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04-10: Addressing the challenges of pastoral tenure
3:45pm - 5:15pm
Session Chair: Stephanie Burgos, Oxfam America, United States of America
Innovative electronic pasture committee software
Elvira Maratova, Abdimalik Egemberdiev
KYRGYZ JAYITY National pasture users' association, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan today: 15 pasture users unions (PUU) use an innovative approach to manage pastures. The information system “Electronic Pasture Committee” (EPC) allows to keep automated records of the pasture committee's work through the formation of a database of pasture users, livestock, data on pasture plots (capacity, optimal load, seasonality, etc.), calculating the pasture use fees, control of payments made, distribution of pasture plots, vaccination. Before EPC the whole process was carried out manually, not always correctly and regularly, there was no single approach and a unique tool for making operational decisions. Planning, management and use of state pastures in Kyrgyzstan has been legally transferred to local communities and the EPC has already proved its effectiveness, resulting in improved pasture conditions, reduction of pasture load, and overall improvement of pasture infrastructure. Currently, “Kyrgyz Jayity” is working on improving EPC in order to form a consolidated database of all 454 district PUUs.
Pastoral rights to mobility in Senegal: unpacking paradoxes and reimagining sustainable management
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Unites States of America
While national governments increasingly acknowledge the need to protect livestock mobility, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Current approaches to pastoral governance focus on internal dynamics among pastoral groups to regulate access and collectively manage rangelands. To operationalize rhetorical commitments to pastoral tenure security we need to broaden the focus on pastoral governance to address the types of protections and institutions requirements needed to maintain livestock mobility in mixed use landscapes. Drawing on participatory GIS mapping of over thousands of kilometers of livestock corridors and qualitative data collection in 18 communes, this paper integrates institutional analysis with an assessment of the structure and function of two corridor networks in eastern and central Senegal. Three institutional functions are crucial: (1) flexible access to distant pastures, (2) coordination to maintain landscape scale connectivity, and (3) mechanisms for conflict management.
Some issues of reducing pasture degradation in Mongolia
Gerlee Shuuduv, Batbileg Bayaraa
Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia
In recent years, many factors have been adversely affected by pastures due to climate change and human factors, such as crossroads, mining non-rehabilitation, pest rodent damage, and water supply limitation. Pasture area has decreased by 9.0 million ha over the last 50 years, 31.9 percent has been degraded, 1.2 percent has been affected by wind and water erosion, 38.4 percent is affected by rodents, 24.6 percent is desertified and 0.8 percent is polluted by mineral extraction.
It is important to define ways to develop sustainable pastoralism in mining areas and find out solutions to reduce pasture degradation, such as to decrease the negative impacts of mining, to manage well herder organization, to spend a portion of the profits earned from mining in the region, land and environmental offset.