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Beyond climate change: how tenure reform aggravated grassland degradation in north china
Xingyue Zhang1, Shuhao Tan2
1University of California Davis, United States of America; 2Renmin University of China, China
Grassland plays a vital role in human society and in the ecosystem. Maintaining the vulnerable natural assets---grassland resources, though challengeable, is very significant. However, comprehensive studies on the detailed process of and mechanisms leading to the degradation are still to be presented. This paper will combine the environmental monitoring data with the policy impacts, then arrange them along the timeline to explore how the tenure reform aggravated the grassland degradation in North China. The results illustrated that despite the climate change, tenure reform could be a strong driver of grassland degradation through two mechanisms - “livestock distribution - livestock increase – Tragedy of Commons” and “grassland distribution - grassland fragmentation - Fence Trap”. This finding reminds countries/regions undergoing grassland tenure reform to be aware of both the Tragedy of Commons and the Fence Trap which have taken place in North China.
Unrecognized opportunities for pastoral tenure: Re-framing variability, mobility, and flexibility
University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America
Among scholars and practitioners involved with land tenure in pastoral areas, there has existed a tension between the benefits of clearly established property rights and the dynamic land access needs of pastoralist communities. In describing the institutional demands of pastoral mobility, those advocating for pastoralist communities often explain that the climatic variability of pastoral areas necessitates flexible property arrangements. The seemingly inherent incompatibility of formal registration and clear boundaries, on the one hand, with flexible access rights, on the other, is the crux of the problem of pastoral property rights. This paper clarifies the often conflated concepts of unpredictability vs. variability and mobility vs. flexibility. While climatic variability and livestock mobility are intrinsic to pastoral systems, the relevance of “uncertainty” and flexibility are context specific. Looking for predictability can help form the basis of institutionally viable tenure arrangements that meet the livelihood demands of pastoralists.
ID: 871 / 05-13: 3 Individual Papers Topics: Urban expansion, land use, land value capture, and housing Keywords: Property values, land use regulations, hedonic pricing model, Windhoek
An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to understanding the correlation of land use regulations on residential property values in Windhoek, Namibia
Sam M. Mwando
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
Windhoek city in Namibia continues to experience an acute shortage of affordable housing, a situation that has reached a socio-economic crisis proportion with an estimated housing backlog of 21,000 units out of the national backlog of 100,000 units. The aim of the study investigates the impact of the newly introduced urban land use regulation on single-family residential properties in Windhoek. Using mixed methods approach, the study combined survey interviews and observational checklist to develop a hedonic pricing model in understanding the variables that significantly contribute to residential property values in the study area from 2005 to 2017. Hedonic pricing analysis revealed that proximity to commercial or office uses has a positive correlation in the short run. Further, as distance from non-residential uses increased, the positive effect on property values increases. The results also indicate that being too close to commercial or office uses yield negative effects because of nuisance factors.