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ واﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻼم اﻟﻣﺳﺗدام ﻣﻊ وﺟود ﺗدﻓﻘﺎت اﻟﺿﺧﻣﺔ ﻣن اﻟﮭﺟرة ﻣن اﻟرﯾف إﻟﻰ اﻟﺣﺿر و اﻟﻧزوح ﺑﺳﺑب اﻟﺻراﻋﺎت اﻟطوﯾﻠﺔ وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ دارﻓور.
- لطالما كانت الأرض سبب رئيسي لاندلاع وتصاعد هذه الصراعات، لذلك أﻧﺷﺋت المفوضية ﻛﺟزء ﻣن اﺗﻔﺎق ﺳﻼم دارﻓورلتحقيق الأهداف التالية:
o اﻟﺗﺣﻛﯾم ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺎزﻋﺎت ﺣﻘوق اﻷراﺿﻲ
o ﺗﻘدﯾم ﺗوﺻﯾﺎت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ ﻣوﺿوع اﻻﻋﺗراف ﺑﺎﻟﺣﻘوق اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷرض.
o ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺗﻌوﯾض اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ اﻟطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﻣﻘدﻣﺔ إﻟﯾﮭﺎ .
o إنشاء ﻗﺎﻋدة ﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت رﺳم ﺧراﺋط اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷراﺿﻲ ؛ و إﻧﺷﺎء وﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺳﺟﻼت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷراﺿﻲ.
- ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن أن دﻋم GLTN وUNHbaitat للمفوضية ﯾﺳﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ ﺿﻣﺎن ﻧﺟﺎح ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﻌودة وإﻋﺎدة اﻹدﻣﺎج، ﻣﺎ زال ھﻧﺎك اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﮫ ﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن إدارة وﺣوﻛﻣﺔ اﻷراﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳودان ، ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام ﻧﮭﺞ إدارة اﻷراﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﻼﺋم ﻟﻠﻐرض
Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, NELGA NA Coordinator, Morocco
The core conceptual model to be designed for capacity building shall be in harmony with the priorities of the Arab Region needs. It will improve the efficiency and quality of land management and strengthen capacities of land use, land administration, and land development that will lead to a more effective land market. A well-functioning land market together with high security of land ownership will lead to stronger economies, which contribute finally to the stability, prosperity and democracy in the region. In MENA region, the land tenure systems are very similar because the countries share common religion, culture, and history. Multiple informal land rights are inherited and are mixed with Islamic rules and colonial legislations. In the current situation, the formal and informal land rights coexist. The model will be a key for sustainable development by focusing on land information and land administration improvement, which are the base of any reforms.
Land & Water Settlement Commission, Palestinian Territories
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany
DFID, United Kingdom
Conclusions and next steps
1World Bank, United States of America; 2UN Habitat, Kenya
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-02: Farm size & productivity in Africa|
Session Chair: Keith Fuglie, USAID, United States of America
Revisiting the farm size-productivity relationship based on a relatively wide range of farm sizes: evidence from Kenya
Michigan State University, United States of America
This paper revisits the inverse farm size-productivity relationship in Kenya. The study makes two contributions. First, the relationship is examined over a much wider range of farm sizes than most studies, which is particularly relevant in Africa given the recent rise of medium- and large-scale farms. Second, we test the inverse relationship hypothesis using three different measures of productivity including profits per hectare and total factor productivity, which are arguably more meaningful than standard measures of productivity such as yield or gross output per hectare. We find a U-shaped relationship between farm size and all three measures of farm productivity. The inverse relationship hypothesis holds on farms between zero and 3 hectares. The relationship between farm size and productivity is relatively flat between 3 and 5 hectares. A strong positive relationship between farm size and productivity emerges within the 5 to 70 hectare range of farm sizes.
Does mechanization reverse the farm-size productivity relationship? Evidence from Ethiopia
World Bank, United States of America
Although inverse farm-size productivity relationship is a recurring evidence in the literature of agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa, almost all the empirical applications use data from smallholder agriculture. This paper aims at contributing to the ongoing debate by investigating the relationship over a large variation of farm sizes for major crops commonly grown by small, medium and large farms in Ethiopia. The analysis is further expanded to value of output and some measure of “profit” depending on availability of input prices (e.g., for family labor). The wide variation in farm size allows us to assess the effect of farm heterogeneity arising from level of mechanization which requires contiguous piece of land. We use data from two rounds (2014 and 2016) of smallholder panel household survey (less than 10 ha) and two rounds (2014 and 2015) large and medium panel commercial farm survey (10 ha and above).
Can large farm spillovers foster smallholders structural transformation? Evidence from Zambia
1World Bank, United States of America; 2IAPRI
A decade after the global commodity price boom led to a wave of land acquisition in developing countries (and foreigners have given way to locals), the extent to which such investment can act as a catalyst for structural transformation (and by implication policies to maximize such effects) remain poorly understood. Combining a smallholder survey with data on ‘emergent’ farmers shows that mechanization and substitution of purchased inputs for labor allows the latter to outperform small producers. Smallholder farmers located close to emergent farmers who provide traction services to neighbors benefit from spillovers in terms of access to traction, fertilizer use and land productivity. Policy implications of the fact that positive spillovers remain local and limited to ‘small’ emergent farmers are drawn out.
Does sample truncation affect assess the inverse farm size-productivity relationship? Evidence from Malawi
1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
To explore if the focus on household-based samples characteristic of most studies of the inverse farm-size productivity relationship (IR) affects results and policy recommendations, we complement household survey data from Malawi with a representative survey of estates. For a wide range of specifications, a strong IR between area operated and yield disappears if profits valuing family labor at market rates are used. An IR at farm level holds irrespectively of the sample but disappears at plot level for estates, supporting the notion of imperfections in labor market that affect smallholders disproportionately being at the root of the relationship. For corporate estates, the IR for yield disappears and a significant negative relationship between farm size and labor use per ha emerges.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-03: Applications of earth observation in rural areas|
Session Chair: Thomas Esch, DLR, Germany
Large-scale land acquisition monitoring with high resolution imagery retrieval and profiling in the ASAP platform
1Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany; 3GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Germany; 4European Space Agency, United States of America
Detailed geographic information on Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA) in developing countries is generally not easily available due to several reasons, including low transparency of such deals, remoteness of the areas concerned and conflicts about tenure rights. In such a situation remote sensing is one of the most promising means for mapping and monitoring LSLAs during their implementation, by detecting land cover and land management changes visible from space. The high resolution viewer of the ASAP (Anomaly Hotspots of Agricultural Production) platform is a recently developed example of such an application. High resolution image time series visualization and analysis provides the geographic evidence allowing detection of phenological crop stages, large open fires, vegetation clearing, flooded areas or new infrastructure (eg. irrigation, greenhouse, roads) implemented in each parcel of an LSLA. This ideally complements non geographic information collected by other projects such a for example the Land Matrix and facilitates impact monitoring.
Geospatial big data platform for water for all in Indus basin
1University of Punjab, Pakistan; 2Member Water, Planning and Development Department, Govt of Punjab, India; 3Executive Engineer, Irrigation department, Govt of Punjab, India; 4Assistant Chief (Coordination), Planning and Development Department, Govt of Punjab, India
Indus Basin is the backbone of Pakistan water resources and it plays important role in providing water for drinking and agriculture purpose. Although this basin along with its major rivers and glaciers provide rich resources pertaining to water availability, the lack of water governance turns this blessing to a disaster like flooding and drought. An important step towards attaining water governance is to obtain better water information and sharing. The government has taken a step in the direction of use of "Big Data" with data clearinghouse for hydro-meteorological applications at Indus basin level. Big data is helpful in storing and extracting useful information about water resources which is achieved by analyzing data statistically in the temporal and spatial domain. The platform also uses hydraulic and hydrological modeling and socioeconomic data to analyze vulnerability and risk especially for the marginalized area within the river basin.
Realtime digital soil fertility data for fact-based fertilizer selection by smallholder farmers
1AgroCares, Netherlands, The; 2SoilCares Foundation, The Netherlands
Recent technological innovations in IT, sensor technology and machine learning have opened the possibility to use Near InfraRed (NIR) sensors for on-the-spot, real-time and affordable soil tests within 10 minutes using a Bluetooth connection between the NIR sensor and a software application for data interpretation on a smartphone. Within 10 minutes the farmer receives a soil status report and a fertilizer recommendation for his specific crop selection. This innovation was first released in Kenya in 2017 and has rapidly expanded to 15 countries, and growing. In this paper, the innovation and experiences and new developments since the introduction of the innovation are presented. Within 1 year about 25000 farmers were reached of which more than 50% imported significant yield increases, about 75% changed their farming practices and more than 80% requested soil tests for the next season. By integrating soil data into data platforms more holistic interventions can be developed.
New ways to use remote sensing based phenology and machine learning for mapping irrigated and rainfed agriculture in Africa
1Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH, Germany; 2Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany; 3University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
In spite of the need for consistent, explicit and large-scale cropland/farmland information at high spatial resolution for land management decision making and food production estimates, these data sets are not yet readily available for Africa. The cropland layers that are currently available in Africa do not provide thematic detail beyond cropland and non-cropland at a fine spatial scale and essentially do not exploit the wealth of information extractable from longer time-series data (now available from well-processed 30-meter Landsat or 10-20-meter Sentinel time-series data). In our approach, we showed how better thematic detail and mapping accuracies can be attained in mapping irrigated versus rainfed agriculture in Africa using only the function parameters from best fit harmonics, derived from long-term 30-meter Landsat vegetation index observations. We are confident that the current method can be employed for effective and accurate land use mapping and as such complement future land use policy plans.
Use of Remote sensing technology in small holder supply chains in Asia
International Finance Corporation, India
Majority of farmers in Asian countries like India and Vietnam are smallholders, farming on less than two hectares of land. As food demand increases by 20% and arable land keeps getting scarce, yield improvements through smart land-water use management has the potential to increase food availability. Yield gaps exceed 50% in many Asian countries owing to technology gap. New business models in agriculture, leveraging technology through data analytics and artificial intelligence, can help farmers access information related to their land, agri-inputs, weather, finance, and markets, thereby helping them increase yields, improve incomes,resilience and traceability. In this scenario, IFC MAS advisory is working with CropIN and Farm Force in sugar and coffee value-chains of DSCL (India) and Simexco (Vietnam) to deliver:
• GIS and remote sensing solutions for digital monitoring and digital management of 5000 sugarcane and 5000 coffee farms
• Smart weather-risk digital solutions to farmers providing real-time weather forecast and crop-advisory
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-04: Beyond joint titling: Making land institutions gender-sensitive|
Session Chair: Bina Agarwal, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Implementing Uganda's gender strategy on land through issuance of certificates of customary ownership : A case of Kabale and Adjumani districts in Uganda
1Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Uganda; 2UN-Habitat/Global Land Tool Network, Kenya
Land is a critical resource for both women and men in Uganda. It has multiple values and functions, thus making it more critical for people’s livelihoods.Land is not only a material and productive resource that enables survival,production but is also a symbolic resource that heavily influences status and identity.
Across Uganda, many women tell a similar tale: they use the land to produce food, yet lack secure rights to land,and largely remain mere laborers on land. With secure rights to land,women can improve food security, and economic development for their families. Improving women’s access to and control over land has a positive effect on poverty reduction and economic growth. Ensuring the security of tenure for women on Customary tenure in Uganda by including the woman's name on the certificate of customary ownership has yielded such results issued to over 2000 households in the districts of Kabale and Adjumani in Uganda.
When joint ownership is not sufficient to ensure joint registration: Lessons from Cabo Verde
1Resource Equity, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
This paper identifies and summarizes lessons learned regarding gender and social integration for the MCC Compact in Cabo Verde’s Land Management Investment Project (LMIP). It is especially relevant to the question of what is required to ensure that legal rights – such as marital property rights that are established in the Family Code - are fully realized in the context of land administration reforms. In this example, the law provides clear property rights to people in relationships (marriage, de facto unions, etc.) but the law alone was not sufficient to ensure that the implementation of the project could address entrenched social and cultural norms that tend to favor men’s interests in property over those of women.
Inclusive and gender-aware participatory land registration in Indonesia
1Meridia, The Netherlands; 2Kadaster International, The Netherlands; 3ATR / BPN, Indonesia
Utilising a participatory land registration approach, this paper argues how inclusive and gender aware land titling, involving local community teams, can lead to faster, affordable and more socially anchored land registration.
Coupled with building support across authorities such as village chiefs, district heads and government agencies, allows for a both bottom up and top down approach, capturing interest and concerns of all key stakeholders in the process. The paper also demonstrates, that if not taken seriously, these stakeholders can pose serious risks to the success of the project.
By using a local village community land rights committee that with strong representation of women, the land registration process had a high acceptance rate and support in the communities worked in.
We also show that developing a software application that guides such a process, being easy to use for village members, while compliant with government regulations and requirements, is essential.
Promoting women’s right to land inheritance through agriculture incentivization
1Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2Independent Consultant
This paper offers an economic development-driven and empirically-grounded approach to the acquisition and strengthening of land rights for women in Burundi. This involves valuing their contribution to the agricultural sector seen as a cornerstone for the overall development of the country. Based on existing data and realistic projections, we will explore some functional relationships between improving women's access to land and their potential to boost agricultural production and hence open a new perspective on how the Burundian Government and its partners can use current and future incentives in the agriculture sector to improve women’s access to land.
There is an increasing need for activists and policy makers to move beyond legal formalism and articulate the current policy debate and actions aimed at alleviating poverty and development at country level with strategies that promote and secure women’s land rights.
Storytelling: a powerful strategy to increase women’s access to land/property rights in Uganda and beyond
1IHC Global, United States of America; 2Makerere University
World Bank data from 2013 shows that 142 countries have laws granting equal property ownership rights to women and men, and 116 countries have laws providing equal inheritance rights to daughters and sons. Unfortunately, laws are insufficient. In Uganda, data from a recent study of property ownership (IHC Global, 2017) highlighted discrepancies between the intent of the laws and exercise of women’s property rights. These discrepancies are largely rooted in conflicts between customary traditions and the laws, coupled with lack of awareness of women’s rights they enshrine. In September 2018, IHC Global piloted a “theater for development” approach that raised issues about women’s ability to exercise their property rights in an accessible, relatable, and non-confrontational way. A community forum followed the production which allowed audience members to discuss the issues raised. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the pilot through an evaluation of event survey data and key informant interviews.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-05: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy|
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The
The importance and nature of (land administration) data when using emerging technologies
Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
Reflections on the possible privatization of Land Registries by making use of emerging technologies
Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
Embracing emerging technologies; preconditions, threshold, possibilities and guarantees
International Union of Notaries (UINL), France
East-African perspectives and experiences, using modern technology while building up Land Administration systems in the region.
Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
A brief introduction about the experiences in Brazil, Peru and other countries in South America
Global Land Alliance, Peru
The experience in Australia with privatising land registries
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-06: Challenges of redistributive land reform|
Session Chair: Arno Schaefer, European Commission, Belgium
Valuer general of South Africa; rights, responsibilities, and land reform
Greenfield Advisors, Inc., United States of America
The South African Property Valuation Act, 17 of 2014 provides for the establishment, functions and powers of the Office of the Valuer-General. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides for the protection of property, expropriation of property for public purposes or in the public interest where said expropriation of property is subject to equitable compensation by the government. The government will also take reasonable legislative measures in order to facilitate land reform and restitution of land by which a person or community was dispossessed as a result of past discriminatory laws or practices. This paper will outline how the newly formed office of the Valuer-General is designed to help the government manage its assets. This includes both land reform valuations as well as government property targeted for acquisition or disposal.
The implications of incomplete restorative justice in South African land restitution: lessons from the Moletele case.
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Since 2005, South Africa’s post-apartheid state has opted to impose inclusive business model arrangements between land claimant communities and private sector partners to ensure the ‘successful’ resolution of land restitution claims in the country. The inclusive business model approach was therefore deemed compatible in achieving both, social justice imperatives and capacitation or entrepreneurial objectives framed by the country’s Black economic empowerment (BEE) objectives. In this context however, I argue that the role of the state and private agribusiness partners are substantial but also recalibrated, with private partners and communal land holding institutions increasingly being tasked with functions that have historically been linked to the public sector. Findings from the analyses to date, raises questions regarding the potential of these types of partnerships arrangements to achieve acceptable levels of restorative justice imperatives whilst the entrepreneurial/capacitation potential of these types of partnership arrangements seems equally questionable.
Towards addressing the new land reform policy paradigm in South Africa
University of Venda, South Africa
The study was conducted in South Africa to assess challengers confronting the land restitution programme using qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. The general study findings were that when introduced, there was a general lack of knowledge of the claim process and also that land occupiers have developed strategies to retain the land to themselves. The study recommended for either reopening the land claim window that will be proceeded by a thorough engagement with potential claimants around the claim process and the ultimate intention of the land claim.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-07: How to regulate expropriation for large-scale investments?|
Session Chair: Leon Verstappen, University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
Drawing insights from a global comparison of legal safeguards for expropriation
World Bank, United States of America
Arbitrary dispossession or expropriation is often considered one of the greatest threats to land tenure security. We discuss insights gained from a novel cross-country dataset which records legal safeguards on protecting land rights from arbitrary expropriation in 80 countries around the world. Our study provides a comparative assessment on laws and regulations, aiming to spark a constructive debate among policy-makers on how to facilitate legal safeguards and tenure security.
Acquiring land compulsorily at any cost? Policy recommendations for improved resettlement outcomes.
1Ellen De Keyser, Belgium; 2Consultant Surveyors and Planners, Uganda
Large-scale land acquisitions forcefully displace thousands of people to make way for renewable energy projects, mines, agribusinesses, roads and other infrastructure, and changes in land use among other purposes often deemed to be in the public interest or for public use. In order to obtain land for such purposes expropriation is often applied. Research demonstrates that people displaced by such projects often face significant challenges in re-establishing their living standards and livelihood strategies, leading to impoverishment, food insecurity, social disarticulation, among other impacts. Based on a review of resettlement outcomes of projects in Africa this paper argues that, in line with the VGGTs, a comprehensive, transparent and participatory expropriation procedure with checks and balances built in is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of compensation, reforms of the policy and legal frameworks governing land acquisition and resettlement and improved resettlement outcomes. This paper outlines the key elements of such procedure.
Assessment of community involvement and compensation money utilization in Ethiopia: Case studies from Bahir Dar and DebreMarkosPeri-urban areas
1Debre Markos University, Ethiopia; 2University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Austria
This article focuses on the involvement of the community during expropriation and the use of compensation money of expropriated farmers in Ethiopia, based on two case studies outlined in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar and DebreMarkos. The data are collected by using survey research methods and analysed by means of descriptive statistics. The studies gave evidence about the high land tenure transformation in the peri-urban areas during the last decades. Though the majority of the expropriated farmers got compensation payments, most farmers did not use the received money for alternative income generating businesses. The payment of compensation has not to be the end in an expropriation process. Technical and administrative support is detrimental for the proper utilization of the compensation money. Besides, communities affected with expropriation should effectively participate in the processes of expropriation and compensation to mitigate externalities of the process.
The question of compensation in the large-scale land acquisition and redistribution in Southern Africa
Parliament of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
The single most consequential political act of Zimbabwe’s post-independence history was the wholesale re-distribution of land of the late nineties under the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. Though mythically perceived as an exercise that solely dispossessed the settler minority only to enhance the concentration of ownership amongst the indigenous elite, data has proven broad-base benefit. Many smallholders in the post-land reform resettlement areas have thrived and concrete reconfiguration of the agrarian economy has been achieved. The global political fallout that ensued as was predominantly related to the question of compensation for dispossessed farmers. With a new administration determined to reclaim relations with the global community, the question of compensation to close to 4,000 farmer arises again, and in the face of a challenging economic environment. With South Africa and Namibia undertaking similarly problematic, but equally necessary processes, we must ask what lessons can be learnt from the Zimbabwe experience.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-08: Improving housing delivery|
Session Chair: Shishir Ranjan Dash, Tata Trusts, India
Social mix and social cohesion using housing mix: a review of the Chilean and British experience
1University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
This paper explores the evolution of housing policies in the UK and Chile, and takes into consideration the political and cultural context in which policies were developed. In both states and over time governments using conservative and more neo-liberal political discourses have prevailed. The blueprint of the policies set on the early 1980’s have changed little since favouring home-ownership over any other form of tenure via the ABC approach in Chile and the RTB and HTB in the UK. While Chile pursued a strategy of segregation by creating socially homogeneous neighbourhoods, the UK has always aimed to achieve social mix via tenure mix. However, with decreasing tenure types and wide criticism to ‘forced’ social mix, the UK approach is facing challenging times. The Chilean system in particular is reviewed here with the aim of furthering the debate on homogeneous vs socially mixed neighbourhoods in property-ownership democracies.
Affordable housing: a land suitability perspective
1World Bank, Indonesia; 2CAPSUS, Mexico
Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization rates, which have caused an increased demand for housing, especially in central urban areas. There, the supply of land and housing is becoming increasingly limited, causing prices to rise. While centric urban regions become more expensive, low-income families seek for accommodation in the outskirts of the cities, where land is cheaper, but access to services, infrastructure, and economic opportunities decreases, causing a great disadvantage. In this work, the locations of existing social housing projects Semarang city, Indonesia were analyzed according to their implications on: human well-being, distance to central urban areas, and cost of land. Considering these indicators and with the help of the urban planning tool -Suitability- areas to develop future housing projects were proposed. The results of this analysis show that a significant improvement in service accessibility and well-being for urban dwellers does not necessarily implicate high investment costs regarding land acquisition.
Harnessing the real estate market for equitable affordable housing provision through land value capture: Insights from San Francisco City, California
University of Salford, United Kingdom
Affordable housing remains a serious problem in many countries. Even as the housing affordability crisis deepens, most cities continue to exhibit robust real estate markets with high property prices. The low-income and poor households are unable to access affordable housing and remain excluded. This paper draws from empirical research conducted in the city of San Francisco and focusses on the application of Land Value Capture (LVC) through increased Inclusionary Housing (IH) requirements after rezoning San Francisco’s Eastern Neighbourhoods to evaluate its effects on the goals of increasing both affordable housing and social inclusion. Findings reveal that the increased inclusionary requirements used as LVC mechanism enabled 76.2% of all the affordable housing units produced in the eastern neighbourhoods to be financed through the market. The study demonstrates that upzoning underutilized land coupled with a well-planned LVC mechanism can help harness the strength of the real estate market and increase affordable housing
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-09: Enhancing tenure security for forest land|
Session Chair: Dietmar Stoian, ICRAF, France
Gender gaps and actions being taken to address them in forest landscapes
World Bank, United States of America
Closing the gender gap in natural resource management programs in Mexico
1World Bank; 2CIDE; 3Cornell University
Innovation of locally-led adaptive programming in Natural Resource Governance Change in Myanmar
Pyoe Pin Institute, Myanmar
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-10: Using public lands as a catalyst for equitable development|
Session Chair: Devie Chilonga, Mnistry of Lands, housing and urban development, Malawi
La privatisation des terres collectives au Maroc: une voie de dynamisation du marché foncier agricole
Les terres collectives revêtent une grande importance dans la vie sociale et économique du pays mais leur potentiel agro-sylvo-pastoral n’est que partiellement valorisé, à cause principalement de leurs exploitations dans l’indivision par les ayants droit.
L’activité Foncier rural du programme financé par Millennium Challenge Corporation(MCC) vise à lutter contre la pauvreté à travers l’amélioration de la productivité agricole caractérisée par de faibles niveaux d’investissement et par la faible dynamique du marché foncier, conséquences directes de leur statut.
Le projet d’article propose de partager l’expérience du gouvernement du Maroc quant à l’approche adoptée dans le développement et la mise en œuvre de l’opération de privatisation de quelques terres collectives, tant dans ses dimensions de politique gouvernementale, par les réformes pensées et appliquées, que dans ses dimensions économiques, sociales et environnementales. Le tout est appuyé par la mise en place des mesures d’accompagnement pour assurer au mieux la réussite du projet.
Institutional reform of the public administration system and its effect on land administration (case study: Republic of Moldova)
Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of the Republic of Moldova, Moldova
The public administration reform currently underway in Moldova covers all ministries, departments and agencies, including the central public authority for land administration, geodetic surveying and cadastre. Although the Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre (ALRC) has been established in particular on the World Bank’s recommendation as an optimal structure enabling integrated development of a number of economic segments and activity types to ensure effective land administration, it will be reorganized and its tasks to develop policies and strategies in the spheres it used to regulate will be allocated to several separate ministries.
The paper discusses and attempts to assess possible effects and consequences of the ALRC reorganization and its influence on further development of the real estate market and its infrastructure, on the quality and state of the multi-purpose real estate cadastre; it also presents the recommendations developed to improve the land administration system in the Republic of Moldova.
An examination of spatial planning impact on development of the agricultural land in Kosovo
1Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Republic of Kosovo; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Kosovo
This paper aims to identify some of the main findings on the impact of spatial planning, towards the development of agricultural land as a national priority in Kosovo. The process of protection, regulation, and development of agricultural land through the use of spatial planning instruments is by no means new – in fact, the core idea of planning for future urban expansions and developments is based on the reasoning that key national and local resources necessitate an sustainable approach.
Agriculture has been a key national priority for Kosovo institutions in the last decade or so, taking into consideration that Kosovo’s population living in rural areas is about 62%. Though, the productivity in this sector is severely hampered by unclear land ownership, fragmented and inaccessible plots of land, and especially from the loss of prime agricultural land due to uncontrolled spatial developments.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-11: Land administration: Cases from South America|
Session Chair: Maria Elena Garcia Flores, CINDER, Mexico
CADASTRE and access to land
1Cons Fed del Catastro, Argentine Republic; 2Dirección Provincial de Catastro e Información Territorial; 3Dirección de Catastro Municipio Vista Alegre
Aligned with the motto of the conference on Land and Poverty, the meaning of the word catalyst is assumed as the action of favoring the development of a process. In our case, we will address the way in which an up-to-date, modern cadastre, on a regimen, provides the basic elements to favor the process of access to the land of the most vulnerable sectors, the most vulnerable social actors.
As for the most unprotected sectors, it refers to marginal social sectors that due to the high values of urban land and land policies, are forced to live together with their family group, on land taken under the informal "settlements" mode . Although they access a portion of land in which to develop family life, they are deprived of elementary basic services (water, lighting, sewers, gas, social infrastructure).
It is also proposed analyze two cases visible in the province of residence, Neuquén.
Integrating data for land tenure regularization in the State of Piauí, Brazil
1Piauí State Land Institute; 2The World Bank
In Brazil, the State of Piauí implements a land tenure regularization program through which small-scale farmers can acquire the ownership of state land. Efforts have been made to strengthen the capacity of the Piauí State Land Institute (INTERPI) to implement this program. Yet, progress remains limited with approximately 4,000 requests received, 2,500 titles issued, and 258 titles registered over the last three years. In this paper, the authors explain that these modest achievements are in part due to INTERPI’s limited capacity and difficulties in obtaining the supporting documents from other public entities. The authors explain how Piauí is addressing this issue through additional investments in the modernization of INTERPI, the creation of a Center for Geotechnology, the reengineering land tenure regularization procedures and the strengthening of partnership with public entities such as the Land Tenure Regularization Center and the Special Unit for Land Tenure Regularization and Fight Against Land Grabs.
Types of land tenure in Brazil: the first estimate from available geo-referenced information
1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2GeoLab- Esalq – USP; 3Imaflora; 4SEI; 5Oxfam; 6IFSP; 7IPAM
The Brazilian efforts to create a unified land cadaster that can improve its land Governance are quite large. The land Management System – SIGEF, created in 2013, is contributing to the formation of a georeferenced cadaster of rural land, comprising public and private areas, already showing significant quantitative results of rural, public and private property. The CAR, a self-supplied georeferenced mapping for environmental management has a large coverage of the private land ownership and possession around the country.
The main aim of this article is to present a portrait of the Brazilian land tenure, based on the different kinds of ownership, adverse possession and others, but also on public cadasters, integrating its information, mostly to exclude the overlapping. This is to facilitate the understanding of where, what, how much, who and how land is owned or possessed in Brazil.
A new approach for the establishment of a regional multipurpose cadastre in La Mojana, Colombia – how to overcome large-scale cadastral operations challenges through technological and methodological innovations
1GEOFIT, France; 2IGNFI France
In a post conflict recovery program context and as part of a development strategy, Colombia has launched a major national cadastral modernization program. Various pilot projects have been defined. Among these, La Mojana, a vast wetland region affected by economical and post-conflict issues, has been selected as a model of cadastral operations at regional scale.
To establish a multipurpose cadastre, IGNFI–GEOFIT has been tasked by the AFD and the DNP to elaborate a methodology with emphasis on social regularization of rural land rights. For this purpose, we proposed a new model of massive cadastral operation, strongly relying on the use of innovative technologies and methods transferred from large scale industrial manufacturing processes. We will show how the catalysation of these innovative factors into an integrated methodology give acces to a new level of efficiency, quality and user satisfaction at a lower cost of operation than current models.
Standardization and integration of the electronic real estate registry system of Brazil (SREI): the national operator of SREI (ONR).
Brazilian Federal Law 13.465 of the year 2017 created an entity called "ONR – Operador Nacional do Sistema de Registro Eletrônico de Imóveis” (National Operator of the Electronic Property Registry System), a private non-profit legal entity, which was committed to the implementation and operation, in national level, of the Electronic Property Registration System. The model envisaged for the entity is based on the so-called "Consensual Administration", in which public interest activities that do not require the exercise of public law prerogatives are decentralized to the private sector. The ONR will be of great value for the exercise of land governance by the Public Administration, as well as to the proper functioning of the real estate market, approximating registry, financial intermediaries, notaries and the buyer of property. The new entity has not yet been formally constituted; even so, its technical aspects are already in full development.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-12: Enforcing adherence to standards for large land-based investment|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Emerging Practice from the Field: Private sector action on land rights in the upstream
1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2International Finance Corporation
The Interlaken Group is the leading multi-stakeholder effort to coordinate action between private sector, CSO, government, and community stakeholders towards transforming the supply chains of companies and investors in land-based sectors to support secure community land tenure. This presentation will describe some of the emerging lessons from Interlaken Group engagement with local companies, governments, CSOs, and IP organizations in Kenya, Malawi, Cameroon, and Indonesia to facilitate implementation of corporate commitments to support community land tenure and reform processes.
Etranger et accès a la terre en afrique de l'ouest
Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal
Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous allons, à partir d’une analyse des politiques et législations foncières des pays situés dans les espaces intégrés comme la Communauté Economique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) et l’Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA), aborder la problématique du traitement de l’étranger en termes d’accès et de contrôle des ressources foncières, surtout dans un contexte d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle ou d’accaparement des terres en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle mettra en évidence le dilemme des Etats qui, d’un côté, tiennent à la consolidation des espaces intégrés en promouvant des principes de libre circulation des biens et des personnes et en misant sur le foncier comme un facteur d’intégration et de l’autre côté, à cause de l’ampleur du phénomène de la prédation foncière, certains Etats en sont revenus à limiter leurs engagements en restreignant les droits des étrangers à accéder ou à contrôler les ressources foncières.
Due diligence in land acquisition - Lawyers and their responsibilities
1FAO, Italy; 2Matrix Chambers, UK
Lawyers have responsibilities both to respect human rights and to advise their clients on respecting human rights under the UN Guiding Principles on Human Rights, IBA human rights guidance. The human rights implications of tenure mean that human rights due diligence should also include tenure due diligence and take full account of the standards set out in the VGGT, CFS-RAI and the OECD FAO Agricultural Supply Chains Guidance. Among key issues to consider in due diligence processes is the identification of holders of legitimate tenure rights and other persons potentially affected by an investment, the establishment of a thorough and ongoing process of consultation and engagement, to avoid adverse impacts on the right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food and housing.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-13: Linking global issue to local reality on the commons|
Session Chair: Gerardo Segura Warnholtz, World Bank, United States of America
Consequential trends in global recognition of community-based forest tenure from 2002-2017
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
Tenure reforms recognizing the rights of Indigenous Peoples, local communities, rural women, and smallholders are a prerequisite for the realization of global climate and development objectives. A new analysis on the distribution of global forest tenure in 58 countries over fifteen years finds that while the forest area legally recognized for Indigenous Peoples and local communities has grown nearly 40 percent since 2002—to a total of 15 percent of forests globally—the rate of recognition has remained slow since 2008. Despite limited progress, forests that were legally recognized between 2013-2017 have much stronger protections for community rights than those recognized during the previous 5 years, signaling an emerging upswing in recognition of community forest ownership. To take full advantage of the opportunities offered by recent legislative advancements that could robustly secure Indigenous Peoples’, communities’, and rural women’s forest tenure rights, more nuanced and appropriately disaggregated data is urgently needed.
From lessons learnt to future options for global forest governance
European Forest Institute (EFI), Germany
Deforestation remains one of the biggest global environmental challenges. Over the past 25 years a large variety of forest governance initiatives and institutions have evolved at global level, stemming from fields such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, forest management, as well as human rights and trade. Taking stock of lessons learned on these initiatives in a systematic way, and drawing on the insights of both, policy practitioners and academia is a step yet to be undertaken. Against this background, and building on a qualitative, transdisciplinary Delphi methodology, this article aims at (i) drawing lessons from past initiatives, and at (ii) identifying promising forest governance approaches. The findings include rankings of most important challenges and drivers of global forest governance, promising initiatives, influential actors, main effects thus far, ideal and most likely developments until 2030, underexplored research topics as well as key aspects for successful future initiatives on global forest governance.
Evidence on biodiversity conservation impacts: assessing theories, approaches, and outcomes from community engagement
1Arizona State University, United States of America; 2Chemonics, International
Community engagement is widely assumed to facilitate and enhance environmental and human well-being outcomes of conservation interventions. However, while community engagement is broadly applied, empirical evidence of their impact remains unclear. We sought to examine the connections between the dimensions of engagement, governance/land tenure, and outcomes via a systematic assessment of peer-reviewed literature. Our study illustrated that the current evidence base is insufficient to carry out such an analysis, and uncovered clear deficiencies in research on this topic. Community engagement approaches are not coherently defined such that they can be compared and evaluated, research efforts are widely focused on a few regions and lack longevity and robustness, and there is an overall trend towards surface-level community participation and continued state control of land. Our results suggest that increased cross-sector and historical learning is required in order to test rigorously test current assumed pathways to impact.
Producing useable knowledge for sustainable land governance: Potential contributions from land systems science
1Global Land Programme/University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland; 2University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland
Land systems lie at the intersection of diverse interests and claims concerning societies’ needs for sustainable development. Thus, implementation of the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may ultimately translate, in many contexts, into competing claims on scarce land resources. Land system scientists are not oblivious to this: since 2015, the scientific community of Future Earth’s Global Land Programme (GLP) has produced over 5000 scientific publications (data from Scopus), many of which address aspects that are relevant to land governance.
With this in mind, we screened the 380 highest ranked articles published since 2015 by GLP’s scientific community to identify references on interactions between different SDG targets, assuming that the latter are representative of the development claims placed on land. Further, we surveyed 50 practitioners to assess their perception about the most important development goals related to land governance.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-14: Demarcation of indigenous lands|
Session Chair: Raelene Webb, Murray Chambers, Australia
Jurisprudence of the Supreme Federal court of Brazil in the process of demarcation of the indigenous reserve Raposa Serra do Sol
1Secretary of the association of Notaries and regisrars of te State of Mato Grosso- Brazil; 2Lowyer; 3Notary, Brazil; 4UNICAMP
JURISPRUDENCE AND LAND CONFLICT IN THE PROCESS OF DEMARCATION OF THE INDIGENOUS RESERVE RAPOSA SERRA DO SOL
The Raposa Serra do Sol is an indigenous territory located in the extreme north of the Brazil, in the state of Roraima, specifically in the Normandia, Pacaraima and Uiramutã districts, between the Tacutu, Maú Surumu Miang and the Venezuelan and Guyana frontiers. The main objective of this article is to understand the complexity involved in the demarcation of the Raposa Serra do Sol Indian Reservation, considering the need to bring to the discussion the peculiarities of the Amazonian biome, the question of national sovereignty, which in this case was strongly contested by international agents working in the region, and the debate on indigenous law. These discussions have returned with force in the last months, seen diverse declarations on the unconstitutionality of the present demarcation.
Assessing implementers’ perspective on reform processes: Progress and challenges in formalizing the rights of native communities in Peru
Since 1974, the Peruvian government has formally recognized the collective rights of more than 1,300 native communities with titles to over 12 million hectares. Despite this progress, the Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon (AIDESEP) calculates that there are outstanding claims to 20 million ha of land and forest. The context surrounding implementation is complex, with different interests shaping the priorities of each respective government administration. This paper analyses the process of formalizing collective rights to native communities in Peru, from the perspective of government agents involved in implementation procedures, activities and the outcomes derived from this. The analysis is based on a mixed method approach that combines legal and institutional analysis of the implementation framework. It provides lessons on the barriers and limitations to promote more effective processes around the formalization of collective rights to forests and lands in Peru.