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Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
Contribution of urban green infrastructure to achieve sustainable development goals: an innovative mechanism to bring different actors together
Sisay Nune Hailemariam
World Bank, Ethiopia
Cities around the world are responsible for 70% of CO2 emission globally. Hence, the Paris Agreement cannot be achieved without action by mega-cities to limit GHG emissions. Similarly, achieving the 17 SDGs will be difficult since SDG-13 is all about climate action. Many Sub-Saharan African cities are not yet taking decisions likely to set stage for the adoption of a model of urban development that can support economic prosperity and manage the rate of growth of carbon emissions. Green Infrastructure (GI) is an innovative concept which refers to interconnected networks of multifunctional features of different land uses having environmental, social and economic benefits. The objective of the review was to assess current state of Green Infrastructure in Ethiopia and make recommendations for policy makers regarding the benefits if fully implemented. The concept is recommended to be captured at the national policy levels. Actions to Catalyze the innovation are recommended.
Inclusive development? Paradox of state-led land development in India
Urmi Sengupta1, Sujeet Sharma2
1Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom; 2Architecture, Planning and Environment LTD, United Kingdom
Urban land development in India is changing under the auspices of economic liberalisation. India has been in the forefront of this transformation through distinctive state-led land development model. The paper uses New Town, Kolkata (also known as Rajarhat) to articulate the ways in which the state is implementing its neoliberal agenda in land development. There are inherent contradictions within the state-led model due to aiming to foster capitalist interest while fulfilling welfarist principles. Interesting insights have emerged that point to a policy paradox. On one hand, the process follows market principles of efficacy and efficiency; on the other hand, state's keenness to extend control persists, thereby creating a highly uneven terrain for state—market interaction. It reflects a typical quasi-market condition shaped by the monopolistic state, the poorly structured role of the private sector, an absence of civic bodies, and minimal land and housing provision for the poor.
Assessment of urban upgrading interventions in mekong delta region in Vietnam
Mansha Chen1, Van Thang Nguyen2
1World Bank, United States of America; 2National Economics University, Vietnam
To improve living conditions of the urban poor, the World Bank has supported two urban upgrading projects in Vietnam, including Vietnam Urban Upgrading Project (VUUP) (2004 – 2014) and Mekong Delta Region Urban Upgrading Project (MDR-UUP) (2012 – 2018). The two projects covered nine cities, including 6 in Mekong Delta areas, with a total budget of $926 million. In order to learn from the accumulated experiences in the implementation of VUUP and MDR-UUP, we conducted a study to assess key dimensions of living conditions and dynamics of land and property values within upgraded and resettlement sites from these urban upgrading projects in two cities Can Tho and Tra Vinh, identify achievements as well as limitations in the projects’ designs and implementation, and offer recommendations for future projects. This paper presents the methodology, key findings and lessons learnt from the study.