Conference Agenda

The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.

 
 
Session Overview
Date: Monday, 25/Mar/2019
 Posters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email
MC Atrium 
9:30am - 10:30am00-01: Innovative approaches to land data generation
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Survey Solutions: An open source software to collect socio-economic and spatial data

Sergiy Radyakin, Michael Lokshin

World Bank, United States of America

.Survey Solutions is free software that aims at building capacity in developing countries by providing institutions involved in data collection with cost-effective, sustainable solution for conducting complex surveys and censuses. Survey Solutions combines powerful functionality for data capturing on tablets and web with tools for survey management and data aggregation. This technology reduces the time lag between data collection and data analysis, dramatically improves data quality and cuts survey costs. The ability to collect GIS information using high resolution images, register GPS coordinates and data obtained from sensors, and time stamps opens up possibilities of tackling new, policy relevant questions.

Survey Solutions is used by governments, NGOs, universities, and private companies in 147 countries.



Practical experience with mapping informal farms and houses in Zambia

Emmanuel Tembo3, Frank Kakungu2, Kelvin Chibangula3, Shadreck Mutti1

1World Bank, Zambia; 2Central Statistics Office, Zambia; 3MLNR, Zambia

Ministry of Lands & Natural Resources (MLNR) in Zambia has embarked on a National Land Titling Programme which is expected to run up 2021. However, MLNR and Ministry of Agriculture do not have accurate statistics on the number and sizes of farms due to number of reasons including; Duo land tenure system i.e. Leasehold and Customary; and lack of up-to-date Land information system. Since information on farms is critical in food security planning, and in order to provide accurate statistics on formal and informal large farms, the World Bank is supporting a program obtaining a full listing and perimeter mapping of all formal and informal large and medium-scale farms under the Zambia Integrated Forest Landscape Project (ZIFLP) context. Further, Under the country's regularisation of informal settlements, the Bank is also supporting the mapping of residential properties in Lusaka, Zambia. The presentation highlights our practical experiences in implementing the above exercises.



Combining drone imagery, street view, cadastral data and machine learning for urban development

Luis Triveno

World Bank, United States of America

..



Data collaboratives: How data sharing can yield better insights

Holly Krambeck, Sarah Antos

World Bank, United States of America

..



Building capacity to use drone imagery for land administration and management: Opportunities and challenges

Edward Anderson

World Bank group, Tanzania

.

 
11:00am - 12:30pm00-02: Using land data in innovative ways for policy and interventions
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Linking cadastral data & imagery to assess cultivation status of large land acquisitions: Examples from Ethiopia and Malawi

Brad Bottoms

New Light Technologies, United States of America

..



Identifying changes in housing investments using satellite imagery

Dunstan Matekenya

World Bank, United States of America

..



Using census maps to put chiefs' areas on the map: Evidence from Malawi

Julius Brian Chawezi Chisi1, Emmanuel Nkurunziza2, Davie Chilonga1

1Ministry of Lands Housing and Urban Development, Malawi; 2RCMRD, Kenya

..



Using the SDG module to assess to documents, tenure insecurity, and demand for title

Daniel Ayalew Ali1, Klaus Deininger1, Emmanuel Tembo2, Frank Kakungu3, YuanYuan Yi1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2MLNR, ZambiaCSO, Zambia; 3CSO, zambia

..

 
1:30pm - 2:30pm00-03: Land ownership and development: Potential lessons for Africa from East Asia’s experience
Session Chair: Joao Pedro Azevedo, The World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Land inequality and development: Potential lessons for Africa from East Asia’s experience

Richard Frank Studwell

Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom

 
2:00pm - 4:00pm00-04: Land in the World Bank's new Environmental and Social Framework
Session Chair: Mary Lisbeth Gonzalez, World Bank, United States of America
MC 2-800 
 

History of ESF consultation and what was agreed and why

Jonathan Lindsay

World Bank, United States of America

.



The importance and implication of the ESF to provide support and supervise projects

Noreen Beg

World Bank, United States of America

.



The importance and implications of the new ESF for land projects and for projects with land components / issues

Jorge Munoz

World Bank, United States of America

.



ESF and land issues in Africa

Robin Mearns

World Bank, United States of America

.

 
2:45pm - 4:00pm00-05: Using big data to advance land governance
Session Chair: Trevor Monroe, The World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

What Governments can do to harness the potential of big data

Julia Lane

NYU, United States of America

.



Benefits from open access to cadastral data: Lessons from Uruguay

Sylvia Amado

DNC, Uruguay

.



Technology for Simplification and Modernisation of the Common agricultural Policy

Felix Rembold

Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy

.

 
3:00pm - 4:00pm00-16: Stand for her land
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
MC 4-800 
3:30pm - 4:15pmCoffee Break
Front Lobby and Preston Lounge 
4:30pm - 5:00pm00-10: Conference opening
Session Chair: Simeon Djankov, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Opening remarks

Kristalina I. Georgieva

World Bank, United States of America

..



Digital technologies and land governance in Africa

Estherine Lisinge Fotabong

AUDA-NEPAD, South Africa

..



Land policies to allow effective urban service delivery and expansion: Ethiopia’s experience

H.E. Jantirar Abay Yigzaw

Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, Ethiopia

..



Why regularizing informal properties in Chile is a priority

Alejandra Bravo Hidalgo

Ministry of National Assets, Chile

.

 
5:00pm - 6:00pm00-11: Opening keynote
Session Chair: Simeon Djankov, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Keynote: Linking satellite and administrative data for land economics research and practice

Adam Storeygard

Tufts University, United States of America



Building on new data for evidence-based land policy in Africa

Njuguna Ndung'u

African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya

 
6:05pm - 6:10pmOverflow Room Conference Opening and Keynote
Overflow rooms: Preston Lounge; MC 4-800 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-01
MC Atrium 
 

Anthropic activities and sustainability of the natural resources of the Lomako-Yokokala Fauna Reserve (RFLY) in DR Congo.

Sankiana Malankanga Gerard

Higher Institute of Agronomic Studies of Mvuazi, Democratic Republic of the Congo



Implementing approach for responsibility management of pasture use in

Gerlee Shuuduv, Batbileg Bayaraa

Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia



Kyrgyz pastures - nomad heritage (traditional approaches in pasture degradation struggle)

Elvira Maratova, Abdimalik Egemberdiev

KYRGYZ JAYITY National pasture users' association, Kyrgyzstan



Farm’s natural resources management strategy

Kjeld van Wieringen, Kevin Kiffer, Marine Gourves

Mercy Corps, Democratic Republic of the Congo



"Developing community-based land use planning system using the community resource management area (CREMA) model in Ghana

Offei Affam Jerry1,2, Mensah Frederick2, Acquah Kwaku Nyamekye3

1Kukje Theological University, Republic of Korea (South Korea); 2Pals of the Earth-Ghana; 3Take Care Africa Foundation-Ghana

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-02
MC Atrium 
 

Documenting communal land rights: understanding the use and management of communal land in the highland regions of Ethiopia

Felicity Buckle, John Leckie

DAI, United Kingdom



Land tenancy, contract term and land conservation-theoretical and empirical analyses on apple growers

Lianhua Zhang, Xuexi Huo

Northwest A&F University, People's Republic of China



Sustainable practices diffusion in socio-ecological systems: the Gorutuba Irrigation Perimeter (Brazil) analysis

Rafael Faria de Abreu Campos1,2, Dênis Antônio da Cunha3, Newton Paulo Bueno4

1Regional Economics Applications Laboratory / The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional / Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; 3Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 4FUCAPE Business School



Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi arid areas

Deborah Muricho1, David Otieno1, Willis Kosura1, Magnus Jistrom2

1University of Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya; 2Lund University, Sweden



Forest planning decision model to restore forest denudation of N. Korea

Wonho Lee, Hyeonggeun Kim

LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Republic of Korea (South Korea)

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-03
MC Atrium 
 

ILMS - global land transfer standard

James Kavanagh1, Duncan Moss2

1RICS, United Kingdom; 2Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom



Measuring multi-dimensional poverty analysis in Nepal: a study of poverty alleviation fund intervention programme districts

Nahakul K.C.

Poverty Alleviation Fund Nepal, Nepal



Monitoring progress towards the 2030 sustainability goals: "Trends.Earth" as a support tool for achieving land degradation neutrality

Mariano Gonzalez-Roglich, Alex Zvoleff, Monica Noon

Conservation International, United States of America



Weak signals for future cadastral systems

Kirsikka Riekkinen1,2, Pauliina Krigsholm2, Oluwafemi Adekola1

1Aalto University, Finland; 2National Land Survey of Finland

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-04
MC Atrium 
 

A practical method for evaluating institutional arrangements and policy indicators of land administration system

Samsudin Salfarina, Suratman Robiah

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia



Evolution régimes foncier en Guinée-Conakry

Barry Alpha Amadou

Cabinet CAGEOFI - OGEG, Guinea



Spatial flood damage assessment mapping in Abeokuta

Ayoola Akingbogun

Pointmile Geotech, Nigeria



Achieving SDGs through land consolidation in rural regions of Uttar Pradesh state in India

Aswani Kumar Munnangi, Bharat Lohani, Subhas Chandra Misra, Vipul Sharma

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India



International Standards – key to unlocking the value of green buildings?

Benjamin Lee Elder

RICS, United Kingdom

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-05
MC Atrium 
 

Transforming social norms about women’s land and property rights

Lori Rolleri, Manisha Mehta

Wellspring Philanthropic Fund, United States of America



Opportunities for innovation: lessons from land rights work in the African Great Lakes Region.

David Betge

ZOA, The Netherlands



Protecting Ugandan customary land tenure through documentation of Principles, Practices, Rights and Responsibilities (PPRR)

Liz Neate, Judy Adoko

LEMU: Land and Equity Movement in Uganda, Uganda



Of the substantive law in the common law: where is the blocking limiting the access to the landed property of the women in Côte d'Ivoire

Guy Oscar Sical Toukpo, Honnéo Gabin Tarrouth

UNIVERSITE FELIX HOUPHOUET BOIGNY, Côte d'Ivoire



Leveraging the Sustainable Development Goals to strengthen women’s land rights: takeaways from the espaco feminista model in Brazil

Gina Alvarado1, Patricia Maria Queiroz Chaves2, Diana Fletschner1

1Landesa, United States of America; 2Espaço Feminista, Brazil



Financial inclusion through increasing land access rights and improving security of tenure a major pillar to reduce inequality and poverty in Uganda

Cissy Namuddu Settumba Kiyaga, Simon Kabogoza, Bashir Kizito Juma, David Kyewalabye-Male

Buganda Land Board, Uganda

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-06
MC Atrium 
 

Delving into the relationship between land tenure and food security using the case of Ayeyarwaddy, Myanmar

Gina Alvarado, Elizabeth Louis, Vinod Dharmarajan, Cathrin Anderson, Mark West

Landesa, United States of America



The impact of land rights regularization on the cassava technology adoption among smallholder farmers in Mozambique: the case of pro-poor value chain development project in the Maputo and Limpopo corridors (PROSUL)

Daniel Ozias Mate, Constantino Estevão Cuambe, Daniel Vasco Simango, Pinto Novo Zeca Stella

Agricultural Development Fund (FDA)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique



Gender and land acquisition: implications for agricultural development in Nigeria.

Olubunmi Lawrence Balogun, Taofeek Ayodeji Ayo-Bello, Kayode Ayantoye

Babcock University, Nigeria; Babcock University, Nigeria; Kwara State University, Nigeria



Integrating strategic peacebuilding approach into land and environmental conflict resolution for better Indonesia peace infrastructure

Novita Liangga Kumala

University of Notre Dame, United States of America



From commitment to practice: lessons from efforts to implement corporate policies to respect land rights

Mina Manuchehri, Scott Schang

Landesa



Strengthening farmers’ land rights in Malawi

Dr Janet Banda SC1, Felix Mangani1, Davie Chilonga1, Mishek Longwe1, David Harris2

1Ministry of Lands, Housing & Urban Development, Malawi; 2DAI Europe

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-07
MC Atrium 
 

Refugees influx, land access and second generation health outcomes in host communities: evidence from Tanzania

Soazic Elise Wang Sonne

The World Bank Group



The conceptual framework on women’s land tenure security: an action tool

Amanda Richardson, Elisa Scalise, Renee Giovarelli

Resource Equity



Linking land tenure and use, catalyzing land use innovation for grassroots women

Danny Lattimore, Wacha Ben, Grace Loumo

Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment Uganda, Uganda



From culture to human rights; unmasking the gendered perspectives in the application of law and existing culture in protecting vulnerable widow’s land rights.

Jessica Oluoch

KELIN Kenya, Kenya



Housing provision and land rights in the quilombola community Ribeirão da Mutuca (Brazil).

Elizabeth Othon de Souza

Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo - FAUUSP, Brazil

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-08
MC Atrium 
 

Grassroots women’s land rights for development

Nakwang Violet Loumo, Danny Lattimore

Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment Uganda, Uganda



Norms formation: California gold rush and women's roles

Sandra Aguilar-Gomez1, Anja Benshaul-Tolonen2

1Columbia University, United States of America; 2Barnard College, United States of America



Innovative approaches in transforming social norms for strengthened women's land rights and security of tenure

Frances Birungi Odong

Uganda Community Based Association for Women and Children's welfare ( UCOBAC), Uganda



Land grabbing and the land justice movement in Taiwan

Grace Li-Min Liao1, Shih-Jung Hsu2

1China University of Technology, Taiwan; 2National Chengchi University, Taiwan



Peaceful land for future citizen

Yalemzewid Demssie Fantaye

Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-09
MC Atrium 
 

Tenure responsive land governance: the case of government-community partnership towards improving livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda

Agatha Wanyonyi1, Oumar Sylla1, Harold Liversage2

1UN-Habitat, Kenya; 2IFAD



Land tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa and its implications for access and benefit-sharing to bio-diversity

Ayodele Adewole

University of Jos, Nigeria



Legal establishments and gendered access to land in patriarchal societies of North-Western Ghana

Paul Boniface Akaabre, Kizito Doghle, Rudith S. King

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana



Women’s life cycle as a pathway to land rights on customary tenure in west Nile region of Uganda: lessons for certification and titling.

Herbert Kamusiime1, Naome Kabanda2, Christine Kajumba1, Eddie Nsamba-Gayiiya3, Margaret Rugadya4

1Associates Research Uganda; 2Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development; 3Consultant Surveyors and Planners; 4Global Expert - Land and Natural Resources



Practical approaches to implementing and monitoring free, prior and informed consent processes

Luis Felipe Duchicela

Equitable Origin, United States of America

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-10
MC Atrium 
 

The impact of land rights regularization on the cassava technology adoption among smallholder farmers in Mozambique: the case of pro-poor value chain development project in the Maputo and Limpopo corridors (PROSUL)

Daniel Ozias Mate, Constantino Estevão Cuambe, Daniel Vasco Simango, Pinto Novo Zeca Stella, Rubino Francesco

Agricultural Development Fund (FDA)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique



Innovative approaches for promoting gender responsive land governance processes for strengthened women’s land rights and equitable land rights: application of the Gender Evaluation Criteria on land rights registration processes on customary land

Frances Birungi Odong1, Antonio Danilo2, Simon Peter Mwesigye2

1Uganda Community Based Association for Women and Children's Welfare (UCOBAC), Uganda; 2UN Habitat/ Global Land Tools Network



Linking land tenure and use, catalyzing land use innovation for grassroots women

Okwi Tonny

Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment Uganda, Uganda



The land tenure system in Bangladesh: trends, challenges and options for reforms

Laskar Muqsudur Rahman

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangladesh



Discourse on Customary Land Act 2016: evolution of land rights or devolution of powers

Edward Chikhwenda

University of Malawi Polytechnic, Malawi

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-11
MC Atrium 
 

Today's urban families are rapidly losing their connections and kinship ties with rural families, making the new generations ignorant about the ways of life, production processes, and food origins that are served at the table

Jose de Arimateia Barbosa1, Ariane Silva Barbosa2, Rui Barbosa Netto3

1Secretary of the Association of Notaries and Registrars of the State of Mato Grosso- Brazil; 2Lowyer, Brazil; 3Notary, Brazil



Land-based livelihoods and gender vulnerability: a study of cultural inheritance practices in select African states

Bankole Sulihaj Allibay

Translantic Development Limited, United Kingdom



Land regularization of quilombola community in Brazil

Daniella Farias Scarassatti1, Delaíde Silva Passos2, Adâmara Santos GonçalvesFelício3, Isabelle Picelli4, Bastiaan Philip Reydon5

1Campinas City Hall, Brazil; 2University of Campinas; 3University of Campinas; 4Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária; 5University of Campinas



Human rights and land policy in quilombola lands: a decade of construction (2008-2018)

Delaide Passos1, Adâmara Felício1, Bastiaan Reydon1, Richard Torsiano2, Daniella Scarassatti1

1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2FAO, Brazil



Towards a responsive customary land rights security in rural Ghana: adopting a rural titling approach

Derek Osei-Tutu, Michael Appiah

Lands Commission, Ghana



State land inventories using the voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure (VGGT) - case of Madagascar

Herilala Axel Fanomezantsoa1, Jean ousmane Camara2, Rinda herrick Andriamitaha3, Edson samuel Noharinjanahary4

1Consultant; 2Land Reform Coordination Unit; 3Cercom; 4Essa

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-12
MC Atrium 
 

Role of income distribution and consumption expenditure on agriculture output: case of Nigeria

Irfan Ahmed1, Hassan Kasady Al Mahdi1, Claudio Socci2

1Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,; 2University of Macerata, Italy



Government intervention for superior land acquisition outcomes

Sankalp Sharma1, Tajamul Haque2, Anil Giri3

1Kent State University - Tuscarawas, United States of America; 2NITI Aayog, India; 3University of Central Missouri, United States of America



Local infrastructure effects: large-scale land acquisition.

Rasangi Himesha Hewakopara

Ministry of Lands & Parliamentary Reforms, Sri Lanka



The dichotomy of tenure arrangements and its effects on land acquisition and compensation: evidence from Zambia

Christopher Mulenga1, Anthony Mushinge2, Sam Mwando3

1University of Lusaka, Zambia; 2Copperbelt University, Zambia; 3Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-13
MC Atrium 
 

Identifying yield gap and potential crop production in Ethiopia, Gambella Region

Azeb Degife

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany



Monitoring large-scale land acquisitions using open data platforms for improved decision making

Mercy Ojoyi

Land Matrix Initiative, South Africa



Implementation of infrastructure expansion projects in Tanzania: -the property rights quagmire

Felician Komu1, Agnes Mwasumbi2

1Majengo Estates Dev, Tanzania; 2Land Administration Unit, Ardhi University, Tanzania



Le soutien des communautés locales à la maîtrise de la gestion foncière : un bon prétexte de déploiement de nouveaux outils de sécurisation du foncier et d’acquisition des terres

Ndeye Coura Mbaye Diop1, Alain Diouf1, Pape Samba Ndiaye1, Aliou Bassoum1, André Teyssier2

1PDIDAS, Senegal; 2Banque Mondiale



Displacement in the name of development: insights from Zimbabwe

Fadzai Chipato

China Agricultural University, People's Republic of China

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-14
MC Atrium 
 

Gold mining in Eastern Cameroon: The rights of artisanal miners in the face of semi-mechanized mining

Hyacinthe Eric Bamamen Bisil1, Brendan Schwartz2, Jaff Napoléon Bamenjo3

1Centre pour l'Environnement et le Développement, Cameroon; 2International Institute for Environment and Development; 3Network for The Fight Against Hunger



The bottlenecks in large scale land acquisition for agriculture: a case study of Azama, Inikorogha and Opuede communities in Gbaramatu Kingdom.

Angela Kesiena Etuonovbe1,3, Bosin Boi Ebikeme2, Alfred Tortor2, Eugene Takpobunor Etuonovbe3

1Angene Surveys & Consultants, Nigeria; 2Gbaramatu Kingdom; 3GFSH Consult Ltd, Nigeria



Lessons from the promised land: a case study of ‘land for land’ compensation for the Buseruka Oil Refinery, Uganda

Liz Neate

LEMU: Land and Equity Movement in Uganda, Uganda



Impact of land fragmentation on productivity and profitability of crops in Pakistan

Rakhshanda Kousar1, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Tahira Sadaf1, M.Bilal Liaqat1

1University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-15
MC Atrium 
 

Land

Bixia Hu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China



Land readjustment: the missing link in progressive urban land management in Zimbabwe

Charles Chavunduka

University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe



Polycentricity; a panacea for managing urban expansion in secondary towns? A planning scenario study of Mumias Town, Western Kenya

Herbert Musoga

National Land Commission, Kenya



Design and implement of discount-oriented businesses based on the sale of targeted partnership shares and improved Government’s rules and regulations

Jafar Oshriyeh, Maryam Foroozan

Islamic Republic of Iran

 
7:00pmPoster Board 01-16
MC Atrium 
 

An analysis of the effects of urban expansion and housing problems on resident’s quality of life in the outskirts of Lagos, Nigeria

Abimbola Omolabi

Yaba College of Technology, Yaba- Lagos, Nigeria



Research on the moderate-scale of apple farmers in different targets

Congying Zhang, Qian Chang, Xuexi Huo

Northwest A&F University, People's Republic of China



Urban population modeling: towards a better planning

Eduardo Perez-Denicia, Ricardo Ochoa-Sosa, Jose Eduardo Diaz-Azcunaga

CAPSUS, Mexico



Land use change detection and prediction using GIS and Remote Sensing, case study of Nsukka Urban, Enugu, Nigeria

Victor Chukwuemeka Nnam1, Jude Ejike Okonkwor2

1Surveyors Council of Nigeria (SURCON), Nigeria; 2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 
Date: Tuesday, 26/Mar/2019
8:00am - 6:00pmPosters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2 PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email
MC Atrium 
8:30am - 10:00am01-01: Land for African development: towards stakeholder synergies
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa

Translation English - French

Preston Auditorium 
 

Opening remarks

Godfrey Bahiigwa

African Union Commission, Ethiopia

..



The role of land governance in achieving Agenda 2063 and SDGs

Dr. Ibrahim Assane Mayaki

AUDA-NEPAD, South Africa

.



Consolidating transparent land administration and land revenue generation in Uganda

Hon. Betty Ongom Amongi

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda

.



The way forward on land reform in Namibia: lessons from the 2nd National Land Conference

Hon. Utoni Nujoma

Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia

.



Strengthening land governance in Mali

Hon. Mohamed M. Sidibe

Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning, Mali

..

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-02: Strengthening land governance for sustainable growth in Ukraine
Session Chair: Anthony A. Gaeta, The World Bank, United States of America

VC

MC 13-121 
 

Increasing the transparency and decentralization in Ukrainian land relations

Liudmyla Shemelynets, Dmytro Makarenko

State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine

.



Roll-out of e-services and e-auctions - progress and challenges ahead

Denis Bashlyk

State Service of Ukraine for Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, Ukraine

.



Towards a methodology for automatic cadastral error identification

Vladimir Popov

World Bank, Ukraine

methodology for cadastral error identification



World Bank support to help improve land governance in Ukraine

David Egiashvili, Sandra Broka, Klaus Deininger

World Bank, Ukraine

Incomplete land reform, weak administration & management, and prohibition of land sales restrict agricultural productivity and investment in Ukraine, with some 10 mn. ha the state controlling 25% of land. With EU support. the Bank has been supporting transparency and better land governance. This helped develop broader support to inventory and register state land, develop land use planning, and competitively auction lease or ownership rights to increase local revenues and enhance investments.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-03: Ways to establish cadastral systems at scale
Session Chair: Claire Galpin, World Bank, United States of America
MC 2-800 
 

Increasing cadastral survey productivity to tackle undocumented land rights worldwide: A case study

Stephanie Michaud

Trimble Inc, United States of America

This presentation will introduce a vision for transforming cadastral workflows by leveraging a broad spectrum of geospatial technologies in a way that will provide surveyors with greater productivity in both the field and the office. A holistic system approach will be analyzed, with key factors identified to address customer challenges in the context of a real-world case study. Finally, the customer benefits identified in the case study will be extrapolated to identify potential applicability to developing countries in order to enhance productivity to tackle undocumented land rights worldwide.



Large-scale Mapping

Poul Noergaard

Leica Geosystem, Denmark

The world's population is increasing fast; people are moving from country to cities, and the environment is changing quickly. For development projects, basic Mapping has for years been a need. A major problem has been the time it took from the start of a mapping project until data were available for the real development project and sometimes the quality of data. This paper is telling how technology from the new continental mapping project there deliver maps to the Internet portals map solutions can be used in development projects in e.g. Africa. By exampels of already done projects and describing the new methodes there are shown examples of how large scale mapping can be done from aircrafts with significant more accurate data there can compete both in price an performance with satellite data.



An innovative affordable and decentralized model for land registration and administration at a national scale in Tanzania

Tressan Sullivan, Malaki Msigwa, Gilead Mushaija, Mustapha Issa, Alexander Sololov

DAI Global LLC, Tanzania

This paper addresses issues related to scaling up a successful, innovative land registration pilot program using digital technology. Following the successful development of a process for a decentralised land administration system—driven by local land administration authorities using digital land data capture and management tools in Tanzania—this paper explores the potential for and challenges of implementing the system nationally. The paper proposes a low-cost, participatory, digital land use planning, registration, and management process. It examines the potential for a self-sustaining, decentralized, digital land management system for large-scale first land registration and ongoing administration of post-registration transactions. It is proposed that contributions by beneficiaries in conjunction with the involvement of the private and nongovernment organization (NGO) sectors can potentially deliver a self-sustaining system. The paper further examines challenges related to secure data storage and limiting opportunities for corruption.



Leveraging location-enabled street photos and machine learning to automate large-scale data collection in support of property valuation

Tim Fella, Katherine Smyth

ESRI, United States of America

To address the data divide for property valuation, a proof of concept is proposed that leverages Esri’s Property Condition Survey together with artificial intelligence. The Property Condition Survey is a configuration of Esri’s Photo Survey application that can be used by local governments to publish street-level photo collections, conduct property surveys, and automate the classification of property condition using machine learning.

The Property Condition Survey leverages location-enabled photos produced by many commercially available cameras and simplifies data processing, so street-level photo collections can be gathered on a regular basis. Photo collections can then be used in the Property Condition Survey application and/or be classified using Microsoft's Custom Vision service to identify property conditions and related attributes in support of property valuation.

By applying machine learning (ML) to the classification of street-level property photos, valuation authorities can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with performing property assessments in the field.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-04: Land administration and changing gender norms
Session Chair: Oumar Sylla, UN-Habitat, Kenya
MC 4-100 
 

A tripartite normative interaction in land registration: inheritance and land information updating

Zaid Abubakari, Christine Richter, Jaap A. Zevenbergen

University of Twente, Netherlands

In trying to identify the underlying factors that account for the low incidence of land registration in the global south, commentators tend to focus on administrative limitations inside of land registration organizations. Whereas lack of efficiency, complex procedures, bureaucracy, high transaction cost and long transaction times have been mentioned as problematic internal administrative features, little is known about how external socio-cultural practices factor into the reasons for the registration and non-registration of real property. We studied the socio-cultural practices of real property inheritance and registration in Ghana and found that the eventual decision/ability/willingness of a successor of real property to report transfers for registration is influenced by the social norms of society, the formal rules of land registration and the practicalities of registration. However, the second and third influences only happen when the social norms allow room for personal appropriation of property.



Women and customary land tenure: emerging developments and ways forward in Savelugu, Ghana

Prince Donkor Ameyaw1, Uchendu Eugene Chigbu1, Walter Timo de Vries1, Simon Peter Mwesigye2, Eric Yeboah3

1Techninical University of Munich, Germany; 2UN-Habitat / Global Land Tool Network, Uganda; 3Kwame Nkrumah Univerisy of Science and Technonology, Ghana

Patriarchal norms on land operate along kinship lines. Male children have higher inheritance rights in the family. The girl child is considered not to be a permanent member of the family as she is expected to be married into another family or remarry upon the death of her husband. These are fundamentals for the discrimination against females in the patriarchal community. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches (Savelugu in northern Ghana), this study analyzed land challenges that women face in their efforts to access land in rural communities. Findings from the study show that land acquisition modes available to women appear to operate in ways that exclude them from being owning lands with high tenure security. Suggestions include intense education on land rights and land registration, the formation of women cooperative groups and economic empowerment (through responsible government and NGOs interventions).



Securing property rights for Women and children through Distributed Ledger Technology in Judiciary

Manohar Velpuri

Absolutum Consultancy Private Limited, India

UN Women, in partnership with the UN Office of Information and Communications Technology (UN OICT) and with the support of Innovation Norway organised four-day simulation lab to explore cutting-edge solutions based on distributed ledger technologies that address challenges faced by women and girls. UN Women has prioritized innovation technology as one of the drivers for change, strategically leveraging innovation and partnership to accelerate progress towards gender equality and women's empowerment.UN Women has identified cash transfer and identity as areas to leverage DLT to assist women and girls. Having a safe place to save and store humanitarian cash transfers and remittances is a key strategy for coping with shocks and building resilience.In Vietnam, a world bank pilot is testing the ways in which distributed ledger technologies could help women entrepreneurs to prove ownership of business assets, verify production values, and establish a digital identity



Women and land: A conflict of culture and law

Beverly Mumbo, Miriam Wachira, Caroline Oduor, Teresa Omondi

Federation of Women Layers, Kenya

Kenya is a diverse country with about 42 tribes, each bearing it's own cultural laws. According to the Constitution 2010 cultural practices and customs are a source of law, in so far as they are not repugnant to justice and morality. it is paramount that a balance be struck between the two to avoid either offending the other. This paper seeks to; synchronize the existing land laws with the customary laws relating to land so as to create a convergence of the two and to help strike a balance between culture and women land rights. It also seeks to recommend reforms and policy change such as codification of the current customary laws so as to ensure that the retrogressive laws are done away with and only those that are progressive and accommodate women land rights are maintained. This will all be with an aim of realization of Kenya’s vision 2030.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
MC 5-100 
 

Land and human rights, gender and indigenous people of Kaduna state, Nigeria

Abdullahi Tukur, Altine Jibril, Umar Ahmed Abubakar

Kaduna Geographic Information Service, Nigeria

In Nigeria, like most African countries today, customary systems of land regulation are being undermined and weakened, and more formal regulative mechanisms being developed. In most part of Nigeria, Kaduna State inclusive access to land, use and control especially by the women and the indigenous people continue to be a challenge.

Thus, the introduction of land Use Decree was an attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to solve these problems.

Despite all this effort the land ownership continues to be a serious challenge to indigenous people of Kaduna State.

The study on this topic a case study of Kaduna state, shows that Land rights for the indigenous are insecure and unclear.

This paper wishes to examine Kaduna State amongst the few states in Nigeria to make laws, official regulations and policies to address these problems of land and human rights, gender equity for the benefits of its indigenous people.



World Bank-funded land titling in Piauí, Brazil: a pillar of growth or a regularization of land grabs?

Douglas Hertzler1, Maria Luisa Mendonça2, Gerardo Cerdas Vega3, Emmanuel Ponte3, Altamiran Ribeiro4

1ActionAid USA, United States of America; 2Rede Social de Justiça e Direitos Humanos, Brasil; 3ActionAid Brasil, Brasil; 4Comissão Pastoral da Terra, Brasil

In 2015 the World Bank approved loans of $320 million to support “Pillars of Growth and Social Inclusion" in the state of Piauí, where the Brazilian government announced its MATOPIBA project to expand large-scale soybean production. A key part of the loans includes support for land titling. However, the project needs to address unrecognized conflicts, namely the grabbing of community commons, public lands and water by large scale farmers and ranchers. This paper analyzes the human rights, land rights, and environmental issues at stake, and will report on the status of community concerns and progress toward recognizing, protecting and recovering the land rights of marginalized communities. Finally, the paper will distill key recommendations for institutions and governments to meet their human rights obligations and protect community land rights in line with the United Nations Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGTs).



Land tenure, gender, and productivity in Ethiopia and Tanzania

Tigist Mekonnen Melesse, Yesuf M. Awel

The World Bank (USA), UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands) and Jimma University (Ethiopia)

Agricultural land use and tenure system in many African countries are characterized by subsistence production and communal land tenure system. Reforming the tenure system in a way that ensures tenure security could promote sustainable agriculture in the region. In addition, women’s right to land is an essential recipe for rural development. This chapter, therefore, analyzes the gender differential effects of land tenure security on productivity in East Africa using LSMS data from Ethiopia and Tanzania. The chapter uses plot and household level data to investigate the effect of land title and other determinants of crop productivity. The main results show that tenure security positively and significantly affects households’ productivity in general and female-headed households in particular. Potential indicators that positively correlate with crop productivity are total land and plot sizes, inorganic fertilizer use, input credit access, herbicide use, soil and plots type. Policy implications are drawn from the results.



The Impacts of land tenure regularisation programme in Rwanda

Bernis Byamukama1, Jim Grabham2

1UK Department for International Development, Rwanda; 2Mokoro ltd

The Land Tenure Regularisation programme started as a pilot project in 2005, has been running at scale since 2009, and is expected to end March 2019.The aim of the LTR programme was to issue a registered title to every landholder in Rwanda through a one-off, low-cost community-based process and thereby contribute to poverty reduction, increase investment, optimize land use, and promotes gender equality in access to land and reduce conflicts related to access and ownership of land.

In recent years, the LTR Programme has consistently been sighted as a landmark example of systematic land tenure reform in Africa and textbook case for wider replication. This synthesis paper summarize the findings from an impact evaluation commissioned by DFID between September 2018 and January 2019.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-06: Using data systems to increase accountability
Session Chair: Michael Taylor, International Land Coalition, Italy
MC 6-100 
 

Democratizing the data revolution: bringing local perspectives to the surface

Lisette Mey, Laura Meggiolaro

Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The

With the inclusion of land indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals, the data revolution has very noticeably reached the land sector. New technologies to capture, monitor or analyze land data are increasingly being developed, for improved public service provision and beyond. These innovations could very well be the catalyzing factor that is necessary to bring this data where it can be put to good use to achieve land tenure security for all, at a speed and scale that would otherwise not be possible. However, one critical element of this data revolution is at risk to be overlooked: a multi-stakeholder, inclusive approach. The available data that is interoperable is largely from stakeholders from the global North. This paper highlights research into the interoperability-compliance of key land datasets in Africa and calls for a more democratized approach to the data revolution - ensuring local perspectives are not left behind.



Capturing data gaps: comparative study on availability of land data in Africa

Lisette Mey1, Michael Odhiambo2, Laura Meggiolaro1

1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands, The; 2People, Land and Rural Development, Kenya

It is an often-repeated rhetoric that there is a lack of land data - whether it is lack of reliable or up-to-date data or a lack in the existence of any data. Collecting data is a time-consuming and costly process and one can only imagine the enormous impact new data capture technologies can have on the speed and volume of new data collection. With digitization of information, increased use of internet, and growing demand for more data, the risk is that we get swept up by the potential of the latest technology and only add to the wealth of data, without having analyzed or digested any existing data. This paper presents a scoping study in five countries in Africa to uncover the information landscape. We hope to trigger thoughts on use of the data ecosystem, rather than ‘simply’ adding to its continued growth.



The role of people-centered data in land governance monitoring: preliminary results from the Dashboard Initiative

Eva Hershaw1, Ward Anseeuw2

1International Land Coalition; 2International Land Coalition, CIRAD

Increased focus on global development frameworks such as the SDGs and the VGGTs has highlighted a demand for reliable land governance data while exposing the limits of existing data. The recognition of such limits has led to a growing consensus on the role that a data ecosystem – with evolving, diverse data sources – can play in the provision of disaggregated, grounded and people-centered data. The Dashboard tool for land governance monitoring is among several initiatives that have emerged in recent years to provide a people-centered perspective to the growing data ecosystem. Developed in consultation with members of the ILC in 2017, the Dashboard is built on standardized indicators and methodologies adaptable to local context. Pilot studies in Colombia, Nepal and Senegal in 2018 have yielded preliminary results that demonstrate how the tool allows members to directly contribute to the monitoring of global frameworks while providing people-centered data recognized as legitimate in broader policy circles.



Developing a country stakeholder strategy for the global property right perception survey (Prindex)

David Ameyaw, Malcolm Childress

International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya

This goal of Prindex Country consultation and stakeholder engagement strategy is to enable the team to engage with selected countries and other stakeholders on the Prindex process a timely, transparent and meaningful way in order to disclose and disseminate information about the PRIndex Initiative. The engagement process will ensure that stakeholders are fully aware of opportunities and benefit of Prindex as a data sources to measure perceptions of individual property rights and self-reported status of property documentation in support of the global effort to monitor land rights. Through consultations of these types, each selected country can establish constructive relationships with a variety of external stakeholders and maintain those relationships over time. The active engagement of stakeholders increases their sense of ownership and commitment to key decisions and outcomes leading up to the agreement and implementation of a compact program.



Rwanda land registration is complete – now what? the view of an NGO.

Annie Kairaba1, Bernis Byamukama2

1Rwanda Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), Rwanda; 2Department for International Development (DFID), Rwanda

Comprehensive land registration in Rwanda was completed in three phases between 2005-2018: a development phase between 2005-2008, registration between 2009-2014, and completion between 2015-2018. Writing from the perspective of the Rwandan Initiative for Sustainable Development (RISD), a leading Rwandan NGO that has been active in the field of land rights during the period, this paper offers insights into the Land Tenure Regularization Process (LTRP) with an eye to understanding the process of land dispute mediation from a participatory angle. Focusing on the institution of community mediation through abunzi mediators, It further offers lessons on how NGOs in other countries can work with similar land registration processes in different contexts. Findings from the paper are divided into three sections (a) trends of land disputes in land reform (b) ICT and land dispute monitoring and (c) land dispute monitoring in relation to gender.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-07: Managing public land for the common good
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
MC 7-100 
 

Common pool resource access rights and wrongs: Insights from Ghana

Patrick Opoku

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, Ghana

Common pool resources (CPRs) are resources that are available to more than one person and subject to degradation as a result of overuse. Over the years many studies on CPRs have emerged. However, there are still unanswered questions on how best to manage CPRs while correcting the wrongs of abuse and free riding. Using the case of urban forests in Ghana, the focus of this inquiry was to understand whether resource managers in developing countries employ appropriate tools for the management of CPRs. This article used the theory of access and institutions to examine the broad range of factors including property rights to land and theft that enable people to benefit from CPRs. Our findings suggest that management of CPRs in Ghana is mediated by complex interrelationships between customary and statutory institutions. Different forms of legal (title, leese, deeds) and illegal rights (theft, coercion, violence, deception) characterized access to CPRs.



Spatial planning for land use and protection as an anti-poverty tool in rural areas: case study of innovative approaches on the USAID-funded agriculture and rural development support project

Sergii Kubakh, Patrick Rader

Chemonics International Inc.

The poverty rate among the rural population in Ukraine reinforces the need to change the rural development model. Land reform, reform of power decentralization, and local self-governance are underway in the country. Land is the main resource, but communities lack experience and tools for land resource management. Approaches and tools developed by the USAID-funded Agriculture and Rural Development Support (ARDS) project are feasible for helping newly-established communities set up a system for spatial planning and efficient land use and protection based on modern GIS-technology; and to resolve community development issues of environmental, social, and investment nature. Public discussion of community plans and decisions adopted later by the local authorities are an important component of this system. The proposed methodology has been tested in pilot communities and enables the mitigation of corruption risks in land relations, as well as improves well-being in rural areas.



The official biological killing of productive land under the silence of a class of citizens and applause of others: when all contribute in destroying living land!!!

Abdelkader Marouane1, Abderrezak Benhabib2

1Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret (Algeria); 2Abou-Bekr Blekaid University of Tlemcen (Algeria)

All Economists recognize that land is one of the most important factors of production, and one of the decisive determinants of economic growth and development, in any period and country. And most of them agree that rational economic logic invalidates any sense of talking about sustainable economic, human and social development unless it is linked to a strong protection of limited area of agricultural and pastoral land which every rational person must preserve it and support its crucial role as a sustainable source of human food, incomes and also for the accumulation of wealth. But because there are other alternative uses of land, such as those aimed to satisfy many needs of citizens in terms of housing, working, security, shopping, sports, worship, recreation, etc., so the land with high biological productivity is subject to many policies and practices which make them completely and definitively lost its biological spirit and fertility.



Improving governance of tenure: Technology as the enabler

Wordsworth Odame Larbi1, Maria Paola Rizzo2

1FAO, Ethiopia; 2FAO, HQ, Italy

Fit-for-purpose enabling technology is an excellent catalyst for improving the governance of tenure in legal pluralistic environments but it requires pragmatic and sustained political will to generate and sustain interests of local communities whose participation is critical for ownership and success. Governments as duty bearers hold responsibility to make the systems sustainable so as to provide secure tenure rights and create the enabling environment for sustained economic development. The paper provides an overview and analysis of the use of technology as the enabler for improving governance of tenure. Four case studies are presented dealing with different tenure contexts. These are clam fisheries tenure in Ghana, Land Administration and community land recording in Angola, Illegal forestry occupation in Tunisia, and tenure administration in private mailo lands in Uganda all within the framework of VGGT. The paper concludes that sustainability is key in using technology as enabler for improved governance of tenure.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-08: Methodological approaches to urban property valuation
Session Chair: Ruud Kathmann, Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment, Netherlands, Netherlands, The
MC 8-100 
 

Self-declaration of value: an option for the urban property tax

William McCluskey1, Riel Franzsen1, Peadar Davis2

1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK

The ad valorem property tax is a presumptive tax based on an estimate of the property’s value. The estimation of value is normally undertaken by the valuation authority. To assist the authority, there is usually a legislative requirement whereby the taxpayer (whether owner or occupier) is obliged to declare certain information regarding the property. The information sought is typically related quantitative characteristics of the property such as age, size, and accommodation. In addition, some value based information such as tenancies, lease details, business/trade turnover and rents can be sought. This is information that the valuation authority use in their estimation of the value of the property.

The focus of this paper is to consider whether the owner should be obliged to submit a declaration of their property’s value. The question is whether these valuations could be used for the property tax.



Valuing property with bad data: utilizing GIS and spatial modeling to achieve equitable property tax valuations in the face of incomplete data

Paul Bidanset1, Jones Brent2

1IAAO; 2Esri

Missing, incomplete, or inaccurate data have the ability to compromise any predictive model (Beaver, 1966; Pifer & Meyer, 1970; Martin, 1977; Altman, 1981; Bansal et al. 1993). For models used for ad valorem property tax purposes, such data inadequacies can result in financial burdens that arise from inaccurate valuations. Recent advances in spatial modeling methodologies and the availability of open data sources have presented governments with ways to “do more with less” – specifically achieving more accurate valuations without incurring additional data collection costs.

This research will present recent findings on how spatial modeling and open data can be harnessed by governments to promote more fair and uniform property valuations with fewer costs incurred. This presentation will bridge the current literature gap by making explicit methodological prescriptions for valuations that will be yield uniform and equitable valuation results for governments faced with technological or financial constraints.



Response surface analysis (RSA): modeling values in geographically sparse markets

William Mccluskey1, Paul Bidanset2, Peadar Davis3, Michael McCord3

1African Tax Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2International Association of Assessing Officers, Kansas, United States; 3School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland, UK

Due to physical, legal, and other barriers, as well as cost-prohibitive reasons associated with data collection and storage, sparse data can be a common hurdle in the effectiveness of governments who depend on or are considering the implementation of a property tax regime. The ability to estimate accurate, equitable property valuations is oftentimes a difficult task, particularly in areas with little or no sales transactions. In developing and transitioning economies with limited, inaccurate, or outdated sales information, the data needed to create reliable estimates of value is often times very difficult, or even impossible, to attain.



Standard price points in spatial interpolation. A case study

Risto Peltola, Mikko Korpela, Pauliina Krigsholm, Arthur Kreivi

National Land Survey, Finland

This paper explores various spatial interpolation techniques and tries to find an optimal mix of automa-tion and manual fine tuning for mass valuation purposes for property taxation. The value of land should be estimated to the tax base of 2 million units, in a system of higher tax rate on land than on buildings. Machine learning techniques such as ordinary kriging, empirical bayesian kriging (EBK), geographically weighted regression (GWR), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and spatially constrained cluster analysis (SCCA) have been tested. The paper offers a comparison between those methods and a compari-son to a more manual approach.



Using remote sensing data and machine learning to value property in Kigali, Rwanda

Felix Bachofer1, Jonathan Bower2, Andreas Braun3, Paul Brimble4, Patrick McSharry5

1German Aerospace Center; 2International Growth Centre, Rwanda; 3University of Tübingen; 4Ministry of Economic and Financial Planning, Rwanda; 5Carnegie Mellon University

This paper develops two property valuation models for Kigali, Rwanda, and tests them on a unique dataset combining remote sensing data for buildings in Kigali, with sales transaction data for 2015. This paper credits and builds on a similar paper by Deininger et al (2018) but also covers both the built up area of Kigali and the whole of Kigali Province, it addresses temporal prediction issues beyond 2015, it employs an expanded set of variables, and it uses machine learning techniques to employ Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy to select the model that best predicts property price data using Ordinary Least Squares. The model in this paper is intended as a prototype of a Computer Assisted Mass Appraisal system for Kigali that could be used to calculate the revenue potential of a new property tax introduced in Rwanda in 2019, and to help detect under-declaration of property values for tax purposes.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-09: Using remote sensing to assess impacts of forest policy
Session Chair: Joep Crompvoets, KU Leuven, Belgium
MC 9-100 
 

Informality in access to land and deforestation in the legal Amazon: an empirical study of the state of Acre

João Paulo Mastrangelo1,2, Bastiaan Philip Reydon2, Pedro Cavalcante Filho2, Rosângela Ballini2, Adâmara Felício2, Dallas de Souza2, Claudio Cavalcante3, Antonio Marcos Silva3, Rafael Garrafiel3

1Federal University of Acre, Brazil; 2University of Campinas; 3State Secretary for the Environment



Last Forests Standing: Deforestation prevention with land-use monitoring and valuation in Côte D’Ivoire

Neeraj Baruah

Vivid Economics, United Kingdom



Land use Management in Nigeria: the role of Remote Sensing

Mayowa Ajibola1, Aderemi Adeyemo2, Charles Ayo1, Gideon Adeyemi1

1Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria; 2Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria



Comparative evaluation of the registered information in the Rural Environmental Registry base under the Federal Cerrado Project

Lilianna Gomes1, Carlos Pires2, Rebecca Fiore3, Janaína Rocha1, Carlos Sturm1, Gabriela Gonçalves1, Leandro Biondo1, Bernardo Trovão1, Rejane Mendes1

1Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 2The World Bank, Brazil; 3Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Brazil

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-10: Land consolidation: A tool to improve land use
Session Chair: Morten Hartvigsen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
MC 10-100 
 

New trends in development of agricultural land consolidation in Russia

Alexander Sagaydak, Anna Sagaydak

State University of Land Use Planning, Russian Federation

We can treat Agricultural Land Consolidation as a merging, enlargement, eliminating of mosaic land ownership and improvement of configuration as well as optimization of size of land plots. The present stage of development of Agricultural Land Consolidation in Russia is featured by development of agricultural holdings and increasing size of private farms. The average size of agricultural holding amounted 490 thousand hectares in 2016. It varied from 340 thousand hectares to 790 thousand hectares in 2016. The average size of private farm estimated 71.4 hectares in 2016. It increased by 66.4 % compared to 1995. There is also a trend of development of Agricultural Land Consolidation at the regional level, for example, in Orel Region. In 2017, the average size of the private farm was amounted 160.0 hectares in the region. It increased by more than 3.2 times compared to 1994 due to agricultural land consolidation.



An analysis of long-term experiences with land consolidation projects

Riekkinen Kirsikka4, Walter Timo de Vries2, Hendrikus Johannes {Rik} Wouters1, Kalle Konttinen3

1Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The; 2University of Munich Germany; 3National Land Survey Finland; 4Aalto University Finland/National Land Survey of Finland

Land consolidation is a specific land management instrument, which has changed in goals, application, legislation, and context of application over time. How and why these changes took place and what the effects of these changes were can best be learned from experienced land consolidators. This article provides an analysis of these experiences, which were captured through narrative vignettes. From the analysis we infer that land consolidation has adapted itself over time, and experiences from different countries have brought more insights in the bottlenecks, limitations, opportunities and requirements for land consolidation. Despite regional differences in preferences, attitudes and opinions about whether land consolidation is an appropriate instrument, there seems to be consensus that land consolidation projects should currently be highly pragmatically oriented, whereby one has to be very sensitive to the needs and characteristics of local contexts, and whereby one needs to be very clear on both short-term and long-term wins.



Land Consolidation as a multi-purpose Instrument -
 exploring Opportunities and addressing Challenges in Kosovo

Michael Becker1, Kapllan Halimi2

1GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo; 2MAFRD - Kosovo Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development

This paper explores opportunities and addresses the challenges of using the instrument of Land Consolidation in Kosovo, elaborating details of reforming the existing legal framework and its institutional setup. It reflects on former and current experiences made in Kosovo and Eastern Europe, discusses feasible land consolidation models, reviews implications for making implementation feasible and highlights advantages and limitations of different approaches. Furthermore, it emphasizes key principles to be taken into account, which reflect principles of good governance, public participation and key steps in the technical planning process. Last but not least, this paper addresses the need for further learning and frequent exchange of best practices in the region, which helps bringing the agricultural sector of all east European countries forward on their way to EU accession, by stimulating land markets, sustaining economic development in rural areas for both large and smallholder farmers in Eastern Europe.



FAO recommendations on land consolidation legislation

Morten Hartvigsen, Maxim Gorgan, Margret Vidar, Tomas Versinskas, Kristina Mitic, Frank van Holst

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary

Most Western European countries have a long-lasting land consolidation tradition. In most Central and Eastern European countries (CEE), land reforms were at the beginning of transition high on the political agenda. In most CEE countries, land reforms resulted in farm structures dominated by small and fragmented farms, which are not competitive in the globalized economy.

FAO has in CEE from 2000 and onwards played a leading role in supporting introduction of land consolidation and in the development of national land consolidation programs. In order to enhance its support to the member countries on land consolidation, FAO has in 2018 conducted a regional legal study to identify best practice on land consolidation legislation involving European countries with ongoing land consolidation programs. The main outcome of the study is a Legal guide on land consolidation in line with VGGT. The paper provides overview and summary of the main recommendations in the guide.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-11: Fit for purpose land administration
Session Chair: Yerach Doytsher, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
MC C1-100 
 

Secure Tenure for all starts to emerge: New Experiences of Countries implementing a Fit-For-Purpose Approach to Land Administration

Stig Enemark1, Robin McLaren2

1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2KnowEdge, United Kingdom

Abstract

This paper initially provides background to the 2030 Global Agenda and the realisation that many of these goals will not be achieved without quickly solving the current insecurity of tenure crisis through the FFP approach to land administration. New technology and emerging trends for land administration identified within the World Bank’s Guide (2017) will then be reviewed within the context of implementing Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) land administration solutions. Finally, the paper will review the lessons learned from implementing FFP land administration solutions in three developing countries, Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda, to identify how their country strategies were evolved, how the FFP land administration guidelines were interpreted and adapted, how politicians and decision makers signed onto the approach, and how the mind-set of key stakeholders, including surveyors, were changed to embrace FFP land administration.



Fit-for-purpose land administration strategy: an innovative approach to implement land policies in Nepal

Janak Raj Joshi1, Uma Shankar Pandey2, Raja Ram Chhatkuli3, Stig Enemark4, Danilo Antonio5, Jagat Deuja6, Oumar Sylla7

1Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Government of Nepal; 2Kathmandu University, Nepal; 3UNHABITAT, Nepal; 4Aalborg University, Denmark; 5Land and GLTN Unit, Land and Governance Branch, UN-Habitat, Kenya; 6Community Self Reliance Center, Kathmandu Nepal; 7Land and GLTN Unit, UN-Habitat, Kenya

The current Nepalese Land Administration System only deals with the formal land tenure system. Approximately 10 million land parcels are under informal tenure and outside the formal cadaster. Families, under such informal tenure, are highly vulnerable to eviction due to unsecured land tenure. Informal tenure is causing huge loss to economy and the valuable land asset is dumped as “dead capital”.

Addressing this problem of informality with the existing traditional approach may require huge financial resources, long time span and large number of trained human resources, which could be difficult to manage for a country like Nepal. In this context, this paper presents an innovative approach and fit for purpose strategy of land administration which could be a solution to manage informal land tenure and implement the provisions in the proposed land policies and newly enacted Constitution of Nepal. The results are encouraging and can be implemented throughout the country.



Creating resilience to natural disasters through FFP land administration – an application in Nepal

Eva-Maria Unger1, Raja Ram Chhatkuli2, Danilo Antonio3, Christiaan Lemmen1, Jaap Zevenbergen4, Rohan Bennett5, Paula Dijkstra1

1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2UN-Habitat Nepal; 3UN-Habitat Global Land Tool Network; 4University Twente, ITC Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth Observation; 5Swinburne University of Technology

Information on people to land relationships - documented in a land administration system - is crucial in occurrence of any natural disaster. Fit–For Purpose approaches and interventions have been used in the process of earthquake recovery and to improve the resilience for four affected communities in the Dolakha district in Nepal. Therefore innovative land tools have been used in a post-earthquake context to support the management and recordation of customary and informal land rights for communities. The FFP LA approach in the post-earthquake context brought quick results and benefited not only four communities in Dolakha district but also had impact at national level as it supported the national land policy formulation process and ignited the FFP country implementation strategy.



Fit for Purpose Land Administration: Innovations as a result of country implementations

Cornelis de Zeeuw1, Chrit Lemmen1,2, Eva-maria Unger1, Paula Dijkstra1, Mathilde Molendijk1, Ernst-Peter Oosterbroek1, Christelle van den Berg1

1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2Twente University - ITC

There is an urgent need for the administration of property and land use rights worldwide as a basis for inclusive social and economic growth. To continue in the conventional way will not lead to inclusion of the remaining 70% within our lifetime. It is time for new, innovative approaches to land administration. Time to build affordable, inclusive, scalable and sustainable systems that quickly provide complete coverage of the tenure situation in territories.

Based on our experiences in the implementation of FFP methodologies in projects over the last year, we will define lessons learned in e.g. Colombia, Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, Indonesia. Some lessons are of a more general nature, and other lessons are country and context specific. These lessons are significant for scaling up and ‘scaling forward’ FFP land administration and will result in innovations of methodology, technology and approaches.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-12: Planning land use to attract investment
Session Chair: Kaitlin Cordes, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
MC C1-200 
 

Challenges of making land available for large-scale investment in commercial agriculture in Tanzania: the case of Missenyi district

Joseph Mukasa Lusugga Kironde, Sophia Kongela

Ardhi university, Tanzania

There is a belief that for a country like Tanzania, there is a lot of unutilized or underutilized land that can be made available for large-scale agricultural investment. Based on a study of the Missenyi District to the north-west of the country, it was established that given the growing population and the existence of a sugarcane estate, a state ranch and a nature reserve there is a land scarcity which is forcing serious encroachment on the traditional communal resources land (rweya), and on wetlands (bishanga) with serious consequences on land for livestock grazing, the environment and water sources. It is recommended that rather than think in terms of creating a land bank for large external investors, efforts should be made to enable land markets including land rentals, and turn the local populations into high productivity investors, reducing the pressure for lateral expansion onto communal and environmentally sensitive land.



Insights from participatory land use planning in Liberia: the dos and don’ts of bottom-up land use planning as part of tenure reform

Ellen Pratt1, Ethan Miller2, Uriah Garsinii1

1Liberia Land Authority; 2IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative

In September 2018, after years of advocacy, negotiation, and research, the Government of Liberia passed the Land Rights Act (LRA). This act formally recognizes customary land and calls for land use planning in every community. The Liberia Land Authority, the agency tasked with implementing the LRA, and IDH, The Sustainable Trade Initiative, are piloting bottom-up land use planning in Foya District of Lofa County, in Northwest Liberia, to understand the opportunities and challenges of such a process. Through this initiative, communities identify land for farming, other livelihood activities, future use or conservation, infrastructural development, and sustainable agro-production supported through external investments. The first of its kind in Liberia, this project tests methodologies for land negotiation, community mapping, and conflict resolution in the land sector at the district level. By analyzing the successes and challenges of this process, we offer insights that can inform land use planning processes occurring elsewhere.



Building harmonized private and state land data and information systems in Ethiopia

Mulugeta Tadesse1, Tommi Tenno2, Oliver Schoenweger1, Yohannes Redda2, Zerfu Hailu2

1Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Ethiopia; 2NIRAS

Different government institutions in Ethiopia working on land related issues manage data and information independently, while their activities and mandates are often related or even overlapping. In Ethiopia different institutions deal with small holder rural land and commercial agricultural land. Until now responsible institutions were not able to share information and view each others data to make informed decisions. The lack of shared data has in some cases led to investment allocations that overlap with small holder farmers’ areas. This challenge is currently addressed through joint initiatives involving the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Resources and Ethiopian Horticultural and Agriculture Investment Authority supported by the Finnish Government funded REILA project and by the EU/German co-funded GIZ implemented S2RAI project. The paper will provide examples and arguments for linking data and IT-systems of different governmental institutions and focus on the link between investment land allocation and monitoring and rural cadaster.



Making Myanmar's National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work: opportunities and challenges for harnessing technology, innovation and investment in people for Myanmar's inclusive development

Thyn Zar Oo1, Kyaw Htun1,2, Nwai Aye Aye Wai1,3

1The PLAN: Public Legal Aid Network, Myanmar; 2Emerald Sea Group; 3River Mekong Group

"There is no compensation for inaction and lack of policies", warned a panelist in "Leveraging Policies for Sustainable Development Goals", one of the seminars in the 2018 Annual Meetings of the World Bank and IMF in Bali, urging governments' immediate actions to address global issues highlighting the only alternative be devastating crises. In light of #AM2018Bali agendas, the paper explores the context of Myanmar's challenges and opportunities: how Myanmar could ensure its National Land Use Policy and Legal Framework work for all its populations, including the vulnerable/marginalized by fostering inclusion, equality, rule of law and ensuring leveled playing field for free and fair competition. By honestly looking into the realities of the illicit and unaccounted-for economies, their thriving financing models, could the country capture and incorporate correct data to accommodate comprehensive policy and regulatory frameworks. Harnessing technology, innovation and investing in the future will help Myanmar achieve its full potential.

 
8:30am - 10:00am01-13: Formalizing customary tenure: How to make it work?
Session Chair: Margaret Rugadya, Ford Foundation, Uganda
MC 7-860 
 

Catalyzing Innovation: Lessons from Uganda: Innovating land governance in predominantly customary settings.

David Betge2, Zeno Pack1, Thorsten Huber1

1GIZ, Uganda; 2ZOA, Uganda

This paper provides practical recommendations and lessons learned to build on the achievements of Uganda’s ongoing land tenure reforms. The authors draw on practical experience with implementing land tenure projects in two different regions of northern Uganda. Their findings are based on recent evaluations of these projects, current literature and the results of ongoing engagements with multiple stakeholders. The article highlights key elements for speeding up the current process of developing a comprehensive land governance system while ensuring its sustainability and taking into account opportunities for innovation.

Land governance is high on the political agenda in Uganda and land is ‘a national priority’. At the same time, the tools, processes and structures needed to register land, including customarily held land are at times unclear or even contradictory. Recent research suggests a strong demand for land registration among communities, but also strong insecurity about the best way to facilitate this.



Evaluation of the land inventory approach for securing tenure of lawful and bona fide occupants on private mailo land in Uganda

Thorsten Huber1, Moses Musinguzi2, Daniel Kirumira1, Pamella Drate1

1Responsible Land Policy in Uganda (RELAPU), GIZ; 2Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Makerere University, Uganda

This paper introduces and evaluates the Land Inventory Approach to improve security of tenure for both landlords and tenants on private mailo Land in Uganda. The approach is a non-authoritative form of adjudication that takes into account the unique features of Mailo tenure and the various arrangements between landlords and tenants on Mailo land. It differs from adjudication because the verification and ascertainment of rights is not authoritative. The approach is based on a realisation that addressing the impasse between registered owners and tenants on Mailo land in a manner that is fair and acceptable to both parties requires appreciation and in-depth understanding of the dynamics on Mailo tenure. To attain such appreciation an inventory of the nature and extent of tenancy rights as well as gathering of other basic information such as opinions of both, landlords and tenants, on preferred long lasting solutions, areas of agreement and areas of conflict, is required.



Land use Policy; implementing the Physical planning Act, in the context of Malawi land reform program implementation

Dr Janet L. Banda, Felix Tukula, Devie Chilonga

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi

The new law regulating land use planning will help in management of physical development national wide. This new law has repealed the old law which in way had specific areas that were subjected to physical planning principles. Since implementation has started through pilots, there is expectation that administration and management of land will improve in the area of land use planning national wide once rolled out.



The role of customary authorities in land administration: Examples from Tanzania and Ethiopia

Maija Hyle, Zerfu Hailu

NIRAS, Ethiopia

Often when land policies and land legislation are reformed, the existence of customary authorities is challenged, however, typically in agrarian societies they remain as well although their rules may partly contradict each other. This kind co-existence of customary and statutory authorities can be called legal pluralism. This paper will explore the practices of customary and statutory institutions in land administration in Tanzania and Ethiopia and discuss how customary institutions can to be involved in the formal land administration. The involvement of the customary authorities can as its best make the land administration more transparent, aid in land disputes and conflict situations, bridge the gap between legality and legitimacy and contribute to a practical land administration system but it might challenge the rights of women and vulnerable groups.

 
10:00am - 10:30amCoffee Break
Front Lobby 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-01: Harnessing the IT & data revolution for African land policy
Session Chair: Clement Adjorlolo, New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), South Africa
Preston Auditorium 
 

Using building footprint data to inform planning & monitor compliance with land use regulations: The case of Kigali & Musanze

Rhona Nyakulama, Gaspard Nelson Habiyaremye, Jean Claude Ntirenganya

Independent consultant, Rwanda

Investments in advanced technologies and building multiple information systems can leverage interoperability and integration to improve analytical processes informing policy and development. Rwanda has developed several systems to implement different obligations for citizen-centred oriented services. The comprehensive Land Administration Information System, Building Permit Management Information System, interactive physical planning and spatial information web applications to access physical development policies and guidelines are examples of systems that can be integrated to develop a land use monitoring system. The interaction of these systems and building foot print data using selected areas in Kigali and Musanze will demonstrate the importance of developing a digital land use monitoring system to conform to policy guidelines and development control. Regulated data structures, provided for in a national ICT policy and strategy, ensure that such innovations are cost effective and avoid replications and redundancies, where each system maintains its unique core function and information source of truth.



Establishing an interoperable land information system in Bamako for urban development

Checkine Mamadou Dieffaga

secretariat permanent de la reforme domaniale et fonciere au Mali, Mali

tbd



Strategies to ensure sustainability of Rwanda’s registry: Paperless registration of marriage/death, fee reductions, and regulatory change

Nishimwe Marie Grace

Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, Rwanda

..



Tenure insecurity and demand for land documents in Zambia: Evidence from a nation-wide household survey

Frank Kakungu1, Daniel Ali2, Klaus Deininger2, Yuanyuan Yi2

1Central Statisticsl Office, Zambia; 2World Bank, United States of America

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10:30am - 12:00pm02-02: Spatial transformation to achieve green urban growth
Session Chair: Ede Jorge Ijjasz-Vasquez, The World Bank, United States of America
MC 13-121 
 

Opening

Laura Tuck

World Bank, United States of America

...



Keynote: Urbanism and climate change – A holistic approach to climate change

Peter Calthorpe

Calthorpe Associates, United States of America

Can we solve our housing crisis and increase mobility through infill and next generation technology? As a case study, we evaluate the housing potential along El Camino Real, the 45-mile roadway through the heart of Silicon Valley and examine the potential of next generation transit. We dig deep into the costs and benefits of infill housing, revealing critical energy, water, transportation, and cost challenges. We also looked at how new innovations in transit and mobility such as Autonomous Rapid Transit (ART) technology can support growth along El Camino and countless corridors like it across the country. We discovered that 250,000 new dwellings are possible on the low density commercial land lining the boulevard and that enhancing a typical BRT system with Autonomous Buses can reduce operation costs by 48% and increase average speeds by 27%.



Report Launch

Xueman Wang

World Bank, United States of America

..



Panelist

Khoo Teng Chye

Centre for Livable Cities of the Ministry of National Development, Singapore

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Panelist

Anu Ramaswami

University of Minnesota, United States of America

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Panelist

Wei Xu

Development Research Center of the State Council, China, People's Republic of

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Panelist

Ellen Hamilton

World Bank, United States of America

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10:30am - 12:00pm02-03: Innovative technology in the land sector
Session Chair: Steven Nystrom, FIG Commission 9, United States of America
MC 2-800 
 

Innovation through artificial intelligence

Mureed Mustafa

Emirates Real Estate Solutions, United Arab Emirates

Artificial intelligence is prime technology that catalyzes innovation. the abstract will highlight on different use cases where innovation is employed and catalyzed using AI, study is fusing the need of AI as technology and enabler for process change to increase innovation within major sector in industry ( real estate).



Beyond blockchain: technology in the land agenda

Aanchal Anand

World Bank, United States of America

Recent discussions on the role of technology in advancing the land agenda have largely centered around blockchain technology. However, blockchain is just one of the many tools available to move forward the ambitious goal of the recording people’s rights and using such a system for other applications like disaster risk management, property valuation and taxation etc. The paper will examine eight technologies that have been launched or are being tested in different countries: blockchain, AI/machine learning, 3D models, drones, VHR satellite imagery etc. Overall, the paper will contribute to the ongoing discourse on the use of technology in the land agenda by presenting a wider scope of technologies along with their uses, challenges, and actionability. To conclude, the paper will present options for institutional innovation and demonstrate ways in which the private sector and donors/financiers can engage with countries to improve the uptake of technology.



Evaluating the hype: the current potential of blockchain for land

Tim Robustelli

Future of Property Rights Program at New America

Last year, the Future of Property Rights Program at New America wrote about the applicability of blockchain for land registries. The report was presented at the 2018 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. We plan to revisit the companies we profiled in 2018, to see how they are doing a year later. Who was able to successfully implement their planned projects, and who was not? Why? Can we learn anything about the broad applicability of blockchain to land?



Digital identity, housing data, and disaster resilience in Puerto Rico

Christopher Mellon

New America, United States of America

This paper -- based on both primary and desk research-- examines the post-hurricane housing crisis in Puerto Rico, the ways in which informal property ownership has contributed to that crisis, and how new technologies for the secure collection and sharing of data can help to the island’s housing sector recover and prepare for future disasters. The first section describes the nature and extent of the housing crisis in Puerto Rico and the government’s recovery plans. The second section provides a brief introduction to some of the emerging technologies that can be used to implement those plans, with a special focus on blockchain-based self-sovereign identity (SSI). The third section describes the model for an SSI-based mapping and data sharing platform that can be used throughout the disaster management process, from vulnerability assessments, to disaster response, to tracking the distribution of recovery aid.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-04: Can land administration foster gender equality?
Session Chair: Rumyana Tonchovska, UNFAO, Italy
MC 4-100 
 

Improving gender equality in land tenure in the Republic Geodetic Authority of Serbia

Vasilija Zivanovic1, Borko Draskovic1, Rumyana Tonchovska2, Sasa Rikanovic1

1Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia; 2UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Serbia is one of the countries participating in the Western Balkans regional initiative, aiming to address the challenges to increase female land ownership. Gender disaggregated data have been produced from the administrative systems in the region, indicating a low percentage of female land ownership across the region. After the adoption of the Global Agenda, the work is focused on developing capacities to collect data and report progress on the SDGs land indicator under target 5.a: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Serbia is one of the first countries in the world, which produced the baseline data for SDGs indicator 5.a.2. and is taking serious actions to achieve the indicator. The paper will present the results from applying the methodology for monitoring and reporting on SDGs indicator 5a.2 and good practices from Serbia in improving gender equality in land ownership and its impact in the next coming years.



From laws to action: Achieving SDG indicator 5.a.2 in the Western Balkans

Naomi Kenney1, Adela Llatja2, Margreet Goelema2, Rumyana Tonchovska1, Lovro Tomasic3, Margret Vidar1, Bianca Wengenmayer3

1FAO, Italy; 2GIZ, Germany; 3UINL, Italy

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, gender equality has become more and more present in the agendas of the governments and the international community. This paper will present how the countries of the Western Balkans, assisted by the German Government, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Union of Notaries (UINL) have moved forward in strengthening women’s access to land. The Session will focus on the implementation gap between the law (de jure) and the practice (de facto) in the region and introduce a set of practical guidelines that invite notaries and registration officers to use their unique position to protect and strengthen the rights of spouses, partners and daughters. It will also explore how the experience from the Western Balkans could be applied in other regions of the world.



Using open data to analyze participation in the labor market and property registration of women in Kosovo

Brikene Meha, Barlet Meha

Marin Sh.P.K., Kosovo

In this study two analyses are conducted on the participation rate in the labor market and the registration of immovable property of women in Kosovo. This analysis is conducted using two main open data sources such as the Labor Force Time Use Survey and the Kosovo Geoportal. Estimations from the adjusted sample size show that the labor participation rate for women in Kosovo is 22% and for men is 52%, while the employment rate for women is 14% and 47% for men. The analysis is extended by using real time cadastral data on the registration of immovable property by all men and women in Kosovo from 2014-2018. Large gender discrepancies are found among the data in regards to the registration of immovable property, particularly, in 2018, women's registration of immovable property was 17.05% and 80.96% for men, and the remaining percentage belongs to the legal entities registered as property owners.



Women, Financial Inclusion and the Law: Why Property Rights matter for Women's access to and use of financial services

Tazeen Hasan, Nayda Almodovar

World Bank Group, United States of America

Property (including land and housing) rights are a focus of the project analyzing linkages with underlying legislation such as family, inheritance laws and land laws, and its impacts on areas such as women’s ability to access credit. Owning and being able to leverage their property, especially land, is essential for women when pursuing economic opportunities, particularly as entrepreneurs. Women, Business and the Law sheds light on specific areas of the law that are relevant for women’s access to financial services.

For example, our new research shows that women's account ownership is lower in places where their legal rights to work or own property are restricted. Women, Business and the Law 2018 finds that unequal legal rights can affect women’s financial inclusion both directly and indirectly.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-05: Evaluating impacts of land tenure interventions
Session Chair: Malcolm Childress, Global Land Alliance, United States of America
MC 5-100 
 

Land conservation for open space: spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors

Haoluan Wang

University of Maryland at College Park, United States of America

Land conservation has been widely used as a policy tool to contain urban sprawl, protect habitat, and provide ecosystem services through conservation easements. This paper investigates spatial spillovers and the impact of neighbors on private landowners’ conservation decision for open space. A spatially-explicit panel dataset is constructed to illustrate the patterns of private land parcels on conservation easements over time. In the empirical analysis, this paper identifies endogenous spatial interactions and employs a correlated random-effects model to correct for the endogeneity of time-varying covariates. The results show that there exist positive impacts of neighbors on the likelihood of private landowners’ conservation decision. This paper extends the literature by showing that such spatial spillovers diminish with distance and present a non-linear pattern as the number of neighbors increases. Land parcel characteristics such as parcel size and local land price are also found to influence landowners’ decision to place a conservation easement.



Smallholder crop market participation in Tanzania: The influence of transaction cost, asset endowment and producer cooperatives

Sosina Bezu, Espen Villanger

Chr.Michelsen Institute, Norway

This paper assess the determinants of crop market participation among smallholder farmers in Tanzania, with a focus on the role of transaction cost, asset endowment and cooperatives. The study is based on household survey data from Southern Tanzania where cooperatives play a significant role in the cash crop market. We analyse market participation using Cragg’s double-hurdle model and control for potential endogeneity of cooperative membership using control function approach. We find that distance to market negatively influences cash crop sales while better access to information and communication encourages both food and cash crop marketing. Among asset endowments, only agriculture-specific resources have significant impact. The study shows that while cooperatives improve market participation among members, they also appear to stunt local food markets. Having a marketing cooperatives branch in the village reduces both the likelihood of selling food crops and the amount sold. It does not affect cash crop market participation.



Land access and household implementation of agroecosystems in rural Guatemala

Maria Van Der Maaten

Iowa State University, United States of America

Agroecology is increasingly promoted as a rural development and livelihood strategy that can reduce poverty and increase food security. However, this assumption is made without understanding how peasant households can access land on which they can implement agroecological practices. This research asks: How does differential access to land influence a household’s decision to implement agroecological practices? What types of land tenure statuses are conducive to adapting agroecosystems? Using a political ecology lens, I analyze the implementation of agroecological practices among households in San Martín Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango, Guatemala through qualitative research conducted in early 2016. I find that differences in land ownership and the size of the plots farmed or used for grazing are key factors to household implementation or use of agroecological practices. Agroecological practices can only be implemented and yield a sustainable livelihood if households have access to enough land on which they can implement the practices.



Land markets and transaction costs following institutional strengthening: A pre-post evaluation in Mongolia

Kate Marple-Cantrell, Heather Huntington

The Cloudburst Group, United States of America

High level interventions that focus on institutional and technology improvements at a national level or in a limited number of urban/provincial areas do not lend themselves to rigorous impact evaluations, as there is often no feasible counterfactual. Correspondingly, most quantitative research on land tenure has focused on measuring indicators and outcomes at the household or community level. The analysis of land administration and bank loan data is notably absent from empirical studies to-date. This paper seeks to fill this evidence gap and build the knowledge base on the effectiveness of national level land administration and capacity building interventions by presenting the endline performance evaluation findings of a Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) Mongolia land registry strengthening project. Our paper utilizes a variety of data sources to test whether the project achieved expected outcomes, primarily increased efficiency of land transactions.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-06: Indonesia's 'one map' policy: Does it live up to its potential?
Session Chair: Jill Pike, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC 6-100 
 

Governance effectiveness evaluation and cost benefit analysis of one map policy delivery institutions at the sub-national level in Indonesia

Nanda Noor1, Anita Silalahi1, Adi Pradana1, Aris Haryanto2

1World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia; 2Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) of the Government of Republic of Indonesia

Indonesian national and sub-national government agencies produce their own maps, resulting in overlapping claims, land conflicts and hindering sustainable development. To address this, the government aims to compile, integrate and synchronize 85 thematic maps, involving 19 national agencies and 34 provincial governments through One Map Policy acceleration by 2019. Geospatial Information Agency is responsible to develop spatial data infrastructure, mandating national and sub-national government agencies to establish data management institution. The agency has commissioned research to evaluate governance effectiveness and conduct cost-benefit analysis on institutional arrangement alternatives at provincial level. Using a mix of qualitative criteria evaluation with quantitative weighting method, the analysis founded 15-year net present value of Governor’s Secretary (USD 137 Million) and separate Implementing Unit (USD 178 Million) as institutions with highest performance ratings. Investment and coordination factors show that the former could serve as short-term (quick win) alternative while preparing the latter as long-term (ideal) solution.



Mapping indigenous land: lesson learned from One Map Initiative in Indonesia

Dwiki Ridhwan, Carolina Astri, Dean Affandi, Fajar Muis, Lawalata Julius

World Resources Institute Indonesia, Indonesia

The idea of One Map comes from the lack of integrated and synchronized geospatial data on land ownership and land use sector across Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to extract lessons learned of the process in an indigenous village in Riau, Sumatra where their settlements are declared as part of a Wildlife Reserve. The study suggests implementing an ideal inclusive, sustainable, and accountable One-Map in village level would require a greater emphasis on (1) a different community engagement approach to make all social class and gender within the community equally participate, (2) an incorporation of environmental impact assessment for land use planning, and, in context of One Map in forest area, (3) a mutual understanding among institutions about One Map and their support on sustainable practices.



Towards prosperity and sustainability: The progress of social forestry implementation in Indonesia

Dimas Fauzi1, Satrio Wicaksono1, Adelina Chandra2, Fadhilla Husnul Khatimah3

1WRI Indonesia, Indonesia; 2Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies, Sweden; 3Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Indonesia

Social Forestry (SF) in Indonesia had embarked on a new, exciting phase under the Jokowi administration. Despite the government’s ambitious social forestry goal, there has been no robust evaluation framework to assess whether the SF initiative is progressing toward achieving the program’s intended objectives, i.e. 1) tenurial conflict resolution, 2) welfare improvement, and 3) forest protection. After an extensive desktop review, we developed fifteen evaluation indicators covering the environmental, socio-economic, and institutional aspects of SF management. We then tested out the evaluation framework in two SF locations in Sumatra, where we conducted random household surveys, interviews, and focused group discussions. SF implementation in both locations is generally able to protect the forest from threats while also improving communities’ welfare through forest-based income and environmental services. Yet, overlapping boundaries between the proposed and approved maps also remained, suggesting the complexities of SF implementation in Indonesia.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-07: Supporting land management by customary authorities
Session Chair: Stephen Brooks, US Agency for International Development, United States of America
MC 7-100 
 

Customary land secretariats in Ghana as change agents in land dispute management

Gad Asorwoe Akwensivie, Dickson Agbogah

Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Ghana



Innovative customary land governance in Zambia: experiences, lessons learned and emerging impacts

David Katungula1, Morgan Kumwenda2, Danilo Antonio3, Moonga Chilanga3, Hellen Nyamweru-Ndungu3

1People's Process on Housing & Poverty in Zambia, Zambia; 2Chamuka Royal Establishment; 3UN-Habitat/GLTN



Improving customary land administration in Ghana- CLSs shows the way

Coleman Clarence Bosompim Coleman Clarence Bosompim

Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands, Ghana



Making Customary Land Secretariats financially and operationally sustainable from the ground up in Ghana

Thomas Vaassen1, Igor Popiv2, Carol Roffer2, Simon Ulvund1

1Meridia, Netherlands; 2Innola, United States of America

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-08: Remote sensing and automation for property tax assessment
Session Chair: Amy Rasmussen, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
MC 8-100 
 

Supporting local government administrations through public private partnerships (PPP).

Gasant Jacobs1, Abdelwahab Zramdini2

1Cotecna Inspection SA, United Arab Emirates; 2Cotecna Inspection SA, Geneva

In a decentralised framework, local government is generally charged with the responsibility of delivering basic services to its constituencies, and for this system to work, local government entities are also given the right to raise their own revenues. The revenue from land & property tax is necessary if local government wants to achieve financial viability.

With the support of the WB, many governments have modernised their Land Information Systems, creating the platform for local government to collect property taxes. However, the failure of the vast majority of local governments to efficiently collect the property tax means that it is necessary for the private sector to provide support. Local governments undoubtedly need help to implement land & property tax systems.

This paper outlines practical and tangible measures of how innovation and collaboration with the private sector can help local government to be more successful in raising their internally generated revenue (IGR).



Land characteristics survey in Korea, utilizing spatial information

Jinho Choi, Nana Lee

Korea Appraisal Board, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

The purpose of this presentation is to show how the land characteristics survey method of Public Land Price Assessment System (PASLP) of the South Korea developed by applying spatial information science, with specific examples.

The Korea Appraisal Board developed the Automatic Land Characteristics Survey (ALCS) System with its own GIS and information technologies in order to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of land characteristic survey with less survey error.

By using geospatial technology, the said automated survey system of land characteristics influences pricing of land. It is especially used to analyze topography, parcel shape, aspect, road adjacency, area, zoning, land use, planning and accessibility to land parcels for public facilities. It allows quick and accurate field surveys of each land parcels throughout the country, improving time efficiency and saving human labor. Moreover, it enhances the accuracy, objectivity and consistency in field surveys, saving the cost of field surveys.



Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a satellite–based approach to maintaining a property database

Graham Deane, Robert M Owen

Airbus Defence and Space, United Kingdom

Maintaining up-to-date and accurate information about all assets and services owned and operated by organisations is essential for good governance. Often insufficient attention or resources are provided to ensure this occurs and in rapidly changing environments, such as exist in the developing world, where increasing urbanisation is a major factor, information about land and property is all too often inaccurate, considerably out of date and not maintained in any meaningful way. The change detection project in Dakar, which uses the analysis of Very High Resolution satellite imagery to identify urban change, provides a means to keep the database of land and property up-to-date at reasonable cost. However it is only of benefit if, upon the completion of a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), the method adopted is demonstrably shown to be carried out at a lower cost than the alternative approaches, such as a field-only based approach.



The points-based method: simplification of valuation processes for property tax purposes

Asaah Nyah Zebong, Wilson Prichard, Paul Fish

International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD), Cameroon

It is widely acknowledged that property taxation systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are severely underperforming due in part to ineffective valuation. The paper discusses the importance of simplifying valuation in contexts where property markets are inexistent, institutional flaws are rife and valuation rolls are incomplete. Drawing on experiences from Sierra Leone, Malawi and Senegal, it argues that simplified valuation like the Points-Based Method (PBM) are easier to administer and particularly more attractive options in resolving challenges linked to the more traditional market and surface area methods. Outcomes of the implementation of iterative processes of PBM clearly show that the method is: flexible, transparent and ensures efficient coverage of wider areas. It mimics market price trends and is easily managed using simple ICT systems. Therefore, a strong empirical case exists to take progressive medium-term steps to substitute traditional with more simplified methods that improve chances of optimizing property tax yields.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-09: Using cadastral information to value and govern natural capital
Session Chair: Randall Bluffstone, Portland State University, United States of America
MC 9-100 
 

Valuing Natural Capital

Fiona Mannix

RICS, United Kingdom

Natural capital has been defined by the Natural Capital Protocol (NCP) as the “world's stocks of natural assets which include geology, soil, air, water and all living things”. Green finance and green growth offers unprecedented opportunities for financial institutions to invest in natural features such as woodland, peatland and wetland. Natural capital can catalyse new partnerships and foster innovation between financial institutions, land owners, environmental organisations and government. With a range of “values” being attached to natural capital assets, it’s important to note the distinctions between the value of an asset as it stands for sale / notional sale, the evaluation of an asset for its deemed or perceived benefits / disbenefits associated with its existence, enjoyment, environmental or aesthetic contribution, and the evaluation of an asset for strategic decision-making purposes. Relevant parties need to be aufait with the range of “values” being calculated and their origins.



Improving natural resource management for developing nations through the implementation of online mining cadastre solutions

Glenn Matthews

Trimble, South Africa

Government agencies world-wide acknowledge that the transparent and efficient management of their natural resources is a critical factor in the growth and stability of their economies and in uplifting communities.

While the extractive industry is often a complex and dynamic sector, with participation of stakeholders across many parts of the community, governments are able to effectively manage compliance and revenues, and attract responsible investment to their jurisdiction through a modern, fit for purpose, mining cadastre information management system.

This presentation will focus on how the implementation of a modern mining cadastre system, particularly for developing nations, can assist government agencies in meeting their extractive industry goals, while at the same time providing the industry with the confidence that their underlying mining tenure is protected and secure.



Open Interactive Map Platform Infrastructure to support projects on local and regional scale.

Leandro Biondo, Bernardo Trovao, Rejane Mendes, Janaina Rocha

Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil

Brazilian Forest Services manages the Rural Environmental Register from Brazilian Forest Code for environmental planning. Non-governmental organizations, small hydrological basin committees and city administrators work closer to the people on the countryside. Some of these data clients had difficulties on usage and processing of the information and we helped with personalized versions of official interactive maps with changed coverage regions, available layers and tools.

We developed a platform in the most transparent, simple and open sourced way possible. This platform now allows anyone to connect to our data via web service, using the desktop GIS software of preference with the possibility to just use the updated information as needed instead of downloading every part every time. After studies on scale representativeness and rural properties characteristics we got service loading and data exporting times reduced on a 40 to 60% average to better attend each of the 5.570 municipalities in Brazil.



Restoration Opportunities Atlas of India - building information bridges for people, forests and landscapes

Marie Josephine Nishanthi Duraisami, Ruchika Singh

World Resources Institute India, India

Protecting forests, implementing tree-based landscape restoration, and securing tenure and resource rights are globally recognized as cost-effective solutions for combating climate change. In India, the landscape approach underpins achievement of international and domestic commitments to climate and development. However, critical gaps in data, particularly of key enabling conditions such as tenure, resource rights, risks and financial mechanisms undermine planning for landscape restoration at scale. This abstract provides an overview of the key enabling conditions that underpin success of landscape restoration and introduces the Restoration Opportunities Atlas of India. The Atlas is a web-based platform that brings together best available data and rigorous analysis to support development of pathways to achieve the NDC, plan for restoration at scale and understand status of enabling conditions.Importantly, it promotes data sharing, fosters adaptive learning within the restoration community and provides basis for developing a monitoring platform for tracking India’s progress towards the NDC.



The socio-economic impact of measures to avert or reverse land degradation in agriculture: a systematic review

Mandy Malan2, Ezra Berkhout1, Jan Duchoslav3, Maarten Voors2, Stefan Van Der Esch1, Willem Verhagen1

1PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands, The; 2Wageningen University, Netherlands, The; 3IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America

Continuous processes of land degradation -losses of soil, nutrients and water holding capacity, pose a threat to maintaining or increasing agricultural productivity. Raising agricultural productivity is key to feeding a burgeoning global population and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, various options to promote sustainable land management are advocated to avert or reverse such processes of land degradation on agricultural land. While a positive impact of such interventions on socio-economic outcomes is often assumed, the actual evidence base supporting such claims is lacking. We set to fill this gap using a systematic review. We identify relevant studies on promoting sustainable land management that assess impact on socio-economic indicators, including changes in net income or food security status, and those that apply rigorous econometric methods. We estimate the average effect of the management options considered on socio-economic outcomes and explore potential sources of heterogeneity.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-10: Balancing rights, development and natural resources protection
Session Chair: Omoding James Peters Opio, AfDB, Côte d'Ivoire
MC 10-100 
 

Land and resource tenure tensions driven by extractives on the commons of Karamoja – Uganda:

Herbert Kamusiime1, Eddie Nsamba Gayiiya1, Elisa Scalise2, Christine Kajumba1, Margaret Rugadya3

1Associates Research Trust Uganda, Uganda; 2Resource Equity, US; 3Global Land Expert

The Karamoja commons are richly endowed with minerals, including gold, limestone and marble. Both foreign and domestic companies have mining interests in the region. Open access defines the commons, is key to the success of herding, but, to mining it presents a dilemma; there is unimpeded access to mining claims, yet these are being individualized amidst changing land use. The status of the reversionary interest of the once common lands when mining is concluded, is at stake. Open access means high influx of miners, hence high mineral supplies and low prices. Not helping are blind spots between mining and land laws that allow mining companies to operate like ‘middlemen’ using their licenses to exclude competition. Open access and the legal and policy blind spots make it difficult to determine recipients of royalties and surface rights compensation. This leaves communities with neither the commons for herding nor the benefits from mining.



Emerging issues in convergence of conservation and development within wildlife protected areas in Kenya

Joycelyn Kaaria

Kenya Wildlife Service, Kenya

Kenya is implementing a national long term development plan aimed at transforming the country to a newly industrializing middle-income country by the year 2030. The development of physical infrastructure including transport and energy infrastructure, is considered as one of the catalysts for this economic transformation. However, national development requires the use of land reserved for conservation purposes including wildlife protected areas. In the recent past, the country has come up with innovative ways to avail conservation land for development while ensuring the necessary environmental mitigation measures are undertaken in order to ensure sustainable development. The paper presents the emerging issues in convergence of conservation and development within wildlife protected areas in Kenya.



The assault on sanctity of village lands in Tanzania by conservation initiatives

Rugemeleza Nshala

Lawyers' Environmental Action Team (LEAT), Tanzania

in 2009 Tanzania enacted the Wildlife Conservation Act (the WCA). Its section 16(4) required the Minister responsible with wildlife to publish a list of game controlled areas (GCAs) within one year after its coming into force and give reasons for their continuation. To this date, the Minister has not done so. Yet the repealed WCA of 1974 allowed habitation of GCAs by people. The Village Land Act likewise legalized villages created under the villagization program of 1974-75 and WCAthose that were created on GCAs. The 2009 WCA banned the existence of GCAs on village lands meaning the Tanzanian government was duty bound to re-gazette GCAs and ensure that none of them was on village land as GCAs were elevated into protected areas status barring human activities on them. The failure to resolve this conflict of laws many render many villagers landless.



Protecting the nexus between communities’ land and water tenure rights: a comparative analysis of national laws recognizing the freshwater rights of indigenous peoples and local communities

Stephanie Keene1, Jessica Troell2, Chloe Ginsburg1

1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2Environmental Law Institute, Malawi

Indigenous and local communities utilize and govern terrestrial and freshwater resources in an integrated manner, yet insufficient attention has been paid to community-based “water tenure,” linkages between communities’ water and land tenure, and the extent that communities’ rights to freshwater are legally recognized. A forthcoming analysis seeks to narrow this critical knowledge gap by assessing the extent to which countries’ national laws recognize freshwater rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities. Analysis of 16 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania concludes that communities’ recognized freshwater rights are largely dependent on their land rights. Laws governing freshwater and terrestrial resources commonly lack sufficient harmonization and gender sensitivity, while also burdening communities with onerous procedural requirements that prevent them from realizing their water rights. Findings emphasize that the security of communities’ land and water tenure demands an integrated multi-sectoral approach to legislative reform and natural resource governance.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-11: Fit for purpose land administration
Session Chair: Rudolf Staiger, FIG- International Federation of Surveyors, Germany
MC C1-100 
 

Delivering land administration services at scale

Ishak Sallehuddin

Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, Malaysia

A proper land administration system should be established in order to ensure stability in society by creating security not only for landowners but also for investors, traders and the government. The improvements and changes have assisted more foreign and local investments to this country and further strengthened Malaysia’s position in World Bank Ease Doing Business.

As the country moved from an agriculture-based economy to manufacturing and technology-based one. The usage of physical documents and hard copy files can no longer cope with the surge of the economic activities, so manual land registration was converted to electronic system.

Despite the use of technology and the introduction of various systems to expedite and simplify conveyancing. Such improvements require both commitment and willingness at the government side as well as the business community.



Using participatory approaches and innovative technology to empower communities in securing their land

Ioana Bouvier, Stephen Brooks, Jeremy Green, Sarah Lowery, Caleb Stevens

US Agency for International Development, United States of America

Land and resources documentation can improve rural livelihoods by increasing access to credit and encouraging long-term sustainable investments in the land. However, obtaining land documentation can be difficult due to the high costs of surveying land, stringent accuracy requirements, and outdated land registries. To overcome these constraints, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) supported the development of participatory approaches as part of Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure (MAST). Through participatory methods and innovative tools, MAST supports systematic mapping and documentation of community land resources in an efficient, sustainable, and participatory manner.Local community members and land resource managers receive training in resources governance, land rights, and participatory approaches to mapping land and resources.MAST has been tested in Tanzania, Zambia, and Burkina-Faso, where it significantly reduced claim processing times, led to increased awareness of land rights by community members, and resulted in unprecedented parity in women’s claims to land ownership.



Low-cost cadastre and valuation with lightweight technology

Brent Jones

Esri, United States of America

Configurable off-the-shelf GIS technologies for cadastral systems and valuation systems are affordable and easy to use. There is no longer a need for custom programming, complex implementations, and special skills. Leveraging standard data models such as the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) GIS data and technology deliver systems that are quickly implemented, scalable, evolve with changing requirements and supported by numerous public, private, and NGO communities.

This new approach addresses many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, accurate GPS use, scalability and security. This presentation will detail the technology used including Android, survey accurate GPS, LADM, and ArcGIS Online combined with innovative ways to collect ownership information. This presentation will detail technology used in pilot projects in Kenya and Colombia.



Digitization of the Land Registry within a Plural Legislative Framework: A case study of land registry innovations in Trinidad and Tobago

Amanda Fulchan-Lakhan2, Kizzann Lee Sam2, Miguel Angel Sanjines Mancilla1

1Land Administration Consultant, Bolivia, Plurinational State of; 2Ministry of the Attorney General and Legal Affairs, Trinidad & Tobago

The practice of managing land involves policy, legislative and administrative structures. Technology-based land use solutions require standardization of data and countries that introduce land management technology often face difficulties in creating and sustaining accurate and complete databases. In Trinidad and Tobago, the approach to digitization of land records is set under a plural legislative framework that governs land transfers. With two islands, two levels of government (local and national) and two legal registration frameworks - Common Law and Real Property Act (Torrens-based), this twin-island republic faces ongoing challenges related to digitizing two types of records (Deeds and Titles) standardizing metadata fields, capturing non-land related transactions under the Deeds system; and improving quality, accuracy and completeness in an integrated database. The paper will focus on past and current approaches to digitization and the impact of the digitization outputs on future electronic systems in the country.



Taking matters into their own hands: why innovation in community land data collection matters

Amy Coughenour Betancourt, Frank Pichel

Cadasta Foundation, United States of America

This paper addresses practical, on-the-ground solutions to bridging the gap between government land systems and undocumented or informally documented communities. Case studies highlight how communities are using a digital platform and tools for community-collected data used for decision-making, advocating for land rights and tenure recognition, and accessing public and private sector services, such as loans, insurance, and other goods and services. This paper shares data on how putting accessible and appropriate land documentation technologies and training into the hands of local partners and vulnerable communities has transformed and empowered communities left out of the land registry system. Four case studies are highlighted to show different uses of land rights data: land rights for slum dwellers in Odisha State, India; supply chain transparency with Seed Change in Tanzania; rural community land governance with iCT-F in Mozambique; and prevention of urban settlement evictions and infrastructure upgrading with C-MAP in Nigeria.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm02-12: Can large investment catalyze agricultural transformation?
Session Chair: Thomas Jayne, Michigan State University, United States of America
MC C1-200 
 

The Resource Impact Dashboard (RID) An innovative global framework to measure the local impact of landed resources exploitation by industries

Fritz Brugger3, Selina Bezzola3, Joao Salavessa2, Rey Pascal1, Peter Hochet1, Hermine Papazian1

1Institute for Social Research in Africa, Burkina Faso; 2Universidade de Lurio, Mozambique; 3Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland

Within the larger goal of improving our understanding of the development impact of landed resource extraction on territorial management, the main focus of the RID research project lies on developing a methodological and technical framework that allows gathering field-based evidence across the diverse dimensions of outcomes, in a way that is readily available and understandable to both policymakers and local stakeholders. The RID framework is informed by a relational theory approach and integrating insights from research into the emergence of civil conflict and into the role of institutions in creating social capital. Mixed qualitative and quantitative data are collected through survey on wellbeing and perceptions; complementary data are collected from extractive companies and government bodies. The survey is currently being tested in two mining areas in Burkina Faso and Mozambique each, administering surveys to a total of 2'000 households.



Agricultural growth corridors in Sub-Saharan Africa - New hope for territorial rural development or another non-starter?

Michael Bruentrup

German Development Institute (DIE), Germany

Agricultural growth corridors - geographically bounded areas along a central transport line that receive intensive agricultural investments - are a recent approach to economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. They figure prominently in several national development strategies in the region. Agricultural growth corridors combine agricultural policies with agrobusiness and infrastructure investments. Since they are usually planned and managed as strategic private-public-partnerships, they promise to bring together expertise, funding and coordination that are usually dispersed and aim to benefit from multiple synergies that arise. There are, however, huge pitfalls to be overcome from agricultural corridor approaches, including social exclusion, land grabbing and ecological stress. The paper brings together literature on geographical approaches to rural development as well as empirical evidence from the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT).



A framework for the development of responsible agropoles in Africa

Mohamed Coulibaly, Francine Picard

International Institute for Sustainable Development, Mali

Agropoles are simultaneous, coordinated investments in agriculture to support self-sustaining industrialization in a country. Ensuring that the new wave of agropoles in Africa is effective requires robust policies, laws and practices to ensure that a possible new trend of investment helps Africa achieve its sustainable development goals. There’s therefore a need for a clear framework outlining the key stages and steps, including the practices they entail, to follow in order to make sure they are developed in a responsible and a sustainable manner, i.e. in such a way that the risks associated with their development are minimized and the benefits maximized.

The present paper is a reflection on such a Framework for the development of responsible Agricultural growth zones. It identifies eight key steps spread across three main phases for a responsible agropole development framework: planning (1), Design (2) and implementation (3).



Changing farm structure and rural transformation in Africa

Thomas Jayne

Michigan State University, United States of America

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10:30am - 12:00pm02-13: Gender aspects of land tenure
Session Chair: Victoria Stanley, World Bank, United States of America
MC 7-860 
 

Land reform and child health in the Kyrgyz republic

Katrina Kosec1, Olga Shemyakina2

1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Georgia Tech, United States of America



Gender gaps in forest tenure reforms in Peru: The impact of expectations on the household incomes of native communities

Rosa Luz Duran

Universidad de Lima, Peru



Land joint titling and its effects on household welfare in Vietnam

Helle Buchhave, Cuong Nguyen Viet, Hoa Hoa Thi Mong Pham, Giang Tam Nuyen, Kathrine Kelm

World Bank, United States of America



Gender differences in housing ownership in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Aphichoke Kotikula, Ruth Hill, Wameq Azfar Raza

World Bank, United States of America

 
12:00pm - 2:00pmLunch
Front Lobby and Preston Lounge 
12:00pm - 2:00pmWomen's caucus
MC 4-100 
12:30pm - 2:00pm00-12: Leveraging geospatial infrastructure to advance tenure security at scale
Session Chair: Haishan Fu, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Leveraging geospatial infrastructure to advance tenure security at scale

Jack Dangermond

ESRI, United States of America

tbd

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-01: Building analytical capacity on land in Africa
Session Chair: Emmanuel Nkurunziza, Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya
Preston Auditorium 
 

NEPAD support to policy analysis capacity building in Africa

Rudo Makunike

NEPAD, South Africa

..



Policy relevant research: Building on AERC's PhD course to strengthen analytical capacity on land governance in Africa

Innocent Matshe

African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya

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Harnessing the IT revolution for African land policies

Klaus Deininger

World Bank, United States of America

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Expanding the frontier for research on land in Africa

Njuguna Ndung'u

African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya

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2:00pm - 3:30pm03-02: New ways of measuring urban extent
Session Chair: Shlomo Angel, New York University, United States of America
MC 13-121 
 

Definition matters. Metropolitan areas and agglomeration economies in a large developing country

Maarten Bosker2, Jane Park1, Mark Roberts1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2Erasmus University Rotterdam

A variety of approaches to delineate metropolitan areas have been developed. Systematic comparisons of these approaches in terms of the urban landscape that they generate are however few. Our paper aims to fill this gap. We focus on Indonesia, and make use of the availability of data on commuting flows, remotely-sensed nighttime lights, and spatially fine-grained population, to construct metropolitan areas using the different approaches that have been developed in the literature. We find that the maps and characteristics of Indonesia’s urban landscape vary substantially depending on the approach used. Moreover, combining information on the metro areas generated by the different approaches with detailed micro-data from Indonesia’s national labor force survey, we show that the estimated size of the agglomeration wage premium depends nontrivially on the approach used to define metropolitan areas.



Densification vs. expansion: recent findings for a global sample of cities

Shlomo Angel, Patrick Lamson-Hall

New York University, United States of America

When the populations of cities grow, they can be accommodated within the existing footprints of cities or in newly-built expansion areas. Urban planners, have called for the densification of existing footprints, but there has been little data to measure the extent to which densification has been effective. Using a new dataset, a global stratified sample of 200 cities of 4,231 cities that had 100,000 people or more ind 2010, we explore the share of the populations added to cities between 1990 and 2015 that were accommodated in areas built before 1990, and compare it with the share accommodated in expansion areas built between 1990 and 2015. We also explore the extent to which the built-up areas in pre-1990 footprints increased in density, and the extent t to which vacant areas within pre-1990 footprints were built upon. We then seek to explain why some cities densified while others expanded.



Accurately monitoring urbanization at global scale – the world settlement footprint

Mattia Marconcini1, Noel Gorelick2, Annekatrin Metz-Marconcini1, Thomas Esch1

1German Aerospace Center - DLR, Germany; 2Google Inc., USA

Reliably monitoring global urbanization is of key importance to properly estimate the distribution of the continually expanding population, along with its effects on the use of resources, transport, socioeconomic development, human health, etc. To this purpose, in order to accurately outline the actual settlement extent globally we generated the World Settlement Footprint (WSF) 2015 , i.e. a 10m resolution binary mask derived by jointly exploiting multitemporal optical and radar satellite imagery, which outperforms all other existing similar layers. Furthermore, to characterize the urbanization occurred in the last three decades, we are currently generating the WSF Evolution, i.e. a novel dataset aimed at outlining the growth of settlement extent globally at 30m spatial resolution and high temporal resolution (i.e., 5-year or even finer) from 1985 to 2015. The WSF Evolution will be released in 2019 and is expected to become a revolutionary product in support to a variety of end users.



Characterizing and managing urban expansion for higher equity, productivity, and environmental quality in the global south

Anjali Mahendra1, Karen Seto2

1World Resources Institute, WRI, United States of America; 2Yale University, , United States of America

This paper examines how urban expansion can be managed in a way that achieves more equitable access to core urban services for the under-served, while bringing wider economic and environmental benefits to cities. It presents new remote sensing analysis of the growth in urban built up area over a decade in 499 cities with population greater than one million and develops new metrics to measure changes in their outward and upward growth. The analysis highlights regional trends in urban expansion, differences in urban structure within and between cities, and combines this information with urban population and economic growth projections. The paper then discusses some driving forces for outward expansion, highlighting key equity challenges of the phenomenon in cities of the global South. We argue that while some urban land expansion is inevitable with increasing urbanization, the pace, scale, and nature of this expansion can be managed through some proven strategies.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-03: Low-cost ways to establish cadastral systems
Session Chair: Andy Wickless, Trimble, Inc., United States of America
MC 2-800 
 

Precision geolocation at the service of least developed countries

Paul Chambon

Exagone, France

GNSS is a technology that enables location of objects, points and maps anywhere in the world with the same level of accuracy. In particular, it allows emerging countries to set up internal databases in perfect complementarity and continuity with international information.

In France, the “Ordre des Géomètres-Experts” launched the TERIA project in 2005 to deploy a network able to offer an NRTK satellite data processing service with centimetric accuracy. This network served as a basis for the deployment of the Géo-Foncier digital portal, which is today the keystone of the management of land rights and public constraints.

The TERIA process can be replicated in least developed countries and participate in their autonomy. It is a powerful lever for setting agricultural policies and boosting the global economy by offering a leading basic tool for advanced technologies (robotics, navigation, transport ...).



Fit for Purpose, scalable GNSS data collection

Sepp Josef Englberger

Leica Geosystems, Germany

It is not uncommon for the user of a software or hardware product to touch only a small percentage of the tools available to them. Functionality correlates highly with cost and can be a contributing factor to users being excluded from innovative new technology. GNSS data collection vendors have a responsibility to ensure their products are not only fit for purpose but also flexible enough to reach a wide range of users.

Scalability has become an expectation of the user and you no longer have to be locked into a large, complex workflow when you can pick and choose which elements of a system are relevant for you. Software and hardware should align to user’s needs as their own industries are developing and changing as rapidly as the technology is advancing. Users need a solution which is tailored to their knowledge and experience. This is especially important for developing countries.



Customized earth observation based information services

Matjaz Ivacic1, Tatjana Veljanovski2, Marcin Bilelecki1, Liza Stancic2, Andrej Beden1, Ziga Kokalj2

1GeoCodis Ltd., Slovenia; 2ZRC SAZU, Slovenia

Earth observation (EO) data enables a quick assessment of regions of interest. This is particularly relevant for areas undergoing social and economic change that may lead to increased pressures on natural resources. The present work focuses on the development of a cloud-based end-to-end processing chain which provides easy-to-use services for rapid overviews of on-the-ground conditions. The resulting EO-based information including maps, time series graphs and derived statistics can be integrated into geospatial systems or reports.

Using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data, and customized generic modular workflows to provide Information Layers (IL), the product is designed to assist monitoring and safeguarding actions by International Development Banks.

Broader areas of interest are arid zones, where there have been conflicts, big population changes, and/or urban expansion. Four thematic IL are conceived: Extent and status of dwellings of forcibly displaced persons, Surface water extent, Grassland extent and status, and Degradation risk assessment.



Deploying titling and customary land registration systems with a blockchain element

Trent Larson, Chris Chrysostom

Medici Land Governance, United States of America

Medici Land Governance, working with communities and governments, has written systems to gather ownership claims and also to register titles with governments. We describe the work in Zambia for a systematic titling project, which includes features for transparency using a public blockchain network. We then describe an approach that applies to customary land, where the communities are able to assert their ownership and later verify their claims on a public blockchain in a semi-public way; this approach requires smart-phones and thus currently applies to areas outside Africa (eg. Peru), but it allows for independent affirmations. We will discuss the designs and tradeoffs for these systems, mostly from an engineering point-of-view but including lessons learned in policy and logistics.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-04: Recognizing women's rights over common resources
Session Chair: David Bledsoe, Resource Equity, United States of America
MC 4-100 
 

Securing women’s property rights in utilization of commons: Lessons from the Kadenge community of Yala Swamp

Hope Otieno

National Legal Aid Service, Kenya

Women in Kenya, as in the rest of the world, continue to suffer from both structural and systemic gender based discrimination. Indigenous women and women living in the rural areas have since time immemorial been particularly vulnerable to marginalization in the management and utilization of commons resources. Despite progressive laws in Kenya which attempt to stem out gender based discrimination, this paper establishes that the gender neutral approach to the management of and access to the commons, leaves room for perpetuating discriminatory practices thus promoting marginalization. The study takes case study of the effect of land reclamation, adjudication and sale of part of Yala Swamp to Dominion Farms ltd on the women of Kadenge community who depended on the Swamp for their livelihoods. This paper proposes a framework to ensure inclusive and participatory governance of the commons to guarantee the property rights of the women who depend on the commons.



Customary land tenure systems and gendered land rights in Ghana’s northern region: Results from phase II gender equity and land tenure focus groups

Gina Rico Mendez, Kathleen Ragsdale, Kelly Lower, Mary Read-Wahidi

Mississippi State University, United States of America

We present results from Phase II of the Gendered Equity and Land Tenure (GELT) focus groups, conducted in Ghana’s Northern Region in 2018 to further investigate gender equity and customary land tenure systems among men and women smallholder soybean farmers in Ghana’s Northern Region. Preliminary GELT Phase II results reconfirmed that the primary way a woman farmer can acquire agricultural land is with the permission and assistance of an adult male. The primary way that women acquire land is through their husbands upon marriage. However, it is important to note that in some communities custom dictates that if a husband wishes, he can ‘reclaim’ his wife’s land and allocate her a different plot of land. In a feedback loop, this lack of tenure security made some women reluctant to make improvements to their farm plots, for fear their improved plots would be taken away from them.



Women’s tenure security on collective lands: Implications for measurement and policy

Ruth Meinzen-Dick1, Rachael Knight2, Cheryl Doss3

1IFPRI, United States of America; 2Namati; 3University of Oxford

Most of the growing attention to women’s tenure security has focused on individual or household-level land rights, with relatively little attention to women’s rights under collective tenure and common property systems, such as forests and rangelands. This paper presents a framework for assessing women’s tenure security on collective lands. Key dimensions include the bundles of rights held, duration, robustness, and how rights are shared. Women’s security of land rights under collective tenure depends on the extent to which the collective has secure tenure, and the extent to which women’s rights are recognized and exercised within the collective. The paper recommends indicators for in-depth research and for monitoring and reporting women’s tenure security, and identifies implications for policies and programs to protect or strengthen women’s rights to collective resources.



Exploring the role of gender equity in customary land administration to boost production

Pamela Bella Nyamutoka Katooro1, Simon Peter Mwesigye2, Rose Mugabe1, Alex Muhumuza1

1International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Uganda; 2UN Habitat/GLTN, Uganda

Land security contributes greatly to the realization of basic human rights and the achievement of the sustainable development goals. In Uganda, registered land is still at 20% with registered women owners constituting a meagre 20%. Gender equity in rights to land can thus increase women’s social and political power. The most significant challenge has been the problem of insecurity of tenure which has affected ability to invest in production.

Against this backdrop, the current initiative supported by UN Habitat GLTN and Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands, IIRR is supporting 1000 indigenous households who are rural small holder farmers through promoting pro-poor, fit-for purpose and gender responsive strategies to secure land tenure rights. Considering that 70% of land is owned under customary tenure, the issuance of certificates of customary ownership is also an important element of the initiative in order to contribute to the right to food and poverty reduction.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-05: Land price determinants
Session Chair: Dieter von Fintel, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
MC 5-100 
 

Does the Real Estate Trading Management System (RTMS) affect housing price and tax base?: Evidence from Korea

Yukyung Kim

Korea Development Institute, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)



Spatial distributions of job accessibility, housing rents, and poverty in Nairobi, Kenya

Shohei Nakamura, Paolo Avner

World Bank, United States of America



Monopolist land supply, housing cycle and entrepreneurship in urban China

Dan Wang

The Economist, China, People's Republic of



Growth of cities and urban influence on agricultural land prices in Malawi

Sarah Ephrida Tione, Stein Terje Holden

Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-06: Land policy to improve agricultural land use
Session Chair: Wordsworth Odame Larbi, FAO, Ethiopia
MC 6-100 
 

Can group farms outperform individual family farms? empirical insights from India

Bina Agarwal

School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, UK

Can group farms, wherein farmers voluntarily pool land, labour and capital and farm collectively, outperform individual family farms? This paper tests this, using the author’s primary survey of two experiments begun in the 2000s in Kerala and Telangana, India. Constituted only of women, the groups collectively farm leased-in land and share labour, costs and returns.

Kerala’s groups perform strikingly better than the largely male-managed individual farms in the state, both in annual value of output per hectare and annual net returns per farm, while Telangana’s group farms perform much worse than individual farms in annual output, but are equivalent in net returns. In both states, groups do better in commercial crops than foodgrains. The factors underlying the differential performances of Kerala and Telangana, and lessons for replication, are discussed. Overall, the paper demonstrates that group farming can provide an effective alternative under specified conditions and local adaptation of the model.



The effect of land sizes and land holdings on “transitions” in and out of income poverty in Uganda.

Margaret Rugadya1, Paul Ntegeka2, Herbert Kamusiime2, Christine Kajumba2, Eddie Nsamba-Gayiiya2

1Ford Foundation, United States of America; 2Associates Research Trust, Uganda

This paper explores transition out of “income poverty” for land-owning and land-secure agricultural households using national data (UNHS 2016/17). Given Uganda’s strong performance on income poverty reduction, we show the contribution of land holdings and impact of land sizes to this drastic drop from 54.3% to19.7%. We establish which households are; asset-richer; more food secure; less vulnerable to shocks and with access to varying proportions of productive agricultural land. We find that escape from income poverty, is driven in part by the size of land holdings not falling below the average of one acre per household and peaking at four acres for smallholder market-oriented producers. At this acreage incomes from enterprises rise, the ability of households to mitigate shocks improve, while simultaneously keeping in the food secure zone. This pathway to reducing income poverty, it is better recognized by economic growth and investment policies than by land sector policies.



Land as the enabling asset on a value chain for rural development in Colombia's rural reform

Javier Perez-Burgos

Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia

Colombia’s rural policy for the next four-year period aims to create a value chain process in which four elements are mainly taken into account to develop rural territories. The policy seeks to achieve equity in rural territories by providing equal opportunities to population and by closing the gap between urban and rural environments. Therefore, the public policy must add up the elements that together contribute for rural development and productive development. These elements take into account land access, productivity, public goods’ provision and rural population as a transversal element through all the process.



Land tenure regularisation for sustainable urban and agriculture development in Rwanda

Thierry Ngoga

AGRA, Kenya

The need to improve land governance is often informed by issues like increasing demand for land tenure insecurity. Land registration has often been embraced as the panacea to the problem of land tenure insecurity (LTI) and based on this, it is further posited that land registration guarantees access to formal capital. However, there is an ambivalent literature on whether or not it guarantees land tenure security and access to formal credit in improving. Rwanda embarked on an ambitious land tenure reform (LTR) with a national-wide systematic registration of all land that was primarily aimed at among other things, establishing LTS. This culminated in the registration of over 11 million land parcels, a feat considered unprecedented in Africa. The aim of this paper is to examine whether or not land registration assures LTS as well as to holistically assess how the results of the LTR are contributing to urban and agriculture development in Rwanda.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-07: Land policies for smart city development
Session Chair: Rachelle Alterman, Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel
MC 7-100 
 

Experiments of urban land supply and development: India

Aparna Soni, Triveni Prasad Nanda

RICS School of Built Environment, India

In India, approximating a business-as-usual scenario, an average of 15 square kilometers of land needs to be planned and serviced for urban use every single day up to the year 2050 (WRI India, 2016). However, compulsory land acquisition and traditional planning instruments/apparatus have continually failed to achieve the entrepreneurial dreams of 'worlding cities' of India. The answer thus is found in increasing private sector participation in land assembly, planning and development, and metamorphosing public development agencies from providers to facilitators. This research throws light on a few of these innovative methods of land supply and development. This research tries to investigate urban sprawl and excessive reliance on real estate business for land development, in the garb of land supply for urbanization, the ever-increasing role of parastatals morphing into pseudo developing authorities by involving private planning consulting firms leading to privatization of development planning with a meager public consultation/participation.



Citizen-centric digital land and asset management in the greenfield city development: case study of Amaravati

Sreedhar Cherukury, Sidharth Ganesh, Sastry Siva Rama Krishna Jyosyula

Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, India

Smart cities across the world are deploying digital systems and infrastructure, that is helping achieve various objectives on efficiency, transparency and in general, improved governance. Amaravati, a greenfield capital city that is being developed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh is taking lead in deployment of various technologies to streamline its efficiency of operations whilst keeping the citizen at the center of such activities. Several initiatives such as a Citizen mobile application, blockchain deployment for land registry, development of a digital twin for the city, implementation of BIM and 3D City modelling all emerge as an array of best practices that cities can learn from. It is important to note how various data sources and applications converge in a manner that positively and systematically drives city outcomes – and it can only be achieved by design and policy.



Egovernance initiatives of slum rehabilitation authority, Mumbai

Shri Deepak Kapoor

Government of Maharashtra, India

Slum Rehabilitation Authority, Mumbai has initiated lot of eGovernance initiatives which are beneficial for slum dwellers as well as common citizens. It is SRA’s vision to have a digital workflow for all the citizen services so that there is transparency and efficiency in the functioning of all the Departments.

The aim of this paper is to showcase the GIS based Slum Information Management System (SIMS) solution which consists of four components; Topographical Survey of Slum Clusters & Slum Rehabilitation (SR) Schemes, LiDAR Survey of Slum Huts, Mobile Application for gathering slum dwellers information and Web Application with Web-GIS feature for determining the slum dwellers eligibility for free housing under SR Schemes.

SIMS has facilitated Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) in sector-wise micro-planning of slum cluster, speedy implementation of SR schemes, availability of digital data in real-time, easy dissemination of slum information and bringing transparency, and effectiveness in identification of eligible slum dwellers.



Imagine and design the legal framework for the cities of the future: the example of Mauritian ‘smart cities’

Florian Lebourdais1, Marie-Florence Zampiero-Bouquemont2

1Ordre des Géomètres-experts, France; 2Conseil Supérieur du Notariat, France

By 2050, the proportion of the world's population living in urban areas is expected to reach 66% (54% in 2014).

Planning efforts will therefore be essential to ensure essential services to populations, such as access to energy, water, waste treatment, housing, health and transport.

In 2015, Mauritius launched the creation of fifteen new intelligent city projects, that are supposed to rely on the capacity of self-organisation of inhabitants. Nevertheless, it is necessary to provide in advance an appropriate legal framework, because these new cities will consist of land or buildings for common use and others for private use.

However, the provisions of the Civil Code have so far proved insufficient to support the construction of such complexes, which include private owners, companies and condominiums.

To meet this urgent need, Mauritius mandated a multidisciplinary team to develop a new regulatory framework for real estate complexes, and co-ownership in particular.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-08: Making property tax systems transparent and equitable
Session Chair: Ronald Worth, International Association of Assessing Officers, United States of America
MC 8-100 
 

Open Government - Building trust and strengthening the delivery of valuation services

Ruud M. Kathmann1, Terence Fahey2, Ben P.P. Bervoets1, Marco Kuijper1

1Council for Real Estate Assessment, The Netherlands; 2Valuation Office, Ireland

Based on experiences of the Valuation Office in Ireland and the Netherlands Council for Real Estate Assessment in this presentation different methods to achieve transparency and to improve citizen participation are explained.

In Ireland valuation for taxation purposes are carried out by the central Valuation Office. This paper describes how the Valuation Office, through a pilot approach known as Occupier Assisted Valuation (OAV), encouraged taxpayer participation. The outcome of this enhanced interaction between the VO and taxpayer is a more open, transparent and responsive valuation service with a better understanding by taxpayers.

In the Netherlands the responsibility for property valuation for taxation purposes lies with the municipalities. The Netherlands system promotes transparency of municipalities with the goal to advance the public trust in the property valuation. We will present results from municipalities involving taxpayers in checking quality of data but also results of measuring taxpayers trust in the assessed value.



Customer relations and communication in land administration

David Laurence Magor

Institute of Revenues Rating and Valuation, United Kingdom

As land administration and property tax reforms gain pace around the World this paper focuses on the need to develop the methodology and techniques that public entities can use to communicate with customers. The citizens and tax payers must be informed about their and rights and responsibilities in any reform or on-going process. In essence the overall objective is to put in place innovative approaches to communication which

• Ensure proper public participation in the reform process

• Improve potential tax compliance, by ensuring that open and clear information is provided to those with interest in the land or taxpayers;

• Improve the credibility of the public entity, by promoting concepts such as attitude, efficiency, integrity, service quality and professionalism, and

• Are “future” proofed.

This is a paper that provides details on the various tools that can be utilised in the communication process to achieve a successful outcome.



Property Taxation in India: Issues impacting revenue performance and suggestions for reform

Rajul Awasthi

World Bank, United States of America

Rapid urbanization in India means that Indian cities face a tremendous challenge to finance and deliver the increasing demand for basic municipal services. When compared to OECD peers, India performs poorly in terms of generating revenues from the urban immovable property tax. Several factors lead to low property tax revenue in India: undervaluation; incomplete registers; policy inadequacy; ineffective administration and lack of accurate property tax rolls in the jurisdiction of the urban local bodies (ULBs). Property tax reform in India would need to undertake a range of activities: updating property tax laws, getting rid of ineffective exemptions, completing property registers, adopting more effective valuation approaches, and strengthening administration.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-09: Linking tenure to planning in forest land
Session Chair: Anne Larson, CIFOR, Peru
MC 9-100 
 

Best-bet options for ensuring tropical forest conservation and livelihoods development: Evidence from the community forest concessions in Petén, Guatemala

Dietmar Stoian1,2, Aldo Rodas3, Iliana Monterroso4

1Bioversity International, France; 2World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF), France; 3Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Guatemala; 4Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) in Petén, Guatemala, is a prominent example for the devolution of forest rights to local communities. Community forest concessions have been established on about 400,000 ha, reducing deforestation to a minimum. While the conservation benefits of the concessions are well documented, there is little insight into their socio-economic performance. This in-depth study of currently nine active and three inactive concessions focuses on the community forest enterprises (CFE) operating them, with emphasis on: 1) the benefits accruing to CFE members, local communities, and society at large; 2) the degree to which forest-based income allows member households to move out of poverty; and 3) how such income is reinvested in livelihood and business assets. We show the critical importance of the findings in support of the communities' claim for renewal of the concessions, which is due over the next years, and broader implications for natural resource governance.



Forest restoration and afforestation in India

Laura Valencia2, Kundan Kumar1

1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2University of Toronto, Canada

India’s regreening ambitions are second only to China’s, with vast investments having been made in afforestation and restoration of degraded forests and lands. It is estimated that India has planted over 19 million ha. of forestry plantations between 2003-2014, even though the forest cover has barely increased. Its forest policy aims to increase forest cover from 23% to 33% of the country’s land area. The regreening thrust is also captured in its INDC, wherein India seeks to sequester an additional 2.5-3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent and plans to take up at least 5 million ha. of afforestation. A $7 billion fund called the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF), derived from statutory offsets for diversion of legal forest lands, is targeted to be spent for afforestation and forest restoration. Additional funds are allocated by the government for afforestation through Green India Mission, Rural Employment Generation schemes etc.



Integrating forest recovery and low-carbon agriculture in priority watersheds of Brazilian savannah: The FIP-Landscape Project

Lidiane Moretto1, Janaína Rocha1, Tatiana Calçada1, Taiguara Alencar3, Rejane Mendes1, Leandro Biondo1, Sidney Medeiros2, Lilianna Mendes1, Polyanna Paro3, Bernadete Lange4, Daniela Ziller4, Carlos Eduardo Sturm1, Carlos Pires3, Bernardo Trovão1, Rebecca Fiore3, Jaine Cubas Davet1, Magna Cunha dos Santos3, Anselm Duchrow3

1Brazilian Forest Service (SFB), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 2Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4World Bank, Brazil

The article shows the methodology of prioritization of watersheds in Brazilian Savannah Biome ("Cerrado") for the activities of the new project of the World Bank's Forest Investment Program (FIP) in Brazil - Integrated Landscape Management in the Cerrado Biome Project or "FIP-Landscape". This project integrates, in a innovative approach, practices of Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Recovery for landscape management. It is coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service-SFB and the Secretariat for Innovation, Rural Development and Irrigation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply-MAPA with technical cooperation of GIZ.



Tenure security and forest landscape restoration: Results from exploratory research in Boeny, Madagascar

Rebecca McLain1, Patrick Ranjatson2, Steven Lawry1, Jean Mananga3, Tolotra Razafimbelo2, Renaud Randrianasolo2

1Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America; 2Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques (ESSA); Université d'Antananarivo – Madagascar; 3Independent consultant

Madagascar aims to restore 4 million ha of degraded forests by 2030 under the Bonn Challenge. Chief among the constraints identified to forest landscape restoration (FLR) are a lack of tenure security for smallholders and weak forest law enforcement. We present preliminary results from research in Boeny Region, Madagascar to improve understanding of local tenure systems and how they might affect FLR investment. We identified two land tenure models: an endogenous model rooted in the local customary system with weak state intervention, and an exogenous model heavily influenced by external actors and where customary systems have limited legitimacy. These differences will affect FLR investment choices and success of tenure securitization. We recommend that FLR actors be trained to use tenure diagnostic tools that distinguish between different hybrid systems. Such training will provide FLR actors with the conceptual tools needed to design and implement FLR programs appropriate for complex tenure systems.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-10: Can participatory land use planning help secure tenure?
Session Chair: Christopher Mulenga, University of Lusaka, Zambia
MC 10-100 
 

Rural land use planning, the integration of shared resources mapping for improved communal tenure security: experiences from Zambia

Christopher Mulenga1, Adam Ngoma2, Jason Sakala2

1University of Lusaka, Zambia; 2Chipata District Land Alliance, Zambia

Rural areas in Zambia are characterised by encroachment of important historical sites and natural biodiversity such as burial sites and natural forests. This is mainly due to lack of co-ordinated land use planning. Although the chiefs act as arbiters of land disputes and have ultimate authority over the management of customary lands in Zambia, the methods they employ are of a curative nature. In most chiefdoms there are few records kept on land allocation to subjects, on land management rules or decrees, or on rulings from land disputes. Due to these numerous problems facing customary land governance structures in resolving land disputes and help in the preservation of historical sites and natural biodiversity, long lasting preventive land administration techniques are inevitable across chiefdoms. Land use planning has been identified as one of the tools that can be employed to effectively resolve the chiefdom problems identified above.



Context, power, equity and effectiveness in territorial planning multi-stakeholder commissions: a comparative analysis of two very different Brazilian States

Jazmin Gonzales Tovar1, Grenville Barnes2, Anne Larson3

1University of Florida (UF), United States of America; 2University of Florida (UF), United States of America; 3Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Peru

Multi-stakeholder forums (MSFs) gained popularity in territorial planning as an innovative method that brings diverse actors together to advance “good governance” and “sustainable development”. However, both territorial planning and MSFs constitute a double-edged sword. Advancing certain goals, strengthening certain land-use rights and benefiting certain actors can come at the cost of others, with the potential to both challenge or reproduce power asymmetries. MSFs may present the shortcomings, and profit from the lessons, recognized by scholars and practitioners. Based on mixed methods research, we comparatively analyze equity and power dynamics in the Ecological-Economic Zoning (ZEE) commissions of Acre and Mato Grosso, two Brazilian States with different contexts. We reveal that territorial planning MSFs have better chances to promote equitable power relations and environmental benefits when they emerge - and operate in - a historical context that embraces social-environmental movements, the “common good”, trade-offs and subjectivities, rather than from technocratic top-down initiatives.



Clarification, recognition and formalization of land rights in a landscape restoration project in Burundi

Pascal Thinon1, Paola Agostini2, Philippe Eric Dardel2

1Independant consultant, France; 2World Bank

The World Bank “Burundi Landscape Restoration and Resilience Project” mobilizes an integrated landscape approach for sustainably managing land, water and forest resources. It includes a land certification subcomponent that aims at clarifying and securing land rights. This subcomponent is made possible by the existence of a land reform undertaken in Burundi for 10 years: political and a renewed legal and regulatory framework, pilot implementation experiments and first phase of scaling-up. The creation of Communal Land Services enables the clarification, recognition and formalization of the land rights through a local, public and contradictory procedure which leads to the issuance of land certificates. This system also allows to solve amicably a number of land disputes. The land component will consist in the creation or the reinforcement of Communal Land Services in the project intervention communes and the implementation of systematic land rights recognition operations in the hills concerned by the project.



Participatory Community Land Use Planning (CLUP ) as a means of conflict prevention and poverty alleviation in rural areas through pilot experiments in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo: provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Tituri

Malam Kandine Adam

UN-HABITAT, Congo, Republic of the

The communication aims to present the PCLUP as an approach that can contribute to the fight against the root causes of land conflicts in the DRC while developing good practices in terms of peaceful, fair and secure access through a process in which all actors from the locality took part.

The added value of the CLUP : A process based: on the participation of communities and institutional, administrative and political actors ; on ownership by the political authorities; on consensus building on land regimes and uses.

A process contributing to the improvement of the security of tenure rights (formal, informal, collective, individual). A process that responds to land access needs of the vulnerable (women, displaced); Anticipates the causes of land conflicts: social dialogue, consensus on rules of access and land use;develops appropriate tools for integrated and participative management of space and land. and sets up a Community Land Use Plan (CLUP).

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-11: Interoperability of land data: Conceptual issues
Session Chair: Jacob Vos, Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The
MC C1-100 
 

Land administration data integration – modern concept

Igor Popiv, Carol Roffer, Maksym Kalyta, Sergiy Lizenko

Innola Solutions, Inc., United States of America

Building a national scale land administration system inevitably depends upon existing data digitization, migration and ultimately, integration of the digitized data into the system as a pre-requisite of the system rollout. Separating data digitization from system implementation makes it easier to early start the data production processes using different available tools - mainly serving specific needs such as scanning, indexing and maps digitization. However, the real content of the land administration records requires a more complicated data structure and, accordingly, more elaborate technologies to ensure the quality, completeness, sequence and integrity of the produced digital data. Based on the experience gained in several national-scale projects, the authors describe a holistic “top-down” approach of data digitization and acquisition. Modern concept is in evaluation of different data sources from a prospective of the future services and system functions, and defining a clear schema of how those various data are going to be integrated.



Land Administration Models - A central register and land information system containing as much information as possible about a property

Victoria Abbott, Joy Bailey

HM Land Registry, United Kingdom

We review the benefits of centralised land information and registration systems, defined as an integrated land information system, where formal registration of legal information as well as technical information about land is supervised, controlled and operated by one authority, so that all matters affecting one parcel of land can be easily accessed.

Land registration and cadastral functions are more effective under a centralised system. Decentralisation of land administration may help to develop local democracy and skills, but in the longer run could hold back progress. Local conditions may mean that it is difficult to implement a centralised system and innovative decentralised solutions may help in the short term. However, improvement of a centralised system is likely to be more advantageous in the long term than developing a decentralised model where there is a risk of introducing or perpetuating a fragmented system of land registration and land information.



An applicative approach for cadastral processes implementation in multi-dimensional land management systems

Ruba Jaljolie, Yerach Doytsher, Sagi Dalyot

Mapping and Geo-Information Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel

The world’s population is expected to reach 9.7 billion in 2050, 66% of them will live in urban areas, resulting in the crucial need for multi-dimensional cadastral systems that are required for an efficient management of the urban space. Our study aims at setting an approach for augmenting existing 2D cadastral systems to multi-dimensional ones. The full integration of the height, time and scale dimensions, including all topological aspects within the same system, will prevent the need of handling management and functional properties in segregated systems to support decision-making and multi-purpose applications, as well as providing the opportunity of sharing geo-data by diverse users. A simulation of planning a new 3D project in a complex urban environment, offering functionalities and data model for performing complex 3D analysis and editing, is presented. Our solution is a first step towards the implementation of multi-dimensional cadastral systems.



The impact of the agricultural land management information system on the work of local self-government units and directorate for agricultural land

Katja Grbic

GIZ- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, United States of America

This Impact Study assesses the impact the IT-solution for the management of state-owned agricultural land has had on the work of municipalities and the Directorate for Agricultural Land in Serbia. It analyzes the biggest changes the system brought to the local and national level, as well as the influence it had on the end beneficiaries. Data was collected from three sources: document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews, and an online questionnaire sent to all 145 municipalities. Analysis of all data shows that DAL and municipal officials are spending significantly less time creating Annual Programs and Contracts. They are printing, filing, and mailing many fewer documents, all while increasing transparency in a previously opaque system. There are already measurable improvements in the quality of products from the new IT system. There is evidence that customer service will be enhanced and communications among DAL, municipalities, and clients is easier and clearer.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-12: Can large farms attract local growth?
Session Chair: Derick Bowen, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC C1-200 
 

How and why large-scale agricultural investments induce diverse trajectories of regional development in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique

Markus Giger1, Christoph Oberlack1, Ward Anseeuw2, Camilla Adele3, Magalie Bourblanc4, Perrine Burnod5, Sandra Eckert1, Wega Fitawek3, Eve Fouilleux6, Sheryl L Hendriks3, Boniface Kiteme7, Sara Mercandalli4, Aurelien Reys6, Maya da Silva3, Michael Van Der Laan3, Julie Zaehringer1, Peter Messerli1

1Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition; 3University of Pretoria; 4CIRAD / University of Pretoria; 5CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier Madagascar; 6CIRAD, France; 7CETRAD, Kenya

If a consensus emerges regarding the necessity of additional investment into agriculture, it is less evident whether large-scale agricultural investments (LAI) are a vector for broader agrarian and socio-economic transformations in a sustainable manner.

Against this backdrop, this paper presents the results of a study aiming, on one hand, at assessing the changes and impacts of LAIs at various (individual, household, regional) levels within target regions, and on the other hand, at a nuanced account of how and why LAIs subsequently induce diverse regional development trajectories in these regions. We focus on LAIs in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique. Specifically, this study provides a cross-national comparative analysis of business models, land-use changes, governance dynamics of LAIs and their socio-economic, food security, and environmental impacts in Kenya, Madagascar and Mozambique.



Investing in land versus land use: analyzing investment decisions by transnational forestry and agriculture companies

Dilini Abeygunawardane1, Patrick Meyfroidt1,2, Angela Kronenburg García1

1Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2F.R.S.- FNRS, Brussels, Belgium

Our work in Southern and Eastern Africa aims at understanding investor decisions in shaping the emergence of new commodity frontiers and the different trajectories of land use change that may result from these decisions. Based on our findings, we derived two key approaches to choosing land for agricultural investments. One approach (‘crop-to-land’) was to choose a land that suited a specific crop or an agricultural “project” that had been identified already. The other approach (‘land-to-crop’) was to choose a land that was suitable for agriculture in general, and then identify a crop or a set of crops that would suit the land. The two approaches show noticeable differences in the types of investors involved, decision rationales, types of crops grown and land area acquired and developed. These differences are also reflected in the broader land use patterns and its implications for the land and its people, and warrants further investigation.



Large-scale land aggregation for transforming and scaling up African agriculture

Maria Marealle

African Development Bank, Côte d'Ivoire

Untapped agricultural potential in Africa has contributed to persistent poverty and deteriorating food security, resulting in a projected increase in the number of undernourished people. Population growth and urbanization increase food demand and changing consumption habits that lead to rapidly rising net food imports. Access to land and land rights in both rural and urban areas remain major challenges that hinders agriculture productivity across the continent. The main question is whether large scale land acquisition by public and private sector facilitates access to land and fast-track agriculture productivity. The implementation of the AfDB’s Feed Africa Strategy for Agricultural Transformation that ensures productivity and alleviates poverty requires land that is accessed and secured equitably. The paper argues that large scale land acquisition can immediately resolve food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, appropriate land policies and regulation for large scale acquisition are necessary to ensure access to land and Land rights are provided.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm03-13: Drawing policy advice from land data analysis
Session Chair: Hamady Diop, NEPAD, South Africa
MC 7-860 
 

Predicting deprivations in housing and basic services from space in slums of Dhaka

Amit Patel1, Christian Borja-Vega2, Luisa Mimmi3, Tomas Soukup4, Jan Kolomaznik4, Marcia Mundt1, Hyunjung Lee1, Tanushree Bhan1

1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Inter American Development Bank, United States of America; 4GiSAT, Czech Republic

This paper develops a novel approach to identify and enumerate housing deprivations in slums of Dhaka using Earth Observation data. We integrate household survey data with very high resolution remote sensing data to build a robust econometric model to estimate housing and basic infrastructure deprivation such as water and sanitation in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Such a model could be used to predict housing and basic services deprivation in areas where household surveys are not available. Identification of most deprived areas from space could be used to inform policymaking and targeting beneficiaries of such policies. We argue that spatial data, which have become increasingly available and affordable, could answer the following questions: ii) How to identify and delineate slums spatially in a metropolitan area using Earth Observation data? ii) How to detect and predict deprivations in housing and basic services as a function of factors from Earth Observation data?



International collaboration: capturing the impact of emerging trends

Bilan Stribling

Columbia University, United States of America

The surge in global population, over the past decade, has fueled technological innovation. Many advancements are developed to manage and forecast population growth rates while complexities in the political and economic landscape increases. With this in mind, the research how international collaboration can strengthen our ability to achieve the poverty reduction targets in the 2030 Agenda. The research methodology used to explore the potential impact of data collaboration among the World Bank, United Nations, and Internal Monetary Fund is a case study. In the case, the research captures how data collaboration can strengthen the Partnership Framework for Crisis-Affected Situations between the World Bank, IMF and the United Nations. The research examines the mandate and goals of the framework then explores how data collaboration strengthens or weakens the group’s ability to achieve the desired goals. The primary sustainable development goal highlighted in the case is goal 1.A.



The effects of agricultural income on Internally Displaced Persons: Evidence from Colombia

Paola Palacios, Miguel Angel Perez-Uribe

Universidad Icesi, Colombia

Colombia has the largest population of Internal Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the world. Not only IDPs suffer a significant welfare loss suffered after migrating, they also generate an enormous cost to the Colombian society in several respects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of agricultural income on the number of IDPs expelled from Colombian municipalities. To address the possible endogeneity and omitted variables bias, we use an instrumental variables’ approach. The standardized deviation of precipitation from its mean serves as an instrument for municipal agricultural income. Our main result indicates that agricultural income has a negative and statistically significant impact on forced displacement: an increase in agricultural income of one percent reduces forced displacement in the municipality by 1.2%. As a robustness check, we use alternative definitions of economic activity at the municipality level such as agricultural loans, GDP, and energy consumption finding similar results.



The consequences of increasing block tariffs, magnitude and distribution of electricity and water subsidies for households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Helena Cardenas, Dale Whittington

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States of America

In Addis Ababa the increasing block tariff (IBT) is used to calculate households’ monthly bills for both electricity and water services. We estimate the combined water and electricity subsidies received by households with private connections to both the electricity grid and the piped network water in 2016, and evaluate the distribution of these subsidies among wealth groups. We use customer-billing data and match those data with socioeconomic information collected from a household survey. Results show that the combined subsidies are large. The average household receives a subsidy of US$26 per month, about 6% of household income. Also we find that both the electricity and the water IBT subsidies disproportionately target richer households, with even worse poor targeting outcomes when both sectors are considered jointly. The poorest quintile receives 12% of the cumulative subsidies provided by both electricity and water services, while the richest quintile receives 31% of the cumulative subsidies.

 
3:30pm - 3:45pmCoffee Break
Front Lobby 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-01: Scaling-up land programs - African experiences and global solutions
Session Chair: Michael Roth, World Bank, United States of America

Translation English - French

Preston Auditorium 
 

Introductory remarks

Godfrey Bahiigwa

African Union Commission, Ethiopia

.



Setting the scene

Michael Roth

Consultant, United States of America

Power Point presentation setting the stage for the 2019 African Roundtable, Scaling Up Land Programs: African Experience and Global Solutions. Power Point reviews questions raised and addressed at last years 2018 Roundtable, announces five panelists for this year's roundtable, poses four questions for plenary discussion and sets out the format for panel comments, questions and answers and next steps for reporting.



Discussant

Joan Kagwanja

UNECA, Ethiopia

.



Discussant

David Loue

Agence Foncière Rurale, AFOR, Côte d'Ivoire

La Côte d'Ivoire a adopté la loi n° 98-750 du 23 décembre 1998 dans le but de transformer les droits coutumiers en droit de propriété.

Afin de faciliter et accélérer l'application de cette loi, un cadre institutionnel adéquat a été mis en place à travers la création de l'Agence Foncière Rurale (AFOR), chargée d'assurer la maîtrise d'œuvre de l'ensemble du Programme National de Sécurisation Foncière Rurale.

Au niveau local des comités villageois et Sous-préfectoraux, ont été créés avec pour rôle l'approbation et la validation des dossiers de sécurisation foncière. Interviennent également dans ce système, les Commissaires Enquêteurs, les Préfets de département, les Sous-préfets et les chefs de villages.

L’amélioration des compétences de ces acteurs nécessite un accompagnement sur plusieurs aspects, à savoir une définition claire des rôles et des responsabilités, l’élaboration d’un mode opératoire simple, la formation des acteurs. Un appui financier, matériel et logistique est un complément indispensable.



Discussant

Danielle Haingonavalona

Ministry in charge of Land Affairs, Madagascar

...



Discussant

Tatjana Cenova-Mitrevska

Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia

.



Discussant

Emmanuel Nkurunziza

Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya

.



Closing remarks

Jorge Munoz

World Bank, United States of America

.



Closing remarks

Fritz Jung

Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany

.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-02: Registry interoperability and data protection
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
MC 13-121 
 

Interoperability model for land registries (IMOLA) project in the European Union

Mihai Taus

Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania

European Land Registry Association is developing an amazing project regarding the interconnection of european land registries. The name of the project is IMOLA (Interoperability MOdel for Land Administration). The development of the project is based on a complex methodology ment to maximize the knowledge acquired. A standardised structure of information is already available (ELRD - european land registry document).

The project is perfectly aligned with LRI (Land Registries Interconnection) project of the European Commision.



The evolution of the Chilean land registry system: from the 19th century to the implementation of new technologies

Jose Luis Alberto Maldonado Croquevielle, Claudia Bahamondes Oyarzún

Conservador de Bienes Raíces de Santiago, Chile

Land Registry in Chile is governed by statutes dating back to the 19th century. The Civil Code of 1855 called for the creation of regulations on a system of property records and, on June 24, 1857 with the enactment of the Regulations on the Land Registry that mandate was brought to fruition. And yet, both the Code and the Regulations were representative of an era far different from modern times. An opportunity for an upgrade arose in 1943 in the context of new regulations on Notaries and Land Registrars enacted along with the Organic Court Code that year. Unfortunately, however, the existing shortcomings were not corrected at the time. As a result, there is no doubt that current regulations require an overhaul to bring them up to modern standards.



Registry of True Owners according to the European Directives to fight money laundering

Alfonso Candau

IPRA-CINDER, Spain

Really, The Land and Poverty conference presents the latest research and innovations in policies and good practice on land governance around the world.

Following this trend, I wanted to give a brief presentation to you all from the “Registry of Real Estate Ownership” (RETIR) in Spain. Its purpose is to learn who is behind corporations and it can be an important instrument in the fight against poverty, ensuring that investments made in a determined country are used effectively for their intended purposes and are not fraudulently misused at the hands of people, through the creation of interposed societies.

It deals with, definitively, a bet of transparency.



The interconnection and interoperability between Business Registries in Europe

Maria Jose Magalhaes

Registrars of Portugal, Portugal

The implementation of Business Registers Interconnection System (BRIS).

Main aspects of Directive 2012/17/UE and the Regulation (EU) 2015/884, regarding interconnection of central, commercial and companies registers.

Also refer to Directive (EU) 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council, relating to certain aspects of company law.

Accessibility to the European e-Justice portal.

Within the scope of the “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice”, the Decision 2008/615/JHA incorporates into the legal framework of the European Union the substance of the so-called Prüm Treaty on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation.

Administrative and technical provisions for the implementation of Decision 2008/615/JHA (above), aiming the automated exchange of information, in particular, the vehicle registration data, by the use of the European Vehicle and Driving Licence Information System (EUCARIS).

Overview of the main aspects of EUCARIS accessibility and content of information displayed.



The interconnection between Land Registries in a Federal State such as Mexico

Maria Elena Garcia Flores

CINDER, Mexico

...



Transformative initiatives concerning the delivery of land title registration services in British Columbia

Carlos MacDonald

Director of Land Titles, British Columbia, Canada

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3:45pm - 5:15pm04-03: Interoperability of spatial data: Examples and regulatory framework
Session Chair: Gitanjali Swamy, IoTask, India
MC 2-800 
 

Policy person’s guide to navigating past the map

Ronald Roth

Hexagon Geosystems, United States of America

How new production technologies and business models increase affordability of geospatial data...

One can’t manage that which is not measured. However, projects can’t simply exhaust the entire budget on the measurement phase, leaving nothing for the management portion. Primary geospatial data acquisition should not be the end, it should be the beginning, from which policy, projects and management can commence. But, how to get the needed data at reasonable cost and leave more of the budget for the real work at hand? This presentation examines alternatives for both business models and acquisition technologies that help minimize the front-end costs for obtaining geospatial information and allowing its utilization for multiple applications. Examples are given for various large-area geospatial acquisitions of both image and point cloud (LiDAR) data, with an eye towards two key objectives: (1) minimizing cost per pixel or data point and (2) acquire once/use many models.



The future role of official geospatial reference data in a fully digital environment

Peter Creuzer, Marcel Ziems

State Agency for Geoinformation and State Survey Lower Saxony (LGLN), Germany

This presentation will describe the approach taken for shaping reference data and customer services according to customer requirements. It will then focus on a pilot implementation for mobile devices developed for real estate market data and designed for improving real estate market transparency. It explains how the components used could serve us as best practice for a redesign of all other official geospatial reference datasets and services.

Our open source based project will provide a very useful tool for maintenance and delivery of highly relevant official real estate market data, and the geographical context. The presented approach paves the way for improving dissemination of all other official geospatial reference data (cadastre and topography) and substantial improvement of relevant land administration services. It enables a smart mapping solution for the discharge of public services in the field of land administration meeting customers’ needs for the next decade.



Legal and policy frameworks for geospatial information management

Kevin Pomfret

Centre for Spatial Law and Policy, United States of America

Governments around the world have recognized the importance of geospatial information to achieve critical societal and economic objectives and to address global challenges such as climate change. However, many are finding that their existing legal and policy frameworks hinder the collection, use and/or sharing of geospatial information. As a result, the potential for geospatial information is not being realized.This paper will discuss why geospatial information management is a challenge from a legal and policy standpoint. It will also identify ways in which governments can develop a legal and policy framework that suits their legal system and geospatial management objectives.



Geospatial Data points the way to integrating government for sustainable development

John David Kedar, Kimberley Worthy, James Darvill

Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom

Improved availability of fundamental geospatial data, a foundation for better government, leads to more transparency, effective urban planning, improved resilience and environmental management, and new business opportunities. But little investment is being made into national geospatial capabilities, the arguments still need to be won.

In Summer 2018, the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management endorsed the Integrated Geospatial Information Framework, a landmark step in guiding nations. It provides a strategic approach and the means to justify, plan and deliver geospatial enablement. The Committee also endorsed 14 fundamental geospatial data themes deemed appropriate for all nations.

Two powerful tools were unleashed onto the global community in one meeting. These global frameworks will enable better data integration and interoperability in the public sector. This paper explores how these tools will support sustainable development and in particular catalyse innovation, demonstrating that a national approach is the only sustainable approach.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-04: Legal and normative aspects of making law gender sensitive
Session Chair: Jolyne Sanjak, Tetratech, United States of America
MC 4-100 
 

Land and womanhood- ethnography on propertied women in Bengal

Amrita Mondal

Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, Germany

This paper argues the tentativeness rather than the inevitability of the established knowledge that possessing land titles empowers women by placing them in a stronger position of better bargaining power within the home and community that is characterized by discrimination and intra-household inequalities. Based on ethnographic data in rural west Bengal this paper captures the nuances of women’s subjecthood as shaped by their socio-cultural existence as well as their ‘purposive actions’ shaping their life situations. I address the particularity of women’s experience of poverty and their specific locations as subjects in relation to property and livelihood. A gendered analysis of land in a certain social context, therefore, requires critical consideration of diverse social relations of women in distinctive subject positions, tracing the historical trajectory of her subjectivities along life courses, the kinship and familial relations they involve and ideological and juridical pattern of inheritance in which land has particular significations.



"Innovations to protect women’s customary land rights: Practical experiences from Sierra Leone."

Samuel Mabikke1, Rexford Ahene2, MariaPaola Rizzo3, Francesca Romano3

1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Sierra Leone; 2Lafayette University, USA; 3Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Italy

Since the end of the conflict in 2002, Sierra Leone has made significant progress in rebuilding its economy. However, these gains have not sufficiently translated into an equal distribution of development dividends for the population, and particularly women. As the government considers feasible NLP implementation strategies, priorities have been set to ensure rural women and men in the provinces are able to negotiate women’s rights and access in order to overcome prejudicial cultural practices.

Within the framework of implementing the VGGT, Sierra Leone is piloting Solutions for Open Land Administration (SOLA) geospatial tools for recording and mapping women’s land rights to ensure that rural women are able to negotiate their rights of access, use, and ownership of land. This paper presents the findings from nine villages in three chiefdoms in Sierra Leone. The findings are significant in influencing the call for innovative fit-for-purpose solutions for land administration in Sierra Leone.



The farmer and her husband: legal innovations for women in contract farming

Sarah Brewin, Carin Smaller, Francine Picard, Sophia Murphy

IISD, Switzerland

Contract farming is increasingly seen as a promising alternative business model to the negative impacts associated with large scale land-based investments. This is because contract farming leaves the farmer in control of their own land while potentially providing them with a steady, predictable income, and helping them access higher quality inputs such as seed, fertilizer and technical assistance. However, contract farming schemes tend to be dominated by better-off male farmers and have very poor gender outcomes. The research points to two key disadvantages for women farmers; doing most of the work but not being included in the contract, and having their subsistence farming activities displaced by contracted crops.

This paper proposes innovative legislative and contractual solutions to be applied to contract farming relationships in order to address these disadvantages and better protect women, and provides model legal drafting that can be adopted and adapted by policy-makers and contracting parties.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-05: Assessing impact of Infrastructure investments
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
MC 5-100 
 

How do mass transit investments affect land values? evidence from MRT-3

Abdul Abiad, Ann Jillian Adona, Kathleen Farrin

Asian Development Bank, Philippines



Ecological footprint of transportation infrastructure

Teevrat Garg1, Sam Asher2, Paul Novosad3

1University of California, San Diego, United States of America; 2World Bank; 3Dartmouth College



How large are the contributions of cities to the development of rural communities?

Juan Daniel Soto Diaz1,2, Milena Vargas4,2, Julio Berdegue3

1London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom; 2Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP); 3Food and Agricutural Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 4The National Statistics Institute of Chile (INE)



From municipal investments to functional subregions: new territorial planning units in Colombia

Natalie Gomez Arteaga

DNP, Colombia

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-06: Kenya's land policy reforms: Did they deliver?
Session Chair: John Bugri, KNUST, Ghana
MC 6-100 
 

Land policy implementation in Kenya: achievements, challenges and lessons ten years later

Ibrahim Mwathane

Land Development and Governance Institute (LDGI), Kenya

Having enacted its national land policy ten years ago, Kenya has had experiences with implementation whose progress, challenges and lessons need to be shared. This will be helpful for the review of the policy which will be done in the year 2019, and will also inform scholars and other regional jurisdictions with similar circumstances and levels of development as Kenya’s.

The paper discusses the institutional framework established under the land policy and the constitution and how this has played out in practice, including the conflicts and solutions engaged. It also brings out the laws and regulations enacted, the roles and programmes driven by the land commission, the national and devolved governments. The paper also analyzes how some of the contentious issues in the land policy have played out at implementation. Recommendations to inform the 2019 policy review are made.



Smallholder settlement schemes in Kenya:
 A retrospective and prospective analysis of Trans-Nzoia county

Fibian Lukalo, David Kipchoge

National Land Commission, Kenya

Smallholder settlement schemes have played a central role in the economic and development strategies in postcolonial Kenya. Adhering to the ‘land re-distribution’ agenda, these schemes marked a critical turn in the land question. Hence, in the transition to independence, settlement schemes helped de-racialize land ownership, and offered land to landless Africans who had been displaced in the struggle against British colonial rule. These land transfers were varied and became instrumental linchpins in the agrarian land re-distribution and economic development strategies. In the context of increased land fragmentation, astronomical rural-urban migration and changing rural population demographics the transformations occurring in these schemes especially in high potential agriculture Trans-Nzoia County call for considerable evaluation of the settlement scheme program. Research was conducted in Trans-Nzoia County with the aim of offering insights into the history and development of settlement schemes as pillars of rural development and agrarian reform.



By the communities for the communities: A holistic approach to community-based natural resource governance:

Husna Mbarak

UNFAO, Kenya

Kenya is in the midst of land reform that has far-reaching implications for securing the land rights of rural people, and promoting political stability and economic development. The reform is based on a National Land Policy (NLP), adopted in 2009. Since then the country has also adopted various laws and policies including the Constitution 2010, The Land Act, The Land Registration Act, the Community Land Act etc .

This paper aims at demonstrating how Kenya’s land reforms have led to the improvement of tenure security and increased participation investments at the community through Constitutional categorization of land into Community, Public and Private. will highlight how the reforms done at national level have opened opportunity for the securing tenure rights for communities. It is anticipated that the actualization and implementation will scale up of this enhanced of tenure security will result in the positive transformation of the livelihoods of more communities.



The political economy of Kenya land policy review

Odenda Lumumba

KENYA LAND ALLIANCE, Kenya

The political quest to review the Kenya National Land Policy has been on the cards since it was formulated and endorsed by Parliament on December 3, 2009. This is despite the fact that the policy document was developed in tandem with the African Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy (F&G), which spelled out a comprehensive process of restructuring three major components of the land system, namely its structure of land ownership (property system), land use and production structures, and the support services infrastructure for land delivery. Important to note is that the Kenya National Land Policy was endorsed after the Heads of States and Governments had declared their commitment to the shared vision, objectives and principles on land policy matters in July 2009. The blueprint was to govern ownership, access, use and management of land resources to enhance productivity and contribution to social, economic, political, environmental development and inclusive development.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-07: Managing sprawl: From data to policies
Session Chair: Neeraj Baruah, Vivid Economics, United Kingdom
MC 7-100 
 

Anatomy of Density

Shlomo Angel, Patrick Lamson-Hall

New York University, United States of America

We have found a novel way to decompose the average urban density of a city--the ratio of the total population of a city and its urban extent--into three, five, or seven factors that, when multiplied together yield urban density. Decomposing density into its factors--crowding, the occupancy rate, floorpan efficiency, building height, plot coverage, residential land use share, and the saturation of the urban extent by the built-up area--allow us to form a set of pragmatic policies that can increase average urban densities and to assess the potential effectiveness of such policies. We have collected data on the seven factors that together constitute average urban population density in a global sample of ten cities--Dhaka, Hong Kong, Kinshasa, Bangkok, Madrid, Baku, Minneapolis, Wuhan, Cairo, and Bogotá. We will present and discuss these data, much of it surprising, and discuss their implication for the potential for densification in cities in the world at large.



Measuring urban economic density

Sebastian Kriticos

The London School of Economics, United Kingdom

This paper evaluates the use of different measures of economic

density in assessing urban agglomeration effects, by examining how well they explain household income differences across cities and neighborhoods in six African countries. We examine simple scale and density measures and more nuanced ones which capture in second moments the extent of clustering within cities. The evidence suggests that more nuanced measures attempting to capture within-city differences in the extent of clustering do no better than a simple density measure in explaining income differences across cities, at least for the current degree of accuracy in measuring clustering.



Master scheme for the simplification and digital transformation of urban land management

Aurélie Milledrogues1, Nassirou Mbow2, Benoit Kiene1, Loic Daniel1

1IGN FI, France; 2Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLAU), Ivory Coast

In April 2017, the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Urban Planning (MCLU) created by decree the Steering Committee for Simplification and Digitization (CP-STD). By setting up this committee, the Ministry is strengthening the coordination and leadership mechanisms for managing the tasks involved in modernizing its administrative functions in line with the vision of reforms recommended by the “Doing Business” program – improving the business environment by simplifying administrative procedures relating to construction, housing, sanitation and urban planning.

In order to implement this transformation within the Administration, the Department has chosen to develop a blueprint of the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of urban land. This study, led by the Permanent Secretariat to the Simplification and the Digital Transformation of the MCLU, and conducted by IGN FI with technical assistance from the BNETD, marks the willingness of the Government to implement reforms.



The National Urban Policy as a Framework for managing Urban expansion and land use change in Malawi

Dr Janet L. Banda, Mercy Betty Dube, Devie Chilonga

Mnistry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi

ABSTRACT

Malawi has experienced rapid urbanization since independence with 15.3% of the national population living in urban areas in 2008. Estimates by the National Statistics Office (NSO) indicate that 30 % of the population in the country will be urban based by 2030, escalating to 50 % in 2050.

Rapid urbanisation coupled with limited technical and financial capacity among urban development institutions has contributed to unregulated urban growth among others. Government has in the past implemented Rural Development programmes in an attempt to manage urbanization by reducing rural urban migration. .

This paper looks at these programmes and the impact they had on managing urbanization and the lessons learnt from their implementation. The paper concludes that sustainable urbanization can only be achieved through the implementation of a proper guiding framework like the National Urban Policy.

Key Words:

National Physical Development Plan; National Urban Policy ,Secondary Centres;

Rural Growth Centres,urban expansion. Urbanisation;

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-08: Implementing urban land value capture
Session Chair: Riel Franzsen, University of Pretoria, South Africa
MC 8-100 
 

The role of transferrable development rights in emerging economies

Richard Grover1, Anna Corsi2, Ahmet Kindap3

1Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom; 2World Bank, Washington DC, USA; 3World Bank, Ankara, Turkey

In recent years a number of emerging economies have experimented with the use of transferrable development rights (TDRs) to support urban development, including Brazil, India, and Turkey. Most TDR schemes are found in USA and are used to protect vulnerable land and buildings from being destroyed by development by persuading their owners voluntarily to accept restrictions on their ability to undertake legally permitted development in return for credits which can be sold to developers for use in designated receiving areas. The paper examines the potential uses of TDRs and the economic and governance environment needed to make them effective. It considers how effective a spatial planning tool TDRs are likely to be in emerging economies and whether there are better alternative ways of achieving the objectives aimed for in TDR programs.



Is there a role of Land Value Capture Instruments for financing infrastructure investments in a messy urban growth scenario?

Cynthia Goytia

Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic

Many cities experienced a highly disorganized urban growth resulting in severe under-provision of urban infrastructure due to institutional and budgetary fiscal weaknesses. This study explores the feasibility of widening public funding of infrastructure investment using LVC tools in Metropolitan Buenos Aires, taking into account the wide income dispersion of households. A simulation model, estimates the potential collection from alternative LVCs and their feasibility in terms of the impact on income distribution due to income dispersion in each municipality where specific infrastructure is to be developed. Novel data on land values, household income/expenditures and land regulation are used, adding to local/state land revenues which are combined with the infrastructure plans advanced by the government. A general estimation of the share of land value increases that could be captured through various LVC instruments is provided, as well as the comparison of this projected revenue relative to public funds generated via other mechanisms.



Unlocking the potential of urban land in Kenya

Abdu Muwonge1, Peter Mwangi2

1World Bank, Kenya; 2Walker Kontos Advocates, Kenya

An ambitious public infrastructure program funded by public debt has positioned Kenya as a regional economic hub with growth in the financial, technology, service and hospitality sectors. Kenya has become an attractive and preferred destination for foreign companies who set up assembly plants in Kenyan business districts to penetrate the lucrative markets in the region. Ideally, the substantial investment in infrastructure should result in similar or higher return to the government through increased revenue collection. This is however not the case as the revenue generated in these business districts is less than optimal. The government is not getting a fair return on its investment and has to contend with rising public debt. This paper recommends innovative alternative funding sources such as land value capture, as a way of ensuring direct beneficiaries of infrastructure developments pay their fair share towards reducing the mismatch between public expenditure and revenue collection.



Institutional arrangements as a catalyzing instrument for land value capture processes in public transportation projects

Maria Juliana Rojas Cortes

JFP & Asociados, Colombia

Land value capture (LVC) tools and policies are arousing as innovative mechanisms that could serve to accomplish a two-way goal: to fund public construction and to enhance accurate urban development.

Among other urban processes, public transportation projects in cities in developing countries represent at the same time an opportunity and a challenge for public administrations to execute LVC policies.

Three cities in Latin America, have started the path to build and urban strategy to adavance LVC and TOD policies in their metro systems: Bogotá, City of Panamá, and Quito. From different contexts the cases are showing that is crucial to look close to institutional arrangements and found ways to set a solid basis for the dialogue between urban planning and transport.

Lessons learned in each case should bring important conclusions to understand how institutional arrangements could work as an innovative mechanism that could catalyze LVC processes implementation.



The untold story of Taiwan's land-based financing program - land readjustment or land grabbing?

Shih-Jung Hsu1, Grace Li-Min Liao2

1National Chengchi University, Taiwan; 2China University of Technology, Taiwan

Land-based finance (LBF) has become an important topic in recent years. To a local government this represents a valuable source of income from which to fund services, infrastructure development and maintenance programs. LBF encompasses a variety of taxes, charges, income from the sale of development rights and public lands, and land readjustment. Urban land readjustment (ULR) is one of the major ways in which Taiwan's LBF programs have accrued great revenues for government. However, the untold story is that ULR deprives landowners of their human rights, especially for those powerless to object. Who owns the power to decide the ULR zone? Can landowners say no to it? Can the ULR be justified only by its financial contributions to the government? These are important questions that this article aims to explore.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-09: Approaches towards sustainable land use management
Session Chair: Kim Thompson, USAID, United States of America
MC 9-100 
 

Development of an informal land use register for South Africa

Rajesh Nooka, Willy Govender, Mfanafuthi Gama

Data World (Pty) Ltd, South Africa

Spatial Planning is an important driver for promoting sustainable development and improving quality of life. It organises land uses to cater to the demands of development with environmental considerations. The effectiveness of planning hinges on the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of information. However, in South Africa, there is a critical gap in the availability of information that can genuinely depict the status of rural areas regarding current land. The problem is aggravated by the fact the no spatial reference can be made for large parts of the country’s rural areas as the cadastre does not cover them.

This paper presents a case study of a project that has recently been undertaken to create an informal land use register and a spatial database of infrastructure for rural areas of South Africa. This project is to assist all local municipalities in creating a single, wall to wall land use scheme.



Rural Environmental Registry in the priority municipalities for Cerrado deforestation combating, in Brazil

Carlos Henrique Pires Luiz1, Rejane Marques Mendes2, Leandro Meneguelli Biondo2, Lilianna Mendes Latini Gomes2, Janaina de Almeida Rocha2, Bernardo de Araujo Moraes Trovão2, Carlos Eduardo Portella Sturm2, Pedro de Almeida Salles2, Gustavo Henrique de Oliveira2, Magna Cunha dos Santos3

1The World Bank, Brazil; 2Brazilian Forest Service / Ministry of the Environment, Brazil; 3German Agency for International Cooperation - GIZ

The Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) is an important source of landholdings information for environmental and economic control, monitoring and planning, as well as to combat deforestation in Brazil. This publication provides CAR information declared until August / 2018, for the geographical context of the priority municipalities for Cerrado deforestation combating, a set of 52 municipalities located in the Cerrado Biome for priority actions to monitor and control illegal deforestation, land management and the encouragement of environmentally economic activities maintenance of native areas and recovery of degraded areas. Furthermore, the area registered in the CAR and the municipal boundaries were crossed with MapBiomas land cover – a database that provides the Cerrado land cover for a historical series between 2000 and 2016 – to evaluate the evolution of the land cover on the municipality and in the area registered in the CAR.



Environment and land use trends in the Ethiopian lowlands

Daniel Monchuk

The World Bank, United States of America

This study examines environmental and land use trends in Ethiopia focusing primarily on the lowland areas. Unlike the Ethiopian highlands which have been studied much more extensively, land-use trends, environmental threats and socio-economic challenges facing those living in the lowlands (i.e. areas below 1500m elevation) are much less understood as are the types of policies and practices promoting resilience among vulnerable groups. To support better decision making and more efficient delivery and targeting of programming, this study analyzes trends in the environment and land use to better understand the challenges faced by lowland changing vegetation patterns and expansion of cropping in traditional rangeland areas. The approach adopted draws heavily on a variety of remote-sensed (i.e. satellite) data in combination with environmental station monitoring data, field observations and local expertise to look at long-term (i.e. 1986-2017) as well as short-term (2000-2017) trends to better understand challenges faced by the lowland population.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-10: Addressing the challenges of pastoral tenure
Session Chair: Stephanie Burgos, Oxfam America, United States of America
MC 10-100 
 

Innovative electronic pasture committee software

Elvira Maratova, Abdimalik Egemberdiev

KYRGYZ JAYITY National pasture users' association, Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan today: 15 pasture users unions (PUU) use an innovative approach to manage pastures. The information system “Electronic Pasture Committee” (EPC) allows to keep automated records of the pasture committee's work through the formation of a database of pasture users, livestock, data on pasture plots (capacity, optimal load, seasonality, etc.), calculating the pasture use fees, control of payments made, distribution of pasture plots, vaccination. Before EPC the whole process was carried out manually, not always correctly and regularly, there was no single approach and a unique tool for making operational decisions. Planning, management and use of state pastures in Kyrgyzstan has been legally transferred to local communities and the EPC has already proved its effectiveness, resulting in improved pasture conditions, reduction of pasture load, and overall improvement of pasture infrastructure. Currently, “Kyrgyz Jayity” is working on improving EPC in order to form a consolidated database of all 454 district PUUs.



Pastoral rights to mobility in Senegal: unpacking paradoxes and reimagining sustainable management

Erin Kitchell

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Unites States of America

While national governments increasingly acknowledge the need to protect livestock mobility, broad statements in support of pastoral land rights have not translated into effective policy design. Current approaches to pastoral governance focus on internal dynamics among pastoral groups to regulate access and collectively manage rangelands. To operationalize rhetorical commitments to pastoral tenure security we need to broaden the focus on pastoral governance to address the types of protections and institutions requirements needed to maintain livestock mobility in mixed use landscapes. Drawing on participatory GIS mapping of over thousands of kilometers of livestock corridors and qualitative data collection in 18 communes, this paper integrates institutional analysis with an assessment of the structure and function of two corridor networks in eastern and central Senegal. Three institutional functions are crucial: (1) flexible access to distant pastures, (2) coordination to maintain landscape scale connectivity, and (3) mechanisms for conflict management.



Some issues of reducing pasture degradation in Mongolia

Gerlee Shuuduv, Batbileg Bayaraa

Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Mongolia

In recent years, many factors have been adversely affected by pastures due to climate change and human factors, such as crossroads, mining non-rehabilitation, pest rodent damage, and water supply limitation. Pasture area has decreased by 9.0 million ha over the last 50 years, 31.9 percent has been degraded, 1.2 percent has been affected by wind and water erosion, 38.4 percent is affected by rodents, 24.6 percent is desertified and 0.8 percent is polluted by mineral extraction.

It is important to define ways to develop sustainable pastoralism in mining areas and find out solutions to reduce pasture degradation, such as to decrease the negative impacts of mining, to manage well herder organization, to spend a portion of the profits earned from mining in the region, land and environmental offset.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-11: Are PPPs the future of land administration?
Session Chair: Jacob Zevenbergen, University of Twente, Netherlands, The
MC C1-100 
 

The importance of public private partnership in cadastre: Turkish experience

Orhan Ercan1, Mert Yasin Oz2

1FIG, Turkey; 2Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü, Turkey

The aim of maintained cadastral works in Turkey is to determine both the legal and geometric position of all the real property. In this way, the modern land registration which is anticipated in Turkish Civil Code will be founded.

There are approximately 57 million cadastral parcels in Turkey. As of the beginning of the 2000’s, Turkey’s cadastre had been completed in 75% as villages and district based by its own staff of the institution. The legal and geometric parts of cadastre were separated and PPP model was created by the institution. Within the scope of the World Bank MEER – MERLIS and ARIP Projects, initial cadastre and cadastre renovation tenders were made according to this new model. As a result, 13 million cadastral parcels in 5 years has been completed by the private sector. The institution has also completed the renewal of the 10 million cadastral parcels by PPP model.



A review of public-private partnerships in land administration

Mohsen Kalantari1, Daniel Paez1, Aanchal Anand2, Tony Burns3, Kate Rickersey3

1The University of Melbourne, Australia; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Equity International, Australia

This paper reports experiences in public-private partnership in land administration and provides lessons learnt from these partnerships. The review results suggest several factors contribute to the success of a PPP in land administration. The factors encompass political will of the public sector and government, support by the community of stakeholders, transparency in the bidding process and documents, a clear set of expectations from the partnership, active engagement of stakeholders during the partnership and strong leadership of the public partner in times of crisis. The review suggests, there is often a need for a legislative reform when adopting PPPs in land administration. The legislative changes are more pronounced in the regulatory framework of land administration than those of PPP. The literature suggests that the technology developed for one jurisdiction can be customised and adapted for other jurisdictions. There was not a notable first registration of land under the PPP schemes.



PPP in land administration - why now and what are the risks and benefits?

Fredrik Zetterquist, Dave Stow

Ordnance Survey, UK

Demands and expectations on land administration services change radically as new technologies, environmental challenges, urbanization, requirements for completion of first land registration and other social and political influences now gradually transform our practices and mindset. The authorities need to provide greater choice and control, more transparency, process inclusiveness and equity, on-demand access to information, adequately capture RRRs, better utilize geospatial information as mean to integrate other thematic data for e.g. smart cities, utilities and e-government etc. They also need to be capable to innovate and maintain systems and services that can evolve over time. The ability maintain highly skilled employees is another constraint. In combination with uncertain budget allocation for modernization of land administration an increasing number of nations now consider public-private partnership as an attractive alternative to adequately respond to these needs. This paper discusses benefits and risks associated with this approach for the land administration domain.



Exploring PPP opportunities for improved Land Administration Reforms, emerging lessons from the Ghanaian Case

Eric Yeboah

Office of the President, Ghana

The idea that capital, technology and skill can be leveraged from the private sector to enhance land administration is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries such as Ghana where donor funded land administration reform processes are not achieving the desired transformation after 15 years of implementation.

Among others, inadequate financing, weak technology base, human capacity issues and poor corporate governance practices are some of the underlining factors for the current state of affairs. In order to address these challenges, government of Ghana has resorted to PPP which is a non-convention but promising alternative strategies which can support government to achieve the anticipated transformation in land administration including reducing the turnaround time for first registration to within 30 days.

This paper examines a 11 point evaluation criteria to guide Ghana and others developing countries in order to ensure effective implementation that yields mutual rewarding outcomes for all stakeholders.



From client satisfaction to happiness: the front-office and back-office innovative concession models for fostering land registration in Dubai

Daniel Paez

Universidad de los Andes, Colombia

SDGs provide a framework for governments, multilateral organisations and donors to drive social investment on sustainable development. Among the 17 SGDs, SDG1(No poverty) SDG2 (Zero hunger) and SDG5 (Gender equality) directly highlight the importance of land tenure systems as a mechanism to achieve sustainable development.

This paper proposes strategies for practitioners to involve the private sector in land administration services while at the same time ensuring there is a contribution to the achievement of the SDGs. These are: (i) to target areas where the private sector can do a better job; (ii) find cross-services approaches within the land administration system (iii) build the participation in a trusted private sector; (iv) revenue should be based on achieving tangible social results aligned with SDGs. Analysis of SDG relation to Dubai registration trustees is presented.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-12: Gender impacts of large-scale investment
Session Chair: Kerstin Nolte, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
MC C1-200 
 

Winners or losers: a gender analysis of the economic and social impact of corporate large-scale land acquisition on rural women in Cameroon

Lotsmart Fonjong1, Lucy Fonjong2, Hellen Kasilla3

1University of Buea, Cameroon; 2University of Yaounde I, Cameroon; 3Islamic Relief Worldwide, Kenya

Cameroon like most sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed increase in large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) by local and foreign investors requesting huge hectares of land for investments. The underlying assumption is that LSLA is a win-win undertaking for investors and host countries/communities. Foreign investors are seen as catalysts of development whose capital will put ‘unused land’ into production and modernize agriculture, leading to growth and prosperity. This paper interrogates the situation of rural women in Cameroon based on primary investigations. It argues that, rural women are generally worse-off in the process of LSLA and even when they seems to benefit (jobs, social welfare, and amenities), these benefits are short-lived and replaced by far-reaching negative effects (exclusion, landless, poverty) on their reproductive and productive roles. These effects are obvious since LSLA is presently conceived from investors’ rather than investors/host countries’ perspectives. The current architecture of LSLA thus needs to be inclusive and engendered.



New research about gender, land and mining in Mongolia: deepening understanding of coping strategies in pastoral communities

Elizabeth Daley1, Yansanjav Narangerel2, Zoe Driscoll1

1Mokoro Ltd, United Kingdom; 2People Centered Conservation (PCC), Mongolia

This paper shares findings from new research on gender and land in a pastoralist community in central-western Mongolia, with a complex structure of investment and operations in gold mining. The paper examines what has been learned from the research about people's coping strategies in the face of social and environmental change, specifically in the context of the development of mining since the transition from socialism and in a relatively isolated area. Comparisons are made with similar studies in other communities in Mongolia, where it is found that in some ways female-headed households are less vulnerable in this new research community, while many men are in fact the vulnerable members of the community.



Strengthening women's voices in land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land

Philippine Sutz1, Amaelle Seigneret1, Mamadou Fall2

1IIED, United Kingdom; 2IED Afrique, Senegal

Over the past two years, IIED has been working with local partners in selected communities in Senegal, Tanzania and Ghana to develop, test and when possible upscale tools and approaches to strengthen rural women’s voices in local land governance in the context of commercial pressures on land.This paper will distil insights from this work, documenting the tools and approaches developed and implemented in each country and presenting key challenges and lessons learned.The paper will explain the rationale behind each approach and provide a step by step description of the implementation process. It will also explore the challenges met during implementation and the mitigation strategies developed to overcome them. It will draw specific lessons for each geography, compare and contrast the approaches and identify broader lessons exploring their potential for replication.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm04-13: Land rights regularization and common property resources
Session Chair: David Ameyaw, International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya
MC 7-860 
 

Identifying best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale in relation to emission reduction programs

Lauren Cooper1, Dietmar Stoian2, Emily Huff1, Kezia Salosso3

1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Bioversity International / World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), France; 3University of Papua, Indonesia

Benefit sharing is an important incentive for many actors who would otherwise not reduce GHG emissions. However, sharing schemes must be transparent, legitimate, and fair, especially because payments are often based on avoided actions rather than tied to specific goods. Earlier thinking focused on financial returns, but new thinking encompasses a broader set of ‘monetary and non-monetary benefits’, including tenure reform, local climate regulation, and community resilience. However, there is a gap in understanding best practices for benefit sharing at the jurisdictional scale, reflected in the limited guidance for jurisdictions to develop such plans. This study aims to address this gap by assessing, compiling, and communicating best practices across the spectrum of data currently available in multiple programs with a case study approach in two focal countries using sound scientific methods including semi-structured interviews, surveys, Strengths Weakness Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, Q-sorting, and statistical analysis.



How Does Scarcity Affect Extraction of Resources? A study about land use as a common-pool resource dilemma using survey and field-experimental data collected in northern Namibia

Nils Christian Hoenow, Michael Kirk

University of Marburg, Germany

The aim of this study is to analyze how scarcity of resources affects at what rate users decide to extract or appropriate resources. We investigate this by conducting a survey and an economic field experiment in northern Namibia. The participants in our study are small-scale farmers who regularly make decisions about either staying on their old fields or clearing forest areas for new ones. We compare environments where resources are abundant against environments where resources are scarce.

Results from both the survey and the experiment show that a scarce environment does not cause faster extraction, but under scarcity the rate of extraction is lower than in an abundant environment. Survey results also reveal that abundant stocks tend to attract additional users.



Impact of land certification on cash crop expansion in Southwest China

Haowen Zhuang, Shaoze Jin, Hermann Waibel

Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany

We analyze the impacts of forest and farmland certification on cash crop cultivation in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China. Our analysis is based on the panel data from two socioeconomic surveys of 612 smallholder rubber farmers in XSBN covering the period of 2012 and 2014. We apply a multinomial endogenous switching model along with a counterfactual analysis to estimate “ratio of land allocated to other cash crops relative to rubber” under different land use certification.We divide households into 4 groups, namely, (1) households with only farmland tenure certificate, (2) households with only forestland tenure certificate, (3) households with both farmland and forestland tenure certificates and (4) households without any land certificates. Results show that expansion of other cash crop takes place in households with either (a) only farmland certificate or (b) only forestland certificate. Households with both land use certificates and those without certificate are less likely to expand cash crops.



Forest carbon supply in Nepal: Evidence from a choice experiment

Randall Bluffstone1, Eswaran Somanathan2, Sahan Dissanayake1, Harisharan Luintel3, Naya Paudel4

1Portland State University, United States of America; 2Indian Statistical Institute, India; 3Smart Start Evaluation and Research, United States of America; 4Forest Action, Nepal

In this paper, we use a choice experiment conducted in 2013 to estimate household-level willingness to participate in a REDD+ program that requires reductions in fuelwood collections as a function of various CO2 prices. We find that robust participation occurs at prices that are higher than the early literature on developing country sequestration. Rather than prices of $1.00 to $5.00 incentivizing participation, we find that relatively little carbon would be supplied at such prices. This basic finding is in line with more recent literature focusing on Nepal REDD+ pilots, which suggests that the early optimism about low-cost carbon supply in community forestry settings may have been somewhat misplaced.

Formal community forests will almost certainly be the core institution within which REDD+ is implemented in Nepal and likely other countries.

 
5:30pm - 8:00pmOAS: Inter-American Network on Cadastre and Property Registry: innovation to improve land governance in Latin America (followed by a cocktail reception)

Public: By invitation only (Registered participants for the land and Poverty Conference from the LATAM region)

Language: Spanish only

Deadline to RSVP: Tuesday March 19, 2019 - RSVP

Organization of American States (OAS) - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC 
5:30pm - 8:00pmRed Interamericana de Catastro y Registro de la Propiedad: Innovación para mejorar la gobernanza de la tierra en América Latina (seguido por un coctel de recepción)

Público: Por invitación (participantes registrados en la conferencia de tierras y pobreza del Banco Mundial)

Lenguaje: Español

Fecha límite para reservar participación: martes 19 de marzo del 2019 – RSVP

Organization of American States (OAS) - 1889 F St. NW Washington DC 
Date: Wednesday, 27/Mar/2019
8:00am - 6:00pmPosters on display all day; Presenters available 12-2PM and 5.30-6 PM or contact by email
MC Atrium 
8:30am - 10:00am05-01: Private sector roles in Latin America's land administration
Session Chair: Ivonne Astrid Moreno Horta, WORLD BANK, Colombia
Preston Auditorium 
 

Colombia: The private sector’s roles in land tenure formalization in post-conflict areas

Javier Perez-Burgos

Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia

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Modernizing land information systems in Panama

Francisco Artola

Ministry of the presidency, Panama

Session Title: The Role of the Private Sector in the Modernization of Land Administration Services.

Before the creation of The National Land Administration Authority “ANATI”, Panama had the National Program for Land Administration, better known as “PRONAT created in 2001, whose purpose was the execution of regularization and massive titling projects.

With Law 59 of October 8, 2010, The National Land Administration Authority is created, subrogating the functions of “PRONAT”.

ANATI, by Law 22 of 2006 regarding Public Contracts of Panama, carries out contracts for cadastral regularization and titling, broadening the radius of action, and seeking not only to know the predial situation, but also to issue property titles to that part of the population that did not have it and that was exposed to suffer social damage in the absence of legal security.



Honduras: improving registry and cadastral service delivery through public and private outsourcing

Roman Alvarez

Instituto de la Propiedad, Honduras

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Contracting and direct implementation in systematic land formalization. 25 years of experience in Peru.

Victor Endo

Global Land Alliance, Peru

When is contracting out private firms for “systematic registration” preferable to direct implementation by government agencies? Is such outsourcing an appropriate solution for developing countries with limited capacities to manage contracts, monitor performance and quality, and to access the latest technology? The Peruvian urban and rural mass-scale titling programs over the past 25 years have transformed the property system of the country. Most of the titling activities were directly executed by governmental agencies with varied results. Only recently -after a large experience have been accumulated and there exist a local market of private professionals and companies- the first outsourcing experiences are being tried in an ongoing project. A balance of the experiences and conclusions will be presented.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-02: Implementing land readjustment
Session Chair: Patrick Lamson-Hall, New York University Marron Institute, United States of America
MC 13-121 
 

Using land readjustment and FAR bonuses to create high-density development in fringe areas of fast growing cities

Jay Mittal

Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States of America

Using a unique application of the self-financing land readjustment technique, planners in Ahmadabad, India created an outer ring road to address transportation challenges and to supply developable lands in fringe areas of the city with much-needed infrastructure and developable real estate. This idea is diffusing to other growing cities. This paper presents a case study of an outer ring road project in Surat, India. Surat in addition to the techniques of land pooling (LP) and land readjustment (LR) to create space for the outer ring road’s right-of-way (ROW) and other infrastructure, will also incorporate FAR bonuses -- additional incentive to create greater urban density along the ring road and thus enhance the financing of road. This case study presents opportunities for planning professionals who face the challenge of supplying infrastructure and addressing transportation deficiencies in financially constrained, and rapidly growing cities, especially those in developing countries.



Surrender and re-alienation of land in Johor, Malaysia: a planning tool and mechanism for sustainable property development

Rohani Azmi1, Suliman Suhailizan2, Hasbullah Mohd Halim2, Ariff Amirul Haffiz2, Sahid Mohd Shahrizan3, Suratman Robiah4, Samsudin Salfarina4

1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

In Malaysia, land laws are governed by the National Land Code (NLC) 1965. There are rules and restrictions imposed by the NLC 1965 which control and guide the property development. Uniquely, the implementation of the NLC 1965 is different in each state and state has govern on land matters, such as the application of conversion, sub-division, partition or amalgamation. In Johor, the state authority was implementing surrender and re-alienation mechanisms, as part of property development approval. This paper discusses on process and procedures, practices and some key challenges of the mechanism. The unique process has contributes fruitful significance for sustainable property development industry.



Land Assembly through Land Pooling Scheme in Amaravati, Challenges and land value capture for greenfield city development

Ramamanohara Rao Vippagunta, Sastry Siva Rama Krishna Jyosyula, Sreedhar Cherukury, Sidharth Ganesh

Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA), India

Amaravati, the greenfield capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India undertook one of the largest land pooling schemes in the world, wherein 28,000 farmers voluntarily pooled over 34,000 acres of land to develop a city designed to host a population of 3.5 million by 2050. The land owners received a benefit sharing package comprising of a reconstituted urban plot, social and economic benefits. While in peri-urban areas and redevelopment projects, the land value appreciation is rather directly discernible due to the presence of economic activity in the adjoining urban agglomerations, land value capture in a large land pooling exercise for a greenfield development remains unprecedented. This paper attempts to critically examine the challenges in land value capture and innovative measures adopted by the Authority in aspects of market speculation, density, infrastructure spread, affordability, connectivity and peripheral development.



Community-based feedback to improve land pooling for planned urbanization: a case study of Thimphu, Bhutan

Katie Farrin

Asian Development Bank, Philippines

Land pooling can be an effective strategy for public infrastructure projects, especially in small but growing cities where rural-to-urban transition gives rise to greenfield development. This paper outlines a model comparing outcomes of land acquisition and land pooling; reviews the literature on the negative effects of land acquisition on displaced households; and evaluates land pooling using original data from 1200 households in four Local Area Plans (LAPs) in southern Thimphu, Bhutan. Land prices in the LAPs increased, due in part to additional public services but in large part to a rise in urbanization over time. Land pooling participants benefited from increased land prices but not all were satisfied with the quality of works, particularly in terms of a lack of maintenance, nor with the consultation, planning and building phases. The case study has implications for government and multilateral development bank policy for land pooling and similar mechanisms for planned urbanization.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-03: Towards the registry of the future
Session Chair: Nicolás Nogueroles, IPRA-CINDER (International Property Registries Association), Spain
MC 2-800 
 

Digital street: Exploring the future of land registration through new technologies

John Abbott, Lauren Tombs, Paul Batterham

HM Land Registry, United Kingdom

Digital Street is the ground-breaking research and development function of Her Majesty’s Land Registry in England and Wales, which aims to transform the way HM Land Registry operates and to stimulate the land and property market.

In collaboration with industry innovators and experts we have created a vision of the future; which demonstrates how the use of data and cutting-edge technologies could positively disrupt the land and property market in the future.

This paper describes the approach that HM Land Registry has taken to explore the use of innovative technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts, and how we have engaged with the wider industry to explore and collaborate over problems such as identity verification and the digitisation of data.



Preventive administration of justice – an economic catalyzer for the future?! – an analysis of the economic relevance of reliable and transparent public registers –

Rolf Knieper

Bundesnotarkammer/UINL

The sustainability of market economies depends on a mutually enabling interrelation of private business activities and infrastructure provided by the State. One of the pillars of social infrastructure is the administration of justice. In most civil law jurisdictions, the administration of curative justice is complemented by preventive justice. The objective of preventive justice is the establishment of legal certainty and to catalyze market exchange; its instruments are the codification of (land) law as well as the authentication of private legal acts and the registration of title and other rights to land. Private persons may unfold their innovative capacity on the market without having to fear that the results of their activity are taken away arbitrarily.

The administration of preventive justice costs time and money. These costs are set off by a significant reduction of litigation as well as the elimination or at least the reduction of other transaction costs.



How to introduce a complete new land registry system in a rapid changing world

Jacob Vos

Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands

Due to daily practice in the real estate market, more and more legal possibilities and structures have been created. Because of densely populated areas, the need of social or medical healthcare and the emerging sharing economy, people start organising and changing the way they live in other ways. This also has an impact on the ‘classic’ land registry system as we used to know it. The Dutch land registry has been working on the renewal of the current land registry system in the Netherlands. The system will be introduced at the end this year (2018). With its implementation so-called legacy (1980`s) and the end-of-life-status of the software will be a thing of the past. The paper describes the changing daily practice, the incremental introduction, the migration of the registered data, the various decision points and the lessons learned.



Land Administration and the role of a Land Registrar Network

Mark Reichardt, Trevor Taylor

The Open Geospatial Consortium, United States of America

Only approximately 40% of nations operate with mature land administration systems of practice. An extremely important goal of the OGC's LandAdmin DWG is to focus on the needs of developing nations to establish “fit for purpose” land administration capabilities leveraging innovative technologies that are sustainable based on a given nation’s infrastructure, capabilities, and policy environment. Accessing the experts on the ground to understand and address practical, real-world requirements in the developing world is paramount to successfully guiding the community towards innovative ways to ensure sustainable basic land administration capabilities. This is well known, and there is a long history of substantial global investment in the developing world at all levels. What is missing is providing a mechanism for land registrars to have a coordinated voice in the process. This paper will report on progress and the importance of creating a global land registrar network.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-04: Land tenure for sustainable rangeland management
Session Chair: Liz Alden Wily, independent, Kenya
MC 4-100 
 

Strengthening traditional institutions of nomadic herders for sustainable management of public rangelands in Mongolia

Enkhamgalan Tseelei1, Gankhuyag Nyam-ochir1, Erdenechuluun Tumur2

1National Federation of Pasture user groups of herders, Mongolia; 2National University of Agriculture, Mongolia

According to National rangeland health assessment report released in September 2018, 56% of Mongolian rangelands are degraded. However, about 85% of these degraded rangelands still maintains the natural capacity to regenerate itself provided that animal grazing pressure us reduced. Absence of responsibility mechanism between owner of the land which is the State, and users-herders has been identified as a major cause of rangeland degradation. This paper explores the outcome of combined approach strengthening customary institutions of nomadic herders governing the use of their shared seasonal rangelands and regulatory tools embodied in the Rangeland use agreement between pasture user groups of herders and local government. According to survey carried out among herders adopted Rangeland use agreement, conflicts with access to shared rangelands have declined, planning and enforcement of improved grazing management is in place and investment from local government and herders on sustainable rangeland management practices has increased.



Landscape approach for addressing land use conflicts in pastoral areas: the case of Tanzania

Stephen Nindi1, Victor Mwita2, Deus Kalenzi3, Isaack Luambano3, Fiona Flintan3

1Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Tanzania; 2Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries; 3International Livestock Research Institute

Conflicts between farmers and livestock herders are increasingly becoming common place in Tanzania due to a number of different factors. For decades conventional village spatial planning has further restricted pastoral movement within village jurisdiction boundaries. Recently, spatial planners have embarked on developing Joint Village Land Use Plans and Agreements to enable more space and diversity for pastoral mobility, protecting shared grazing areas across village boundaries as part of this. As a starting point for identifying future intervention areas a pastoral landscape stretching from central Tanzania to the northern coastal area was mapped. This paper will provide details on how the landscape approach and mapping was developed and the results of this. It will highlight how such an approach is important for planning development and land-related interventions, as well as providing opportunity for improving local ownership of the process and as and advocacy/lobbying tool.



Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya

Linet Rutoh1, David Jakinda Otieno1, Willis-Oluoch Kosura1, Stephen Mureithi1, Gert Nyberg2

1The University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Sweden

This study aimed to characterize the forms of emerging land market participation and how they impact on pastoralists' livelihoods in Kenya. A sample of 336 agro-pastoralists was used to obtain information on the forms of land market participation and the transactions in place occurring in the counties of West Pokot and Laikipia. From the findings, land sales, and land rentals were the common emerging forms. However, land rental markets were more prevalent since its timeline was only one year and the agreements were mostly oral, based on friendship and trust. Moreover, it equalized land access between the land-rich and those with less land holdings. In addition, they acted as an avenue of income diversification for the households who rented out land for pasture and cultivation. To increase land markets vibrancy, which will stimulate the local economy growth and hence sustainable livelihoods, policies like tenure security should be made a priority.



Securing land rights for marginalized communities - Experience from working with Pastoralist, hunter and gathers in Tanzania

Naomi Shadrack Mwaiponya, Amina Ndiko

OXFAM, Tanzania

Oxfam projects in the Northern part of Tanzania targets marginalized tribes of maasai found in Arusha region and Barbaigs found in Manyara region. Project aim at reinforcing people’s capacity on livelihood restoration, environmental protection and land tenure security for both short term and long term basis.

Customs of majority of tribes in Tanzania, do not allow women to own, manage and control productive assets like land and natural resources. For women living in marginalized community their lives are affected twice, first as communities and second because of being women

Oxfam has been exploring approaches to help communities to secure land rights ensure those rights are protected under the law. This has been done through rough creation of awareness on legal frameworks, facilitation of land registration and linking Citizen with duty bearers.

This paper gives describe the project and give recommendation to different stakeholders working in the land targeting marginalized communities

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-05: Impact of informal tenure upgrading
Session Chair: Remi Jedwab, George Washington University, United States of America
MC 5-100 
 

High delinquency rates in Brazil’s Minha Casa Minha Vida housing program: Possible causes and necessary reforms

Arthur Acolin1, Marja Hoek-Smit2, Claudia Magalhães Eloy3

1University of Washington, United States of America; 2University of Pennsylvania, United States of America; 3Independent, Brazil



Backyarding: theory and evidence for South Africa

Jan Brueckner1, Claus Rabe2, Harris Selod3

1University of California, Irvine, United States of America; 2Independent consultant, South Africa; 3World Bank, United States of America



Impact Evaluations of Informal Settlements Upgrading Interventions: Evidence assessment and new topics for research.

Cynthia Goytia1, Guadalupe Dorna2

1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina; 2Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentina



Measuring housing deprivations in India: an alternative approach to slum enumeration

Amit Patel1, Phoram Shah2

1University of Massachusetts Boston, United States of America; 2The World Bank Group, United States of America

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-06: Institutionalizing bottom-up monitoring
Session Chair: Rueben Lifuka, Transparency International, Germany
MC 6-100 
 

Prindex: putting global tenure insecurity into perspective with results from 33 country surveys in 2018

Malcolm Childress1, David Spievack1, Anna Locke2, Joseph Feyertag2, Soumya Chattopadhyay2

1Global Land Alliance, United States of America; 2ODI, United Kingdom

This paper reviews findings from the initial 33 countries in which data is being collected during 2018 of Prindex (The Global Property Rights Index), a survey designed to measure tenure insecurity on both a global and national basis. With this initial installment of what is planned as a 140-country baseline study by the end of 2019, Prindex will begin providing national policymakers, researchers, entrepreneurs, and non-governmental organizations in the land rights community with a new dataset to assess the scope and nature of tenure insecurity. Based on nationally-representative samples of individuals 18 and older, Prindex measures tenure insecurity in terms of respondents’ perceived likelihood of losing use rights to their home or other property against their will within the next five years. It does so both on an aggregate level, and disaggregated by gender, location, income, age, household size, tenure type, and length of tenure.



Perceived tenure insecurity among renters and its implications for ongoing urbanisation

Anna Locke1, Joseph Feyertag1, Malcolm Childress2, David Spievack2, Soumya Chattopadhyay1

1Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom; 2Global Land Alliance, United States of America

As urbanisation increases, especially in African cities, so too does the number of people living in rented housing. Initial findings from the Prindex survey show that people in rented housing feel 21% more insecure about losing their property than those who own theirs. There are many reasons as to why renters feel so insecure – primarily, they are worried about being evicted by the owner of the property, but lack of money, family disagreements and government seizures also play a part. A lack of land tenure security has large negative impacts on the poor and vulnerable. If managed poorly, settlement of incoming urban migrants can heighten tension and destabilisation, meaning cities are not able to realise all the benefits of urbanisation. To address the situation renters find themselves in, city governments should improve urban land management to ensure that formal sector housing and land markets can respond with adequate supply.



Indigenous data sovereignty

Pyrou Chung

EWMI-Open Development Initiative, Myanmar

The Mekong region is home to over 100 indigenous and ethnically distinct communities who have struggled to retain their autonomy. While each group of indigenous and ethnic minorities (IEM) have unique struggles, a general theme emerges: access to land and natural resources. Despite global recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN General Assembly, 2007), IEM rights have in some cases been rendered meaningless because of the colonization and repatriation of IEM. IEM claims to land and livelihoods based on the related natural resources have suffered, in part because IEM-produced data and knowledge have usually been delegitimized by governing powers.

This paper discusses how open data policies focused on Indigenous Data Sovereignty, applied to create a coordinated network, has contributed to the public provision of data and its use in land claims in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.



National land observatories: a tool for transparency, accountability, and informed decision making over land for all

Grislain Quentin1, Anseeuw Ward2, Burnod Perrine3, Bourgoin Jérémy4, Giger Markus5, Hershaw Eva6, Ka Ibrahima7

1International Land Coalition, Senegal; 2CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy; 3CIRAD / Observatoire du foncier à Madagascar; 4CIRAD / ISRA-BAME; 5Centre for Development and Environment; 6International Land Coalition, Italy; 7IPAR, Senegal

Data regarding land governance is often considered "inaccurate", "incomplete", "biased". In order to overcome these shortcomings, national land observatories are being developed, as structures, on one hand, of data collection, storage and management, and on the other hand, of production, analysis and reporting of information and knowledge. As such, as they are nationally managed and promoting an eco-system of data, land observatories are privileged instruments for reducing information asymmetries, promoting data transparency and accountability, supporting informed decision-making, strengthening debates on land tenure issues and promoting citizen participation in land governance. This paper presents in detail the results of a study on land observatories in Africa. It identifies four types of land observatories in Africa with different structures, roles and mandates, for which it assesses the factors of success and failure in order to better equip them in view of informed decision-making over land for all.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-07: Improving access to land for urban expansion
Session Chair: Rebecca Leshinsky, RMIT University, Australia
MC 7-100 
 

Urban planning orientation tools implementation in Bamako District

Founemakan Sissoko

University of Law and Political Science of Bamako, Mali

Growing cities across the globe face a number of changelings and problems which posse threat to their dwellers. In the world today, the fastest growing city in Africa and the sixth in the world, Bamako currently faces huge challenge of implementation urban planning tools which sooner or later might be difficult to be addressed. In attempt to have a holistic view of the challenge, 646 questionnaires were given to its common citizens, 32 questionnaires were given to Neighborhood Development Committee (CDQ) members, and 11 interviews had been conducted in 32 Neighborhoods (quarters) in the 06 Communes of Bamako District. Through the use of simple percentage, this study discovered that planning orientation tools are not implemented and plans are not respected in Bamako District. The city is progressively demolishing and the village is set up for the change of public facilities into dwellings and the residents are not satisfied of that.



Urban planning and land shortcoming in Morocco: Aspects of injustice and perspectives

Abdelwahed El Idrissi1, Ahmed Maliki2, Moha El Ayachi3, Khalid Yousfi4

1National Institute of Urban Planning, Morocco; 2University Qadi ayyad, Morocco; 3Institute of agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Morocco; 4National Council of Licensed Surveyors, Morocco

Urban planning tools in Morocco are a source of land injustice. Urban planning documents continue to reflect a prescriptive and normative urbanism based on a functionalist logic of equipment distribution and zoning, constantly generating spatial divisions and correlative social segregations. Land inequity is a source of social injustice for those who have suffered the consequences of prejudicial planning. The idea discussed by this paper follows three basic frameworks: the first focuses on revealing the scope and limits of the normative and legal framework for urban planning. The second aims to highlight the forms of land injustice arising from urban plans. As for the third axis, it focuses on the principles, rules and prospects for a possible renewal in this area.



Urban planning and land issues in the city of Antananarivo

Nancy Rambao Andrianarisoa Sp. Andriamisandratsoa

Ministry of Regional Development, Building, Housing and Public Works - Madagascar

As the Malagasy population is still composed of 75% of farmers and most of them do not yet have their own land, the development of urban areas can not keep pace with the rural exodus which is constantly increasing;

Given this fact, we thought that it would be essential to focus on the study of this phenomenon, in order to know the realities that surround it and in what perspectives they can be improved.

After the ten years of land reform, a new Land Policy Letter has been initiated in 2015.

Land issues involve actors in a perspective of sustainable planning development. The synergy of all stakeholders is therefore essential to resolve the problmes in an urban area, especially local authorities, environmental managers, specialists in urban planning and housing, civil society, land administration and local land offices.



Assessing suitability and acceptability of development plans and town planning schemes in small and medium town: a case of Gujarat

Priyanshu Sharma

CEPT University, India

The paper focuses on urban plan preparation in Gujarat, which is backed by the robust legislative framework. This two-stage plan preparation process is popularly known as Development Plan (DP) and Town Planning Schemes (TPS). The intention of this plan is to support future growth and develop it in a planned manner. Large cities have comparatively better governance structures and hence are generally able to prepare these plans. However, it has been observed that these urban plans are facing challenges to gain momentum in small and medium towns. Local bodies of these towns are unable to defend urban plans prepared by them. Hence, these plans faced severe resistance and opposition from the community and had to be withdrawn or updated the urban plans. This paper reviews and ascertain the issues faced by urban local bodies and stakeholders during the preparation and implementation of these plans and followed by the recommendations.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-08: New ways of registering customary land
Session Chair: Janet L. Banda SC., Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi
MC 8-100 
 

Addressing fuzzy boundaries in community delimitations for systematic cadaster in Mozambique

João Carrilho1, Marisa Balas2, Mario Marques3, Zileque Macate3, Christiaan Lemmen4

1National Directorate of Lands, Mozambique; 2EXI, Lda, Mozambique; 3Verde Azul, Lda, Mozambique; 4Kadaster, The Netherlands

This article draws from experiences conducted regarding the systematic land tenure registration in Mozambique, both for communities and individual occupants. It is constitutional obligation of the State to recognize these rights. The recognition of land rights involves the definition of limits and boundaries. While boundaries are interpreted as discontinuities in people to land relationships, cases have been found of harmonious joint use of the same area by different communities. Disputes over boundaries have potentially serious consequences for social and economic stability, and must then be avoided.. The proposed solution is the explicit incorporation of the knowledge of these discrepancies, overlaps and uncertainties in the tools for systematic registration of community and individual land rights and its maintenance. Field staff and communities shall be trained to adequately employ such tools. A specific land use category of areas with overlapping community land use rights.



Moving from debate to implementation: Opportunities for Community Land Registration in Kenya

Brian Gideon Washe Kazungu, Justus Wabwire Ogollah Wambayi

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya

Drawing lessons from the experience in implementing of the European Union (EU) funded Communal Land Governance Programme by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in the 8 ASAL counties of Kenya, this paper highlights opportunities the government (national and county) of Kenya should take advantage of to ensure that registration of community land is participatory, practical and cost-efficient. Additionally, the paper discusses these opportunities with an awareness of the history of inter-community conflict over territory, and forms of elite capture that happen during community engagement on access and use of land and land-based resources. The paper takes into account the realities of communities' nomadic way of life, and the vastness of the land to be registered as well as the limited technical personnel to carry out the registration process.



“Grazing agreements: negotiated resource access and conflict mediation at the private property-common property nexus in Kenya’s rangelands”

Christopher Wade

Independent Consultant, United States of America

Pastoralist access to private property is increasingly being mediated through formal, contractual arrangements. This paper explores how formalizing access provisions through the grazing agreement contract provides significant benefits to both parties of the arrangement. The engagement of formal access agreements observed in this case study

demonstrates institutional innovation on the part of both ranchers and pastoralists. Drawing on original field work as well as academic reference literature, this paper expands on the grazing agreement concept and explain its benefits from the perspective of private property management, natural resource management, conflict management and prevention, and its contributions to pastoralist rangelands property rights strategy. Grazing agreements can be leveraged to maintain and defend property rights while also creating additional opportunities for the pastoralist production strategy. This arrangement involving resource allocation has implications for resource access in pastoralist production and for rangelands governance.



Social and institutional innovation in land reform: local land charters in Burkina

Hubert Marie Gerard Ouedraogo

DID international, Burkina Faso

Customary land right is one of the most challenging issues which need to be adequately addressed if land is to play its proper role in African development. The Burkina land reform adopted a bold innovation known as the “local land charters” (LLCs), inspired by principles of decentralization and empowerment of local communities and aiming at reflecting the diversity of land customs.

While LLCs seem a promising avenue for making the land laws more effective on the ground, the innovation fosters resistances from land administration agencies as it it challenges the dominant perception of land as a set standardized norms applicable at national level. It also questions the short term nature of donor led land projects

The paper discusses the generating factors of LLCs and analyses the conditions under which social and institutional innovation in land can be not just a theoretical construction, but a powerful change factor

.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-09: Implementing REDD in practice
Session Chair: Peter Veit, World Resources Institute, United States of America
MC 9-100 
 

Practical guide for the creation and management of conservation space

Douglas Steinberg1, Bala W. Sanou2, Fako Bruno Ouattara2, Brook Johnson2, Amber Lee James1, Caroline Plançon-Rodriguez3

1National Cooperative Business Association CLUSA International, United States of America; 2Independent Consultant, Burkina Faso; 3World Bank, United States of America

Burkina Faso’s Ministry of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change (MEEVCC) is developing solutions to secure rural commons used by multiple actors. MEEVCC received the support of the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA CLUSA) to design a practical guide to help local governments to secure the sustainable use of forest reserves in Burkina Faos’s effort to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). NCBA CLUSA conducted a field assessment and consultation process in four communes to draw lessons from the resource use and practices at the village level. From this assessment and with local actors involved in NRM and land tenure, the study identified lessons, analyzed institutional constraints and the legal options offered for the securing of commons. 32 communes will use this practical guide to secure their commons, with the objective of reaching impact at scale in the reduction of carbon emissions related to land use change.



Development of a practical guide to support local actors in the development and management of conservation areas in the context of REDD+

Amber Lee James, Bala Wenceslas Sanou, Fako Bruno Ouattara

NCBA CLUSA International, United States of America

The National Cooperative Business Association drew on experience in natural resources management in West Africa to develop a practical guide to secure the sustainable use of forest reserves in the context of REDD+ objectives for Land Degradation Neutrality. Over an eight-month period, our team in Burkina Faso worked with the World Bank Forest Investment Program, a technical advisory group and ministries. We conducted a literature review, interviews with policy makers, and field assessments of resource use and practices at the commune (the lowest level of political and administrative districts) and village levels in four communes: Gassan, Sapouy, Siby and Zambo. Issues emerging include a diversity of land uses (forest resources, as well as non-timber products including fauna); degraded resources; accommodating private interests, such as traditional hunter associations or across multiple villages with claims; lack of institutional memory and documentation of previous planning efforts; and reconciling legitimate and legally recognized actors.



Rethinking land development and offset mechanisms in cambodia

Alexander Marx, Ratana Pen

Heinrich Boell Foundation, Cambodia

This publication is on "Green Growth" and natural Resource Development in Cambodia. In view of this factual situation, the question arises whether member countries of the OECD or the developed countries could expand their influence in Cambodia by means of other actions. The two offset mechanisms (CDM and REDD+) will be explained in detail, which will then be used to investigate environmental projects in Cambodia provinces. In view of the controversial situation, the REDD+ is supposed to help to ensure sustainable forest use. It is particularly clear that this form of land grabbing is justified by the advocates of “Green Growth”, "maximizing sustainability" and "preserving ecosystems". This type of "optimization" as well as the heterogeneity of the very different actors in the face of common interests underline the difference to the phenomenon of land grabbing, also because the exploitation of natural resources such as oil or wood is not directly in their focus.



Environmental justice in the REDD+ frontier: indigenous experiences from the scholarly literature and proposals for a way forward

Juan Pablo Sarmiento Barletti, Anne Larson

Center for International Forestry Research, Peru

We present the findings of a systematic search of the scholarly literature dealing with how projects and national processes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) framework have affected, positively or negatively, the rights of indigenous peoples. Our review is intended as a follow-up to early warnings that REDD+ might violate indigenous rights, and to positions held by proponents that REDD+ can be a vehicle to achieve further recognition of indigenous rights. By exploring the question of indigenous rights in the REDD+ frontier — the national and local contexts in which REDD+ is being rolled out — we aim to inform ongoing related discussions in scholarly and practised-based circles.

This presentation engages with Theme 4 of the conference — Land and human rights, gender, indigenous peoples.



How the climate protection strengthens the indigenous territories in the Amazon: The REDD Early Movers Program (REM) in Mato Grosso - Brazil

Taiguara Alencar1, Renata Oliveira Costa1, Eliane Lima2, Deroni Mendes3

1GIZ, Brazil; 2FEPOIMT, Brazil; 3ICV, Brazil

Brazil is a signatory of the Paris Agreement to tackle the Climate Change. The Mato Grosso State, located in the Amazon, commited with the end of the lllegal deforestation which allowed the launch of the REDD Early Movers (REM) Program supported by KfW and GIZ. It rewards pioneers for their success in reducing deforestation, based in payment for results under a stock-flow methodology that rewards several actors, especially the conservationists. The Program, coordinated by the State Government, includes a Subprogram for Indigenous Territories whose consultation process (of 43 ethnicities) fully respected the Convention 169 of ILO. It has the partnership of the brazilian NGO Instituto Centro de Vida (ICV) and has the Federation of Indigenous Peoples of Mato Grosso (FEPOIMT) as the protagonist. The article aims to demonstrate how the REM Program, supported by German Cooperation, has strengthened the Indigenous Territories in Mato Grosso-Brazil,

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-10: Overlapping jurisdictions at the peri-urban fringe
Session Chair: Shikha Srivastava, Tata Trusts, India
MC 10-100 
 

Peri-urban land governance: understanding conflicting and competing interests for peri-urban land in Ethiopia

Achamyeleh Gashu Adam

Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

Understanding the competing and conflicting interests on peri-urban land is crucial for informed land governance decision and well managed urbanization process. However, research on understanding of the conflicting and competing interests for peri-urban land and the role, interaction and power relation among actors and its implication on land governance has not received adequate attention by scholars and policy makers. Thus, this study aimed to identify land governance gaps arising from the roles of different actors, interaction and power relations in Ethiopia. Finally, the key findings of this study show that land governance in the transitional peri-urban areas is twisted by divergent or complimentary roles of formal and informal actors.



The policy incompatibility nexus between urban expansion, land use and land value in Nepal: the case of Pokhara metropolitan city

Indra Prasad Tiwari

Pokhara University, Nepal

With the implementation of the federal structure and the reorganization of local governments there have been policy conflicts between urban expansion, land use and land value in Nepal. This study collecting data on land use from the profiles of the Pokhara Metropolitan City (PMC) in the Gandaki Province of Nepal and its 33 wards, PMC guidelines on land values implemented for land registration purposes across the city by streets and lane sites, and primary sample data collection on land use and land value has analyzed the land factor for expansion of urban activities in the predominantly agricultural and rural setting for public establishments and private economic activities. The result of the analyses has brought out various problems on land-based investment in public infrastructure, the establishment of business and economic activities in peri-urban areas of PMC. An integrated, improved and strengthened urban expansion-land use-land value policy nexus is required.



Urban expansion and the emergence of informal land markets in Namibia's communal areas

Romie Nghitevelekwa

University of Namibia, Namibia

Fifteen years ago, access to land in Namibia's communal areas has only been in the confinement of traditional authorities, as the main institutions through which land can be accessed. Today, land can be accessed through existing individual landholders through the emerging informal land markets. The informal land markets are found in highly populated demographic zones, and mostly villages adjacent to the local authorities areas. According to the Communal Land Reform Act, 2002, trading of communal land is prohibited, however even with this legal prohibition land markets are rampant. This paper presents the dynamics around the emerging informal land markets in Namibia's communal areas, the drivers, and its long-term implications and structural transformations in the landscapes once considered confines of subsistence agriculture.



Who owns the land? Legal pluralism and conflicts over land rights in Ghana

Anatoli Ignatov

Appalachian State University, United States of America

This paper examines contemporary contestations over ascertaining the ownership of land in Northern Ghana. Presently land in Ghana is characterized by a plural legal system where customary and statutory systems overlap. The 1979 Constitution handed back land in the North to its “traditional owners,” opening up possibilities for earth priests, chiefs, families, and individuals to re-interpret the language of the Constitution and claim ownership. In the North, the hierarchies of land tenure interests are commonly enshrined in contesting oral histories. Drawing on field research in Ghana, I view these contestations not merely as struggles over access to “resources” and land but also as conflicts over competing models of political authority and governance. By elucidating how traditional authorities and state land agencies draw on, revise, and add to these models, this project aims to contribute to broader policy and scholarly debates about land rights and governance in Africa.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-11: Implementing NSDI: From guidelines to practice
Session Chair: Kathrine Kelm, World Bank, United States of America
MC C1-100 
 

Research on access and use of geographic information in Moldova

Maria Ovdii1, Elena Busch2

1Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova, Moldova; 2Kartverket - Norwegian Mapping Authority, Norway

Norwegian support to the land sector in Moldova has started in 2006. During the last twelve years, Norway has assisted Moldova with production and delivery of geospatial information: Orthophoto, Digital Terrain Model and Base map. The assistance from Norway has significantly contributed to improvement of public services providing open access to geospatial data on the Internet. Norway as a donor was concerned that the geospatial data produced with Norwegian funding used and maintained effectively. In 2017, Norwegian Mapping Authority and Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of Moldova have executed a research on the access and use of the geospatial information funded by Norway. This paper describes the findings of the study with emphases on the measures to improve the use of available geodata by a wider range of users in Moldova, as well as to indicate the target areas for potential support from Norway and other donors.



UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework towards achieving the 2030 Agenda – from global to national. Guyana experience.

Rumyana Tonchovska1, Trevor Benn2, Andrew Coote3

1UNFAO, Italy; 2Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission, Guyana; 3ConsultingWhere Ltd., United Kingdom

In August 2018, the United Nations endorsed an Integrated Geospatial Information Framework (IGIF), which provides a strategic guidance that enables country specific action plans to be prepared and implemented. The Cooperative Republic of Guyana is one of the first countries in the world, which is taking actions to align its national policy on geospatial information management to the newly endorsed UN Integrated Geospatial Information Framework and to develop an Action Plan that can serve as an example to other countries and regions. The Guyana Lands and Surveys Commission in cooperation with the FAO will present how the IGIF coupled with an SDI Analysis methodology developed by the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM), World Bank and FAO is being applied in Guyana to help rapidly accelerate delivery of a fit for purpose infrastructure.



Integration of Crowdsourcing and digital platform of National Spatial Data Infrastructure for efficient decision-making

Borko Draskovic, Darko Vucetic

Republic Geodetic Authority, Serbia

Digital transformation of the national economy and public administration are among the key priorities of Serbian Government. Government of Republic of Serbia and Republic geodetic authority works together on the development of framework for the crowdsourcing technology utilization, combined with the National Spatial Data Infrastructure digital platform. Objective is to provide credible, quality and effective data acquisition, to provide both local and national government with a framework for making decisions needed for a more efficient decision making and achieving the objectives of the Sustainable Development Strategy and Agenda 2030. For this purpose, a mobile application has been developed which, using the crowdsourcing technology, provides for creating and updating the official registers. The evaluation of the proposed approach shows the efficiency of the implementation and assuring interoperability between the crowdsourcing system and the NSDI digital platform, thus providing for the authoritative data usage in a completely new context, and new level.



Additional considerations for the successful implementation of a CORS GNSS Network in Developing Countries

Nicolas De Moegen

Leica Geosystems, France

A Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) GNSS Network is essential to provide a regional positioning service that can provide fit-for-purpose positioning. In developing countries, this represents significant challenges, but offers significant benefits. This paper is mainly dedicated to National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations and focus on some key benefits dependent of specific related tasks for land parcel and utility mapping which are often under-estimated or ignored, hence leading to an incomplete implementation missing a fundamental foundation for a successful use of the CORS GNSS Network.

This paper will present best practice for GNSS surveys within a CORS infrastructure, deliver recommendations to compute and publish new local or national transformations to maximize sustainable development of the system and explain how to implement Quality Controls to evaluate and reject any survey which will not fit to standards defined and published by the beneficiaries like National Mapping Agencies and Cadastral Organizations.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-12: Protecting land rights in the course of land acquisition
Session Chair: Joan Kagwanja, UNECA, Ethiopia
MC C1-200 
 

Land rights protection in the pulp and paper production system

Carolina Torres Graca, Decio Zylbersztajn

University of São Paulo, Brazil

This article explores how the quality of institutions influence the strategic choice of agents in the pulp and paper production system based on planted forests sector.

In order to proceed with the study, we employ the Economic Analysis of Property Rights (Barzel, 1982, 1989, 2002) as foundation and test the proposition: in federative states where the institutional environment is fragile and therefore the State has a high cost to enforcement property rights, private mechanisms stand out in the protection of property rights

The analysis of three business cases of companies with plantations in more than one federative units revealed the broad range of private mechanism in place to cope with insecure land rights in Brazil. In the federative units where government fails to be a good ruler, we found a multi stakeholder platform under use to define and enforce land rights.



Land acquisition in Malaysia: Policy context and praxis for oil and gas hub project in Eastern Johor.

Rohani Azmi1, Sahid Mohd Shahrizan2, Hasbullah Mohd Halim3, Suliman Suhailizan3, Ariff Amirul Haffiz3, Samsudin Salfarina4, Suratman Robiah4

1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 3Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Land acquisition involves the compulsory taking of land. In Malaysia, land acquisition can be a complex and time-sensitive process. The land acquisition process in Peninsular Malaysia is governed by the Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 1960 (Act 486). Even though all states in the Peninsular Malaysia are adopting the law, however the way of how it is implemented would be different according to each state. The Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) is one big project in creating value to the downstream oil and gas value chain in Johor, Malaysia. Sited in Pengerang, it is involves largest scales of investments and compulsorily acquire villagers land. The acquisition process for the PIPC project is in compliance with the LAA 1960 (Act 486). This paper discusses the action taken, best approach and success story associated with or derived from land acquisition of the project.



LSLA in Mozambique: impact on rural and urban communities

R. Wanjiku Kiambo, 1Alda Salamao, Issufo Tankar, Samanta Remane

Centro Terra Viva, Mozambique

Since 2010, the Mozambican economy has experienced significant increase in investment projects that require large tracts of land for extraction of minerals, large agriculture projects, and development of physical infrastructure. The increase in demand for land acquisition was significant enough that in 2012, the laws and procedures governing ‘resettlement caused by economic activities’ were revised and made more stringent, with clear guidelines on how to compensate and resettle affected communities. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences in the resettlement process in the rural and urban communities, and in the infrastructure and extractive projects, how the affected communities were consulted, the extent to which legal procedures and guidelines were carried out and the impact of the processes of large scale land acquisition on rural ( Afungi Penninsula of Palma in Cabo Delgado Province) and urban (Malanga neighborhood, Maputo City, resettled as a result of the construction of the Maputo-Katembe bridge) communities.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-13: Providing policy advice through applied research
Session Chair: Ammar Alhamadi, Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates
MC 7-860 
 

Beyond climate change: how tenure reform aggravated grassland degradation in north china

Xingyue Zhang1, Shuhao Tan2

1University of California Davis, United States of America; 2Renmin University of China, China

Grassland plays a vital role in human society and in the ecosystem. Maintaining the vulnerable natural assets---grassland resources, though challengeable, is very significant. However, comprehensive studies on the detailed process of and mechanisms leading to the degradation are still to be presented. This paper will combine the environmental monitoring data with the policy impacts, then arrange them along the timeline to explore how the tenure reform aggravated the grassland degradation in North China. The results illustrated that despite the climate change, tenure reform could be a strong driver of grassland degradation through two mechanisms - “livestock distribution - livestock increase – Tragedy of Commons” and “grassland distribution - grassland fragmentation - Fence Trap”. This finding reminds countries/regions undergoing grassland tenure reform to be aware of both the Tragedy of Commons and the Fence Trap which have taken place in North China.



Unrecognized opportunities for pastoral tenure: Re-framing variability, mobility, and flexibility

Kramer Gillin

University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America

Among scholars and practitioners involved with land tenure in pastoral areas, there has existed a tension between the benefits of clearly established property rights and the dynamic land access needs of pastoralist communities. In describing the institutional demands of pastoral mobility, those advocating for pastoralist communities often explain that the climatic variability of pastoral areas necessitates flexible property arrangements. The seemingly inherent incompatibility of formal registration and clear boundaries, on the one hand, with flexible access rights, on the other, is the crux of the problem of pastoral property rights. This paper clarifies the often conflated concepts of unpredictability vs. variability and mobility vs. flexibility. While climatic variability and livestock mobility are intrinsic to pastoral systems, the relevance of “uncertainty” and flexibility are context specific. Looking for predictability can help form the basis of institutionally viable tenure arrangements that meet the livelihood demands of pastoralists.



An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to understanding the correlation of land use regulations on residential property values in Windhoek, Namibia

Sam M. Mwando

Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

Windhoek city in Namibia continues to experience an acute shortage of affordable housing, a situation that has reached a socio-economic crisis proportion with an estimated housing backlog of 21,000 units out of the national backlog of 100,000 units. The aim of the study investigates the impact of the newly introduced urban land use regulation on single-family residential properties in Windhoek. Using mixed methods approach, the study combined survey interviews and observational checklist to develop a hedonic pricing model in understanding the variables that significantly contribute to residential property values in the study area from 2005 to 2017. Hedonic pricing analysis revealed that proximity to commercial or office uses has a positive correlation in the short run. Further, as distance from non-residential uses increased, the positive effect on property values increases. The results also indicate that being too close to commercial or office uses yield negative effects because of nuisance factors.

 
8:30am - 10:00am05-14: Research on land markets in Ukraine
Session Chair: Oleg Nivievskyi, Kyiv Economic Institute/ Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine

VC/webex

MC 6-860 
 

Do land rental markets contribute to efficient land allocations? Ukrainian experience

Vasyl Kvartiuk, Eduard Bukin, Thomas Herzfeld

Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), Germany

This study analyses how agricultural land rental market contributes to efficient land allocation in Ukrainian agricultural production. Ukraine has been struggling to introduce land sales market for the last two decade. Nevertheless, agricultural production has grown substantially in the recent years. We assess how current land relations in Ukraine have contributed to agricultural growth. In particular, we examine whether agricultural land tends to flow towards better skilled agricultural producers, thus, improving agricultural efficiency. Utilizing a rich panel of Ukrainian commercial agricultural producers for 2006-2017, we examine the determinants of participation in the land rental market. We show that the likelihood of renting in land does not depend on proxies for agricultural ability. Furthermore, exit-entry of farms seems to be associated with their agricultural ability but less so in regions with predominant large-scale production. We examine the factors that may contribute land rental markets failing to facilitate efficient land allocations.



Implications of land market imperfections on policy design

Dan Tavrov, Oleg Nivievskyi

Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine

The evidence on welfare implications of land market imperfections is relatively scarce in academic literature. Partial equilibrium models currently available consider welfare implications and land redistribution in presence of significant market power and credit market imperfections in rental land markets. However, land and credit market imperfections are treated separately.

Moreover, only rental markets are discussed in the literature in this regard, leaving sales markets out, thereby leading to a major and important simplification, as rental markets have different weights in the total volume of land market transactions.

In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework that integrates land and credit market imperfections, and explore an interplay between rental and sales land markets. This model can be used to provide innovative insights for welfare implications and distributional impact of various policy design options, which would come in handy for carrying out land reforms in developing and transition countries.



Land market institutions and agricultural productivity in Ukraine

Roman Koshovnyk, Oleg Nivievskyi

Kyiv School of Economics, Ukraine

All over the world, institutionalization of property rights and its impact on economic growth have become of high importance. New institutional economists contrast institutions and organizations (including individuals), indicating that a market comprised of individuals requires institutions to avoid inefficiency and failures.

In Ukraine, agricultural sector is responsible for a significant share of GDP. In addition, there is a moratorium on land sales still in place, and therefore agricultural producers almost completely cultivate the rental land. However, institutions behind land tenure are still in the nascent stage of formation, which is why it is important to analyze the impact of property rights institutionalization on achieving political goals mentioned above.

The main contribution of this paper is thus to establish a theoretical model of relationships between the agricultural productivity and development of institutionalization, check existence of correlation between these phenomena, and try to explain possible cause-effect relationships.

 
10:00am - 10:30amCoffee Break
Front Lobby 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-01: Simplified planning for systematic tenure regularization
Session Chair: Anne Odic, AFD, France
Preston Auditorium 
 

Opportunities and challenges of planning to provide tenure security to existing dwellers and ensure effective service delivery in the course of urban expansion

Peris Korir

Ministry of Land and Physical Planning, Kenya



Applying Simplified planning to facilitate title issuance in Lusaka

Muchimba Muvombo, Alex Mwansa

City Hall Lusaka, Zambia



Scope for simplifying planning procedures in Zimbabwe

Hosiah Chisango

Harare City Municipality, Zimbabwe



Addressing physical urban planning to speed up tenure regularization

Emmanuel Nkurunziza

Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-02: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The

VC

MC 13-121 
 

Modern technology in land administration - a call for governance and structuring data in view of privatising land administration processes

Jacob Vos

Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The



The Emirates` (legal) framework and governance model for using emerging technologies in Land Administration

Khalifa Alsuwaidi, Mureed Mustapha

Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates



Digital assets & data to be published on a blockchain / What should we do (or not do) with the land administration data?

Jona Van Leeuwen

Union Internationale des Huissiers de Justice (UIHJ), Netherlands



The Irish challenges to be prepared for future Land Registry

Liz Pope

Property Registration Authority, Ireland



British Columbia's land titles: private, public or somewhere in-between?

Connie Fair, Carlos MacDonald

Land Title & Survey Authority of British Columbia, Canada

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-03: How to realize the potential of blockchain for land administration?
Session Chair: John Reynolds, BLOCKCHAIN DIGITAL, United Kingdom
MC 2-800 
 

Blockchain property titles and land use recording – is it only about trust, or is there space for compliance and enforcement?

Rebecca Leshinsky

RMIT University, Australia

Blockchain can provide for an immutable recording of land ownership and land use interests. To date there are no accepted global standards for blockchain land transfers or recordings. The paper argues that guidance is available from traditional land management compliance and enforcement processes, and this is situated in the space where blockchain land recordings are shifting the paradigm from property law to the realm of private company participation with contract law establishing a need for good governance and global standards for blockchain transactions. The paper discusses global experiences to date of blockchain land recordings, with an emphasis on the need not to forget how compliance and enforcement processes have operated to date.



Smart contracts and land administration: a new framework for property conveyance

Todd Miller1, Al-Karim Kara2, Rohan Bennett3

1ChromaWay, Sweden and United States of America; 2Land Title and Survey Authority, British Columbia, Canada; 3Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia

Smart contracts on the blockchain can provide a secure, auditable, more easily distributable solution to support property record changes among buyers, sellers, the land registry, financial institutions, attorneys, and other parties connected to property transactions.

In the longer term, the approach supports reduction in transaction friction (including cost) overall and could lead to other ownership models potentially allowing citizens to participate in derivative markets including fractional property ownership and other unbundled property rights, restrictions, and responsibilities.

Built around active research, and utilizing multiple case studies, this paper reports on findings from pilot projects on the use of smart contracts on the blockchain in Sweden, Australia, and Canada. The paper explores models of trust, centralization vs. decentralization, data security, and cost and business dimensions of different implementation approaches



Blockchain for Land Administration: Smart Land Registries - a tangible model seeking value for all parties

David Stow1, Peter Shaw2, Richard Nash3

1Ordnance Survey, United Kingdom; 2Trimble Land Administration Solutions Group, USA; 3IBM, United Kingdom

There has been much media excitement about blockchain’s potential to revolutionize commerce, trade, supply chains, and, indeed, Land Administration. But, is it real, and where is the value to our citizens, economy and society?

Trimble, Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, and IBM have come together to provide insight into the upsides, and into the risks associated with this technology-lead transformation. This partnership combines land administration domain experience, government technology and guardianship, and technology leadership to bring a measured perspective to the topic.

This paper will give decision-makers insight to 1) assist with understanding the value of blockchain for their particular jurisdiction, 2) place blockchain among the arsenal of other potential technical approaches that could be leveraged, and 3) put these technologies, a.k.a. Smart Land Registries, into the context of the problems that society and government need to solve.

Furthermore, we will propose a value-focused and achievable roadmap to their adoption.



Catalyzing innovation: Dubai real estate blockchain

Khalifa Alsuwaidi

Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates

Blockchain is one of the latest innovations that has been implemented in Dubai. The abstract illustrates many benefits to government sectors as well as private sectors in enhancing user experience when conducting procedures related to property, not only procedures related to registration or regulation in real estate sector, but also other procedures and services that are around real estate, Such as utilities, survey, furniture and moving to a new house. The term" Real Estate journey" is term we call when providing a unique experience to real estate services in Dubai. The abstract shows how Dubai is catalyzing blockchain technology to enroll property developers, managers, brokers and service provides to the new technology platform, and to how to address many challenges that face all entities, such as payments, Single-sign-on and laws related to real estate and transactions.



An example of the use of the Blockchain by the French Notariat: enforceable copies

Lionel Galliez

International Union of Notaries (UINL), France

Presentation of the “proof of concept” established and validated by the French Notariat in 2018 to find a solution for processing enforceable copies of loans’ contracts in digital format, collateralized by land and real estate. These copies are not intended to be in digital format unless there is a means of demonstrating the authenticity, integrity and uniqueness of the enforceable copy held by a creditor who wants to assert his rights and compel a debtor to pay his debt.

This POC made it possible to approve the launch of an operational implementation project for this consortium blockchain, which will be used by notaries, banks and bailiffs.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-04: Gender and land policy
Session Chair: Renee Giovarelli, Resource Equity, United States of America
MC 4-100 
 

Evaluation results of a program aimed at reducing property grabbing among widows in Uganda

Andee Parks, Shawn Kohl, Jessica Kyle, Claire Wilkinson

International Justice Mission

This paper discusses the research results and evaluation findings of a program aimed at combatting property (land) grabbing from widows in Mukono County, Uganda. Unlike many other ongoing efforts, this program focused on capacity building of local government actors, particularly within the criminal justice system, as the primary approach to ending this overlooked form of violence against women. In 2012, baseline prevalence and justice system performance data were collected. Endline data collected in 2017 provided impact and outcome-level data for a summative evaluation of the program conducted in late 2017/early 2018. The program contributed to approximately a 50% reduction in the prevalence of property grabbing. While challenges remain in the formal justice system’s response and sustainability of program gains, government actors substantially improved in their performance addressing property grabbing. Learning outcomes for attendees include applications for local, national, and international actors implementing similar programs affected by culturally-embedded gender norms.



Women's tenure rights across the rural urban continuum: implications for a gender responsive urban land reform in Namibia.

Prisca Mandimika1, Thomas Haenert2

1Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia; 2GIZ Office Namibia

Namibia is considered as one of the unequal societies where poverty is prevalent. The land question and its role in development remains a pivotal source of livelihood to get people out of poverty. The country is also fast urbanizing with issues of urban informality and security of tenure becoming a concern as one million people are residing in informal settlements. In the absence of concrete interventions the informal settlements could become the dominant form of housing by 2025. Consequently, at the recent Land Conference the President declared the housing needs a “national emergency”. The Flexible Land Tenure Act is targeted to provide security of tenure in informal settlements. This paper will provide an overview of the land reform agenda, the purposive policy and legal framework adopted by the Government to promote gender equality. An investigation of the impact of urbanization on gender issues in urban areas is undertaken.



Community land titling: a contextual analysis of women’s land rights in Kenya

Erin Kitchell, Rachael Knight, Jaron Vogelsang

Namati, United States of America

Over the past decade, several African countries have introduced new legislative protections for community land rights. Ensuring that group title sufficiently protects the rights of women and minorities presents significant challenges. Based on a case study analysis of women’s land and resource rights in pastoral communities, we identify the opportunities and potential threats that registering land under Kenya’s 2016 Community Land Act creates for women’s tenure security. This includes considering challenges associated with customary norms around women’s land use, participation in collective decision-making, and inheritance rights. Data collection included 30 focus groups and nearly 70 individual interviews with women and key informants in six communities across three counties in Kenya (Kajiado, Laikipia, and Isiolo). The study sites fall into two categories: (1) communal grazing land held in “trusts” by county governments and (2) former group ranches that must be converted into community land.



Innovations to secure women's land rights and build resilience

Mino Harivelo Ramaroson1, Gaynor Paradza1, Birte Scholz1, Frances Birungi2

1Huairou Commission, United States of America; 2UCOBAC, Uganda

Although the precise magnitude of climate change is subject of debate, there is growing consensus of its impact on access to resources and livelihoods. Globally, its grassroots women who face the worst effects of climate change on agriculture, with socioeconomic impacts due to lack of coping mechanisms. Tools and processes have been developed to support grassroots women resilience work through securing their access to and control over land, such as the Community Resilience Fund which is a mechanism through which grassroots women invest in collective actions to reduce disaster and climate related risks and vulnerabilities highlighting the importance of local adaptations. Drawing from the country experiences, this paper will provide insights into how these tools could be applied more globally to help mitigate the effects of climate change and foster local adaptation through improving grassroots’ women access to and control over land which is considered as perquisite for building resilience.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-05: Land markets at the rural-urban fringe
Session Chair: Songqing Jin, Michigan State Univ./Zhejiang Univ., China, People's Republic of
MC 5-100 
 

Land transactions in the rural-urban fringes of Dar es Salaam and Nairobi: driving forces, stakeholders and challenges for land governance

Sina Schlimmer

Sciences Po Bordeaux, France



Land market determinants and outcomes in Rwanda: an econometric analysis

Charles Mulindabigwi Ruhara1, Richard Baldwin2, Sam Biraro3, Bernis Byamukama4

1University of Rwanda, Rwanda; 2iLand Consulting; 3RLMUA; 4DFID



How horizontal integration affects transaction costs of rural collective construction land market? An empirical analysis in Nanhai District, Guangdong Province, China

Anlu Zhang, Xiangxiang Xie, Peng Bin

Huazhong Agricultural University, China, People's Republic of

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-06: National Land Policy Documents: Potential & Challenges
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), South Africa
MC 6-100 
 

Zambia’s Land Policy formulation pitfalls-points of divergence

Emmanuel Tembo, Veronica Mwiche

Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia

Zambia’s attempts to land policy formulation after the return to multi-party politics started in 1993 with a National Conference on Land Policy Reform in the Third Republic which led to the enactment of the Lands Act of 1995. Ever since then attempts to formulate an overarching and consistent Land Policy for the country have proved futile. This has largely been because of divergent views from traditional authorities and other stakeholders who have perceived government intention in the policy to be one of usurping all powers over land to itself.

This paper will discuss the points of divergence especially from the chiefs and the current state of play in the draft land policy with the view to see how these can be harmonized in order to reach consensus.



Demarcation of traditional land management areas in Malawi

Misheck Coco Longwe, Dr Janet L. Banda, Julias B. Chisi, Devie B. Chilonga

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi

The Government of the Republic of Malawi, through MLHUD, enacted 10 land related Laws in 2016 and were assented to by the State President in January 2017. One of the new laws is the Customary Land Act 2016.The Act provides for the creation of customary estates through adjudication, demarcation and registration of Traditional Land Management Area (TLMAs) followed by adjudication, demarcation and registration of Group Village Areas GVAs and individual land parcels belonging to the local communities. The Ministry undertook the TLMA demarcation and created a Geodatabase of captured geo-spatial information for TLMAs for 280 out of 293 TLMAs. The work is to be completed soon



The Namibian 2nd National Land Conference has passed, how the resolutions taken will influence the politics and reluctance to register tenure rights in the Kavango West and Kavango East regions.

Petrus Canisius Nangolo

Ministry of Land Reform, Namibia

Lack of tenure security has negative effects of land grabbing by elites, eviction of the poor and vulnerable communities. This paper researched and analyzed the resolutions taken at the just ended Namibia’s 2nd National Land Conference that took place from 01-05 October 2018 to determine if such resolutions will influence the registration of tenure rights for the rural communities of both Kavango West and Kavango East regions.

The current impasse between the government of the Republic of Namibia and the Traditional Authorities affects the communities. It is estimated that a total of 12032 households are without tenure security.

Such communities are exposed to eviction, while the rights of women and vulnerable communities are affected.

The study suggests, interventions to entice demand for the registration of tenure rights, the establishment of Registration Committees, recruitment of Agents of Change etc.

Tenure security promotes sustainable development, reduces land grabbing and avoid evictions.



Land rights as an imperative for sustainable land and resources management in Kenya.

Leonard Omullo

National Land Commission, Kenya

Key land reforms in Kenya were postulated in the land policy of 2009, and subsequently in the Kenya Constitution 2010. However, failure to fully implement the intentions of the policy and the Constitution has put the goals of sustainable land and land resources management in jeopardy. A major contributor of this phenomenon has been the political economy in the country. Vested political and economic interests have ensured that radical reforms in the land sector do not see the light of the day. without these reforms land rights of the minorities a nd other weaker sections of the community may not be realized.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-07: Regulations for urban planning
Session Chair: Peter Mwangi, Walker Kontos, Kenya
MC 7-100 
 

Spatial planning, urban expansion and land use conversion: a study on urban form of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Thai Son Pham, Truc Quynh Doan

Vietnamese-German University, Vietnam

This paper aims to present the transformation of urban form and identify challenges of spatial development and planning in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The paper starts with an overview on the Geographical Information System (GIS) dataset developed from various data provided by technical departments of HCMC such as street network, population time-series, topography, land use, housing and infrastructure. After that, using equidistant concentric annulus analysis and overlaying techniques, the paper attempts to (i) understand urban expansion process and associated risks for sustainable development, (ii) analyze population distribution by direction and by distance to city centre, (iii) identify land use factors influencing population distribution in HCMC, especially the development of industrial parks. The findings point out significant differences between spatial development directions in the city’s Master Plans and actual development directions during 1999-2015 period. In the conclusion, policy implications for sustainable urban development of HCMC will be discussed.



Exploring options for leaseholds in the Mukuru special planning area

Smith Ouma1, Jane Weru2, Emily Kinama3

1Cardiff University, United Kingdom; 2Akiba Mashinani Trust, Kenya; 3Katiba Institute, Nairobi

The declaration of the informal settlements of Mukuru Kwa Njenga, Kwa Reuben and Viwandani slums as a Special Planning Area (SPA) was momentous given the numerous challenges that have been occasioned by lack of, or poor planning in the area. Extensive discussions have been held with the aim of finding solutions to the longstanding concerns of inadequate access to sanitation and lack of proper housing within these areas. Actualization of proposed solutions in the past have however stalled as a result of the unresolved question of land ownership within the slums. It has been noted with concern that the land question in the slums continues to be a barrier to planning imperatives that may be beneficial to these settlements. This paper explores some possible options available to Nairobi City County Government to deal with the leaseholds in the Mukuru SPA to enable proper planning and upgrading of Mukuru.



Aligning land use policies to community vision in regulating land beyond urban: an initiative in Odisha, India

Felix Knopf, Sumana Chatterjee

Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, India

The paper brings in the need for a community vision-led landuse policy that governs land beyond urban. As per Census of India 2011, 68.84 percent of India is rural. Except for few states, land in rural areas is not governed through spatial tools and policies. The state of Odisha, located in the south-eastern part of India being 83.32 percent rural (Census 2011), lacks a landuse policy and spatial regulation tool for all rural areas and many of its urban areas. Due to absence or inadequacy of a comprehensive policy for landuse development, investments are not guided to villages and small or medium towns. To make the denied areas thrive as productive and livable territories, it becomes essential to distribute land development benefits equitably over space. The paper examines how formulation of a state specific land use policy for Odisha, can integrate the aspirations of local communities for better decision-making.



Spatial Planning as an instrument for the sustainability of investment and efficient provision of services - Comayagua Case

Roman Alvarez1, Enrique Pantoja2, Carlos Miranda3, Alain Paz1

1Property Institute, Honduras; 2World Bank, United Stated; 3Comayagua, Honduras

Honduras is a country located in Central America and its territorial extension is 112,492 km², with a political division composed of 18 departments and 298 municipalities. The municipality of Comayagua is located in the department of the same name, which is located in the central part of the country.

Comayagua is the municipality with the most complete and up-to-date Cadastre in the country, and several initiatives have been developed for it to become an Associated Center of the property registry of the Property Institute. Therefore, the municipality of Comayagua administers the National Cadastre within its territorial scope, making use of the Unified System of Registries (SURE), which is the official tool of the Government for the subject of Cadastre-Registry.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-08: Providing low-cost housing
Session Chair: Rajan Samuel, Habitat for Humanity India, India
MC 8-100 
 

Understanding multiplicity of urban governance and planning regulations for a metropolitan region with focus on land and private development – Case study NCR – Delhi, India

Sneha Thusoo, Tetsuo Kidokoro, Fumihiko Seta

University of Tokyo, Japan

Through this research we like to bring forth the urban land use pattern and Urban morphology created in absence of a comprehensive land and private development regulation within a metropolitan region. The aim for this study is to identify the actors/agents and their corresponding network within the governance framework of land and private development.



Wrong-Headed policies in the name of the poor: Case of Mumbai’s Cessed-Buildings

Abhay Pethe, Rashmi Sharma

Mumbai School of Economics and Public Policy (MSE-PP), University of Mumbai, India

This paper is based on the premise that good governance and policy design must be informed by sound economic principles since, policies create incentives that influence behavior of the agents and agencies leading to take actions that in turn lead to outcomes. Such outcomes, when undesired, can distort the respective markets. Indeed, policies in the name of the poor have often led to repositioning of the ‘agents and agencies’ that lead to situations that ultimately harm the interests of the poor. Hence, we believe that, upon noticing the undesired outcomes, a critical evaluation of the underlying policy framework is paramount to deal with the root cause instead of symptomatic treatment. As an illustration of the above argument, we scrutinize the case of an important segment of housing market in Mumbai viz., cessed- buildings that came about as an outcome of the Rent Control Act 1947 and its surrounding offshoots/ tributaries.



Community resource mobilization for informal settlements regularization: impact of private community partnership in Tanzania

Edward Kinabo, Renny Chiwa, Pamela Maro, Alloyce Nyaisa

Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) Company Limited, Tanzania

The need to mobilize resources from alternative sources beyond government revenues and donor grants is very critical towards achieving not only Tanzania urban development, but also the global goal of ensuring inclusive and sustainable cities and communities by 2030.

This Paper offers practical approaches from a Private Community Partnership that strategically addressed resource gap for financing sustainable urban planning, development and management with a special focus on Informal Settlements Regularization. It presents best practices from the Human Settlements Action (HUSEA) – a private Urban Planning firm that mobilized over 1.5 Billion TZS (equivalent to 639, 577.02 USD) from informally developed communities in Dar-Es-Salaam city. The ongoing Partnership has so far put in regularization over 30,404 land parcels that benefit over 148,979 lives in a span of 8 months.

It concludes that there is a huge potential of resources at community level that, if well tapped, can finance public developmental projects.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-09: Enhancing tenure security for forest land
Session Chair: Jintao Xu, Peking University, China, People's Republic of
MC 9-100 
 

Multi-stakeholder forums as innovation for natural resource management? Results from a Realist Synthesis Review of the scholarly literature

Anne Larson1, Juan Pablo Sarmiento Barletti1, Christopher Hewlitt2, Deborah Delgado3

1CIFOR, Peru; 2University of Maryland, College Park, United States of America; 3PUCP, Peru

This article presents the results of a Realist Synthesis Review (RSR) of global scholarly literature on Multi-Stakeholder Forums (MSFs) set up to address land use and land use change (LULUC) at the subnational level. The article contributes not only empirically to the study of MSFs and similar participatory processes, but also methodologically to the social sciences more generally, through the application of the RSR over the more common systematic reviews. The review is a timely examination because MSFs –an integral part of ‘landscape approaches’ and ‘multi-stakeholder initiatives’– have received renewed attention from policy makers and development and conservation practitioners, in light of the growing perception of urgency to address climate change and transform development trajectories.



Examining relationships in forest governance quality: Insights from forest frontier communities in Zambia´s Miombo ecoregion

Hellen Nansikombi1, Richard Fischer1, Gillian Kabwe2, Sven Günter1

1Thünen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics, Hamburg, Germany; 2Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia

Good forest governance is considered a prerequisite for combating deforestation. Several countries including Zambia have formulated policies taking this into account. Several methodologies have been developed to track progress of forest governance. We apply the Governance of Forests Initiatives (GFI) indicator framework by the World Resource Institute to compare governance performance of different arrangements, with differing tenure and restriction to forest access and use in Zambia´s Miombo. Additionally, we test the applicability of the GFI indicators, on basis of community perceptions. Results reveal that: forest governance quality is low in all arrangements. However, tenure security and use restrictions are scoring relatively high in the non-restricted and culturally restricted arrangements, respectively. Implying the opportunity for strategies that build on existing customary tenure rights and cultural use restriction to improve forest governance. Concerning its methodological applicability, preliminary results show that some underlying governance factors cannot be exclusively summarized by the GFI thematic indicators.



Land Tenure Regularization in the Brazilian Amazon: perspectives on identifying social, economic and environmental variables for assessing its impacts

Gabriela C P Savian1, Marcelo C C Stabile1, Paulo R S Moutinho1, Elisa de Siqueira2, Gabriela Russo3, João Paulo Ribeiro1, Vivian Ribeiro1, Daniel S Silva1, Sylvia Mitraud1, Jarlene Gomes1, Alcilene Cardoso1, Jorge Espinoza4, Rogerio Cabral4, Díni L Silveira2, Robson Disarz5, João Paulo Mastrangelo6, Bastiaan Reydon6, Gabriel P Siqueira6

1Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM); 2Consulting for Sustainable Development GITEC-IGIP GmbH; 3Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Amsterdam; 4Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH; 5National Colonization and Agrarian Reform Institute (INCRA); 6Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp)

Land tenure regularization and occupation have been a longstanding challenge in the Brazilian Amazon where land grabbing and land conflicts have been present for centuries. Few studies have been able to identify how much influence effective land tenure regularization can have on socioeconomic and environmental factors for the local population in the Amazon region.

The research proposed here builds on existing literature, field visits and geospatial analysis to identify a set of variables which can contribute to the creation of a methodology to understand social, economic and environmental impacts of land tenure regularization in the context of Brazil’s Terra Legal program, created in 2009 to regularize 57 million hectares of federal public lands in the Amazon as one of the main governmental strategies to combat deforestation.



Local perception of indigenous titling programs in the Peruvian Amazon

Peter Cronkleton, Anne Larson

Center for International Forestry Research, Peru

This paper analyzes local perceptions of communal land titling programs for Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. It is based on field research conducted in the regions of San Martin and Ucayali by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in collaboration with the GIZ project ProTierras Comunales. This research assessed the progress made by land titling programs to provide information for decision makers that could improve tenure security and livelihood outcomes for indigenous people in the selected regions. In general, participating Indigenous people viewed land titling programs positively and believed these initiatives increased property rights security, however gaps in government support and confusion over land zoning are areas of concern.



Governance structures of native forests' management policy in North Argentina: the role of policy forums in mediating between conservation and production

Carla Inguaggiato1, Maurice Tschopp1, Graziano Michele Ceddia1, Dimitris Christodopolous2,3

1University of Bern, Switzerland; 2Modul University, Austria; 3Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh

Native forests are complex systems and the institutions governing them affect their ecosystem.

The forest policy in Argentina aims to achieve a compromise between production and conservation objectives. Furthermore, there are efforts promoting mediation between forests’ conservation and cattle production, aboriginal peoples’ rights, family farming survival and large estate land titles. It is therefore at the crossroad between different visions of sustainable development and of land tenure systems.

There is gap in the understanding of social mechanisms that drive collaboration among forest governance stakeholders. This paper aims to develop the understanding of the role of policy forums in connecting stakeholders with different core beliefs on forest management.

We study this complex policy arena via a mixed methods research design, which integrates social network analysis with stakeholder analysis, combining quantitative and qualitative analytic techniques. We combine the study of the policy networks topology, with the analysis of stakeholders’ core beliefs systems.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-10: Ensuring use of public land for public good
Session Chair: Jorge Espinoza, GIZ, Brazil
MC 10-100 
 

Social and human rights impact assessment for development project within Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Isaac Daniels

Sahmakum Teang Tnaut, Cambodia

The reclassification of a public space within Phnom Penh in order for it to be sold as part of a larger land package to a Chinese company has sparked concerns for the rights of the public to the commons and the possible impacts of its loss and re-development. A Social and Human Rights Impact Assessment was conducted and found the project could have a variety of negative social impacts, such as loss of livelihood for informal sector workers, and that human rights could be impacted upon through relocation of boat operators. The paper also outlines mitigation strategies to limit impacts, such as the relocation of boats to a nearby dock rather than a faraway location. An additional significance is that this research contributes to ownership of the city through proper public consultation, which is provided through consultation within the research and its subsequent publication.



The right of use on non-awarding state lands, an innovative tool for legal certainty regarding land tenure.

Elkin Caropresse, Margarita Varon

COLOMBIA RURAL SAS, Colombia

There is a new model of access to lands in Colombia by means of rights of use on non-awarding state lands; legal security is important to legitimize the state lands tenure located in this area for the development of legal activities. Those are the Forest Reserve Zones; playones and communal lands; and state lands located within a 1.500 miles ratio around the zone where non-renewable natural resources exploitation is being carried out.

The state set restrictions to ownership access, without making an appropriate management on these areas, without awareness of the territorial reality, without informing or socializing the actors, or proposing relocation or land titling before the restriction which generated social unrest among the inhabitants.

The agreement 058 of 2018 was created to address this situation allowing the state lands located in those areas to be awarded to its occupants by means of rights of use.



Stimulus for land grabbing and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

Brenda Brito1, Paulo Barreto1, Amintas Brandão Jr1,2, Sara Baima1, Pedro Henrique Gomes1

1Imazon, Brazil; 2University of Wisconsin, United States of America

We assessed the impact in the Brazilian Amazon of a 2017 land law that reinforces a mechanism for acquiring land rights historically linked to deforestation, since land grabbers clear the forest to signal land occupation and claim land rights. In particular, we assessed two significant potential impacts: i) the loss of government revenue due to the sale of public land below market prices and ii) the risk of future deforestation in 29.2 million hectares allocated to expand land privatization. The short term revenue loss ranges from U$ 5 to 8 billion for 8.6 million hectares; the future revenue loss ranges from U$ 23 to 34.1 billion for 29.2 million hectares; and between 1.3 to 2 million hectares would risk being deforested until 2027. The Brazilian government should review the decision about this area allocation; prioritize land allocation for conservation and, if selling part of this area, charge market prices.



Allocation of public land and the terra legal regularization program in the Brazilian Amazon

Bastiaan Reydon1, Gabriel Pansani1, Otavio Moreira2, Marcus Nascimento2, Jorge Espinoza3, Rogerio Cabral4, Elisa de Siqueira5

1Universidade Estadual de Campinas; 2SERFAL, Brazil; 3GIZ, Brazil; 4Nexucs; 5GITEC-IGIP GmbH

The Terra Legal Program was established in 2009 to address the problems related to the large amount of unallocated federal public lands in the legal Amazon, mostly through land tenure regularization for rural and urban families and allocation of land for specific purposes of public interest.

Since its beginning, Terra Legal has been subject of criticism claiming that the program may promote land grabbing and land concentration on the hands of big landlords.

This article shows that the beneficiaries have in fact been primarily small-scale farmers, through regularization of their tenure situation, the creation of settlements and the creation of protected areas.

In addition, the article compares the rules and mechanisms for the allocation of federal public lands with those adopted by the Federal States, showing that the federal legislation (Laws 11.952 and 13.465) is in fact more robust and comprehensive than the legislation used by the state land institutes.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-11: Land administration: Cases from Asia
Session Chair: Suzuka Sato, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan
MC C1-100 
 

Land registration innovation and decentralised administrative reform: Success stories from the State of Johor, Malaysia

Rohani Azmi1, Ariff Amirul Haffiz2, Hasbullah Mohd Halim2, Suliman Suhailizan2, Sahid Mohd Shahrizan3, Samsudin Salfarina4, Suratman Robiah4

1Johor State Secretary, Malaysia; 2Johor Land and Mines Department, Malaysia; 3Johor State Secretary Incorporation, Malaysia; 4Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Land title is the evidence of ownership on land. The purpose of registration is to recognise property rights, which includes information pertaining to land area, location, boundaries, as well as ownership and title of immovable property. However, interestingly in Malaysia,land is exclusively a state matter and there are differences over state land policies implementation on the process of registration. The kind of situation provides further challenges in the forming of uniform land policies to be practiced by the different states. This paper will discuss the innovations and reform of land registration and administrative in Malaysia, lesson learned from the State of Johor. It is include the successful and challenges on law and regulation implementation, accrual practices and reform experiences, decentralised organizational arrangements and harmonization, and new technology and computerisation adoption.



Land registration authority's linkages through the land titling computerization project

Robert Nomar Leyretana

Land Registration Authority, Philippines

The Philippines’ Land Registration Authority is the central repository of records on original registration of land titles and the public repository of records affecting registered/unregistered lands and chattel mortgages. It is implementing the Land Titling Computerization Project through a public-private partnership.

With LTCP, following were established: Database of titled/registered land, Database of transactions affecting titled/registered land; Database of transactions affecting lands under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program; Database of transactions affecting Chattel Mortgage and Personal Properties; and Geographic Information System.

Several Government Agencies are connected to LRA Network and LRA continues to talk with other agencies involved in management and disposition of lands to ensure seamless processing of transactions across agencies. Significantly, it is implementing the Title Upgrade Program, where manually-issued titles are converted into System-generated titles for allowing LRA and Titleholders to come up with better and more convenient ways in transacting and verifying land titles.



A step to grow collateral markets through one window

Faiz Faiz-ul-Hassan, Saqib Khalid Rehman, Usman Ahmad

Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab Land Records Management & Information System turned out to be one of the success stories for the Province of Punjab. Project has scanned more than 10 million pages of old records, digitized over 5.5 million landowners’ records, addressed more than 5 million inconsistencies of manual record and more than 23,000 revenue estates of overall 25,600 revenue estates across the province.

Project has now introduced a new one window intervention through this all banks / financial institutions have been linked through a secured link with central database of digital Land records. This has enabled all banks to instantly verify the current / up-to date status of land. Banks can generate copy of record of rights and initiate mutation for loan at their own. This intervention has greatly reduced time for loan processing and improved collateral resulting in enhanced productivity of agriculture markets.



Interoperability and land administration in Nepal

Ram Datta Bhatta, Gokarnamani Duwadee

Department of Land Management & Archive, Nepal

Department of Land Management and Archive (DoLMA) is a central level agency in Nepal which is responsible for land administration. It delivers public service related to land through its 131 field-level offices. The department has successfully developed and implemented centralized web based software called Land Records Information Management System (LRIMS) on 54 Land Revenue Offices (LROs) to enhance quality of service delivery. The implementation of the system has shown positive impact on security of land records, revenue collections and e-governance.

Various government agencies are directly related with LROs and its data. The agencies have also their own computer systems but no provision to communicate with LRIMS now. The interoperability between LRIMS and agencies’ systems will reduce service delivery time, enhance the quality of service and reduce the operational cost. Service Oriented Architecture based system of LROs (i.e. LRIMS) can be made interoperable with their systems for data sharing among them.



Registering deeds in Delhi: challenges, innovations and prospects

Deepika Jha, Amlanjyoti Goswami

Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India

This paper examines the institutional process of registering conveyance deeds in Delhi, the capital of India. This is in the context of administering one of the largest urban centres of the world; within a peculiar governance system as well as a very fragmented institutional apparatus. The paper will delineate in precise sequence, eight steps for registration. It will look at the current practices in each of these steps, identify the good practices within them, recent initiatives, as well as persistent gaps. Recent interventions in Delhi include institutional initiatives, interlinked databases and improved infrastructure. Associated agencies have also initiated digitisation of land records and allotment of unique property identification numbers, including the use of geospatial techniques. In such light, the paper will explore ways in which Delhi could create better urban land records, drawing from its own initiatives as well as from other innovations across India.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-12: Dealing with the impacts of failed land acquisition
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
MC C1-200 
 

Doomed to fail? Why some land-based investment projects fail and others succeed

Kerstin Nolte

Leibniz University Hannover, Germany

In recent years, an increased interest in farmland globally has led to the emergence of many land-based investment projects. Although most projects enter the production stage, a significant number also end in failure. This paper asks why land-based investment projects fail or succeed. This is a crucial question, as failed investment projects are unlikely to have any positive impacts on the host regions. I find that failure occurs globally but is concentrated on the African continent, with some countries exhibiting a particularly high risk of project failure. In addition, larger projects, projects growing agrofuels, and projects targeting land formerly used by smallholders or pastoralists are more likely to fail. In contrast, projects that involve domestic investors or take place in countries with better infrastructure are less likely to fail. The findings on the impact of host-country institutions on project failure are ambiguous.



Why we need a human right to land – empirical evidence from large-scale land investment deals in Sierra Leone and the Philippines

Annette Schramm

University of Tuebingen, Germany

A human right to land has now been codified in the ‘United Nations declaration on the rights of peasants and other people working in rural areas’, which has been adopted by the UN Human Rights Council in September 2018. This paper welcomes this development and argues that a human right to land can potentially close gaps in the regulation of large-scale land deals – if interpreted through the lens of the principle of free, prior and informed consent. Simultaneously, I do not deny that international public and private initiatives to regulate foreign land based investments can have positive effects for locally affected people. Through discussing under which conditions these instruments can help local actors in achieving their goals vis-à-vis investors, I show the potential as well as the gaps of the current global governance regime. My considerations are supported by empirical findings from Sierra Leone and the Philippines.



When good innovations go bad

Moe Odele

Stratigos Consulting, United Arab Emirates

In the last decade, impact investing is a concept that has spurred innovative financing mechanisms in emerging economies. Many believe that impact investing is one sure way pool private sector funds to help solve some of the most pressing challenges facing our world today.

In many economies that are land reliant, this is good news and we have seen impressive private sector dollars in sectors like agriculture and renewable energy. But it is not all good news.

This paper discusses potential negative effects that land-reliant impact investments could have on host communities. Regardless of good intentions of innovations, sometimes these investments have the unintended consequence of exacerbating conflict, insecurity and poverty. This paper therefore advocates for a triple-bottom line approach where people, planet and profit are given equal stakes in transactions, so as to produce more responsible land-based investments.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-13: Providing policy advice through applied research
Session Chair: Anna Locke, Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom
MC 7-860 
 

Governance challenges in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Land Guards and land protection in Ghana

David Kwasi Bansah

Ghana Revenue Authority, Ghana

Land management policy in many developing nations has been riddled with conflict because of competing land tenure systems. Having transitioned through customary tenure systems to bureaucratic property rights regimes without a complete shift from the former, Ghana’s land management system, over time, has witnessed administrative challenges such that some desperate land protection schemes are taking root, including the use of unregulated security land guards. The fundamental objective of this research, therefore, is to explore and better understand the lengths to which people or groups will go to ensure land rights and protection in a regime of statutory rules and regulations. World Bank-sanctioned Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) framework (2015), underpinned my theoretical argument. Overall, the study found that the land administration system of Ghana has not fully achieved effective land governance and consequently occasions instances where people have the tendency to seek other means of exercising control over land rights.



Assessing institutional governance in balancing food production and environmental protection in urban wetlands of Kigali/Rwanda and tropical Kilombero floodplain/Tanzania. A comparative analysis

John Kalisa

World Bank Group, Rwanda

Institutional Governance has been a challenge to balance the food production and environmental protection in wetlands of Rwanda and Tanzania, their peri-urban wetlands are getting more encroached by the population for livelihoods. This paper compares the institutional arrangements in the Nyabugogo- Nyabarongo peri-urban wetlands and kilombero valey floodplain. The major driving forces for alteration of Nyabarongo urban wetland’s functions in reparian urban community in kigali lie in social and economic factors such as policies, markets, demographic trends, and institution governing access to resources and poor enforcement. The Kilombero entire catchment which covers an area of 40,240 km with mountains around Kilombero valley are mainly covered with forest, and land cover in valley itself is dominated by urban areas of Ifakara, some smaller settlements, and agriculture; The area is characterized by diverse land uses, land use intensity gradients, and interactions between large-and small-scale crop farmers, landless herders, and urban populations.



Growth effects of banking development on agriculture and industrial GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa

Ayine Nigo

University of Westminster, United Kingdom

In this study, we show that banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution exert a statistically and economically significant positive impact on local economic growth. This effect becomes more pronounced when the financial sector is more liberalized and deregulated.

The lifting of state controls in the banking sector in the 1980's and 1990's, created a more integrated and competitive financial industry ensuring efficient allocation of bank credits to productive areas.The economic thinking behind all this is that the financial entities, functioning under liberalized monetary regimes operate at higher levels of efficiency and productivity.

Using data from 14 Sub Saharan African Countries, we examined the growth effects of banking development, communication links, productivity and income distribution over the period 1990 – 2013. We find evidence of significant growth effects of banking development in SSA on industrial components of GDP. Growth in agricultural GDP is positive but not significant.



Land related human rights in Pakistan: improving land tenancy as a pathway for agriculture development and food security

Marianna Bicchieri

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Thailand

Secure land tenure rights are crucial for the realization of a number of human rights such as the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being, including food and housing. Land is also a key element for food security and well-being of rural people who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. In Sindh Province in Pakistan, land governance issues hamper tenure security and, consequently, food security and equitable social and economic development. Highlighting human rights principles encompassed in the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT), this document will outline innovative options for securing rural land access for the poor. Drawing on pilot experiences, the text will elaborate on alternatives to enhance land governance, which has been leading to improved tenure security and agricultural productivity and, ultimately, enjoyment of fundamental human rights.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm06-14: Mapping land rights for better socio-economic outcomes
Session Chair: Jorge Munoz, World Bank, United States of America
MC 6-860 
 

Mapping for Peace and Prosperity: Applying participatory mapping in conflict-affected settings.

David Betge1, Anne Girardin2, Madaleine Weber2

1ZOA, Netherlands, The; 2Cadasta Foundation, United States

The authors describe the process of setting up and implementing participatory land demarcation in a conflict-affected setting in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The necessary conditions for success are highlighted and particularly difficult aspects of the work are traced and underlined. These relate among others to the diversity of interests that need to be accommodated and the history of violent conflict in the area. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that locally oriented interventions need to be linked to the larger political-economic context in a dialogical way that allows for input from and towards higher levels of governance and policy-making. In this way, the paper combines discussions of very practical grass-roots experience with larger efforts at coordinating and improving land governance at the regional level.



Protecting rights to clan-based land in Acholi, Northern Uganda: Follow-up report on a research project of the Joint Acholi Sub-Region Leaders’ Forum (JASLF) and Trόcaire

Ronald Atkinson

University of South Carolina, United States of America

Following the 1986-2006 northern Uganda war, most Acholi returned to their customary, clan-based land. Because of multiple threats to this land, a consortium of Acholi leaders – the Joint Acholi Sub-Region Leaders' Forum (JASLF) – initiated a research and advocacy project to document the current organization and management of Acholi land and to help secure and protect it.

In partnership with the NGO Trócaire, the resulting 2016-17 project included a research sample of 141 land-holding clans from across Acholi, producing an unprecedented trove of primary, field-based data on the principles and practices regulating Acholi clan-based land. Hindered by numerous obstacles, project funding regretfully ended before researched clans were provided sufficient practical information and assistance to enable them to legally protect their land.

This paper will discuss the JASLF land project, outline the many challenging steps necessary for official clan-based land registration, and describe any subsequent efforts to help clans navigate those steps.



Flexible land information system as driver for change, peace and development: The case of post conflict DRC

Solomon Njogu1, Lobo Ngumba2, Serge Vutegha2, Danilo Antonio3, John Gitau3, Christol Paluku3, Oumar Sylla3

1Private Consultant, Kenya; 2Christian Bilingual University Democratic Republic of Congo; 3Global Land Tool Network/ UN Habitat, Kenya

The importance of building land information systems cannot be underestimated in support of land reform, public service provision and promotion of social economic development especially in post conflict areas. There are many opportunities for their applications particularly in context such as enabling access to land, resolving disputes, raising revenue, service delivery as well as providing information services for private investment and local economic development. They provide an elaborate framework for creating inclusive and integrated system thus facilitating collaboration and participation of many actors. The systems are more acceptable (and sustainable in the long term) if they adopt bottom up and participatory processes for gathering information and if they use affordable and appropriate systems as advocated for by the principles of fit-for-purpose land administration. The paper highlights the need for a flexible and affordable system coupled with participatory approaches for promoting stakeholder engagement, coordination, inclusive development, and effective land information management.



Putting forest communities on the map: Participatory land-use planning in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Joseph George Eisen, Patrick Epie, Ines Ayari, Massimiliano Rossi

Rainforest Foundation UK, United Kingdom

By devolving greater powers to decentralized administrations, land-use planning reforms underway in the Democratic Republic of Congo present an opportunity to integrate community tenure rights and local development needs into wider planning processes. Yet there remain significant barriers to effective community participation in these processes including the lack of available geospatial data on their existing use and possession of forests, weak political representation as well as different technical and logistical constraints. The Rainforest Foundation UK’s land-use planning initiative in DRC seeks to overcome these barriers through participatory approaches and the use of simple, low-cost technologies to enable forest peoples to proactively engage in and shape land-use planning. This paper describes the methodology and results from two different pilot experiences to date, and considers some of the challenges for doing this at scale.

 
12:00pm - 2:00pmLunch
Front Lobby and Preston Lounge 
12:00pm - 2:00pmWomen's caucus
MC 4-100 
12:30pm - 2:00pm00-13: New initiatives in urban land policy
Session Chair: Sameh Naguib Wahba, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Expanding urban land access and housing in Ethiopia

H.E. Jantirar Abay Yigzaw

Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, Ethiopia



Land as a key enabler for delivering affordable housing in Kenya

Charles Mwaura

Ministry of Transport, Infrastructure, Housing and Urban Development



‘Chile Propietario’ program to regularize informal properties

Alejandra Bravo Hidalgo

Ministry of National Assets, Chile

 
12:30pm - 2:00pmDiscussing on the Latin-American land administration ecosystem (light lunch, in Spanish only)
Session Chair: Mike Mora, Organization of American States, United States of America

In this networking session participants will have an opportunity to hear an introductory lighting talk aimed at sparking informal conversations among the attendees about the state of the Latin-American land administration ecosystem. Also, participants will have the opportunity to contribute with their ideas to strengthen this ecosystem by adding thoughts to a wall dedicated to generate a narrative for the strengthening of the ecosystem in areas of regulation, technologies and institutional arrangements.

MC 13-121 Lounge 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-01: Land governance in the Arab states
Session Chair: Wael Zakout, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Setting the scene

Wael Zakout

World Bank, United States of America

.



Discussant

Ammar Alhamadi

Dubai Land Department, United Arab Emirates

.



Discussant

Muhamad Alrajhi

Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Saudi Arabia

.In Saudi Arabia as in other countries, the management of land is a core function of government. As a consequence, the process of creation and maintenance of land registration and land information systems is, necessarily, administratively-driven. However, the benefits of improved of land registration and land information systems accrue overwhelming to citizens and private-sector companies in a range of forms, with potential for

• Increase in economic efficiency

• Expansion of economic opportunity

• Promotion of urban vitality

• Nurturing of citizen well-being

• Contribution to environmental sustainability

This paper describes the socio-economic impact of implementing improved land registration and land information systems in Saudi Arabia, with a focus on the contribution of this work to accomplishing urgent national objectives as defined in the Kingdom’s National Transformation Plan 2020 and Vision 2030 documents.



Discussant

Georges Maarrawi

Ministry of Finance, Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)

Georges Maarrawi is the Director General of the Lebanese General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre.

He holds an MBA from UQAM - ESIG and an honorary doctorate from the Lebanese Canadian University. Prior to his appointment as Director General, he was the head of Mount Lebanon regional tax office at the Ministry of Finance.

His career at MoF involved also the design phase of the VAT system and in developing strategies and policies.  He was a short term Tax Expert for the IMF and the WBG, and as such conducted several missions pertaining to the modernization of tax administrations in the MENA region.

He has been teaching IAS / IFRS and Public Finance at the Lebanese University since 2001.



Discussant

Mohamedsalih Baher

darfur land commission, Sudan

مفوضية أراضي دافور

اﻟﺳودان ھو ﺛﺎﻟث أﻛﺑر ﺑﻠد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎرة اﻷﻓرﯾﻘﯾﺔ بمساحة ﻗدرھﺎ 1,882,000 ﻣرﺑﻊ ﻛم .

- ﯾﻌﯾش اﻟﺳودان ﺣﺎﻟﯾﺎ ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﻼم ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌد اﻟﺻراع وﯾطﻣﺢ إﻟﻰ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ واﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻼم اﻟﻣﺳﺗدام ﻣﻊ وﺟود ﺗدﻓﻘﺎت اﻟﺿﺧﻣﺔ ﻣن اﻟﮭﺟرة ﻣن اﻟرﯾف إﻟﻰ اﻟﺣﺿر و اﻟﻧزوح ﺑﺳﺑب اﻟﺻراﻋﺎت اﻟطوﯾﻠﺔ وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ دارﻓور.

- لطالما كانت الأرض سبب رئيسي لاندلاع وتصاعد هذه الصراعات، لذلك أﻧﺷﺋت المفوضية ﻛﺟزء ﻣن اﺗﻔﺎق ﺳﻼم دارﻓورلتحقيق الأهداف التالية:

o اﻟﺗﺣﻛﯾم ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺎزﻋﺎت ﺣﻘوق اﻷراﺿﻲ

o ﺗﻘدﯾم ﺗوﺻﯾﺎت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ ﻣوﺿوع اﻻﻋﺗراف ﺑﺎﻟﺣﻘوق اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷرض.

o ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺗﻌوﯾض اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب ﻓﻲ اﻟطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﻣﻘدﻣﺔ إﻟﯾﮭﺎ .

o إنشاء ﻗﺎﻋدة ﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت رﺳم ﺧراﺋط اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷراﺿﻲ ؛ و إﻧﺷﺎء وﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺳﺟﻼت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻷراﺿﻲ.

- ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن أن دﻋم GLTN وUNHbaitat للمفوضية ﯾﺳﺎﻋد ﻓﻲ ﺿﻣﺎن ﻧﺟﺎح ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﻌودة وإﻋﺎدة اﻹدﻣﺎج، ﻣﺎ زال ھﻧﺎك اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾﻧﺑﻐﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﮫ ﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن إدارة وﺣوﻛﻣﺔ اﻷراﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳودان ، ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام ﻧﮭﺞ إدارة اﻷراﺿﻲ اﻟﻣﻼﺋم ﻟﻠﻐرض



Discussant

Moha El-ayachi

Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, NELGA NA Coordinator, Morocco

The core conceptual model to be designed for capacity building shall be in harmony with the priorities of the Arab Region needs. It will improve the efficiency and quality of land management and strengthen capacities of land use, land administration, and land development that will lead to a more effective land market. A well-functioning land market together with high security of land ownership will lead to stronger economies, which contribute finally to the stability, prosperity and democracy in the region. In MENA region, the land tenure systems are very similar because the countries share common religion, culture, and history. Multiple informal land rights are inherited and are mixed with Islamic rules and colonial legislations. In the current situation, the formal and informal land rights coexist. The model will be a key for sustainable development by focusing on land information and land administration improvement, which are the base of any reforms.



Discussant

Musa Shkarnh

Land & Water Settlement Commission, Palestinian Territories

.



Discussant

Fritz Jung

Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany

.



Discussant

Chris Penrose Buckley

DFID, United Kingdom

.



Conclusions and next steps

Wael Zakout1, Oumar Sylla2

1World Bank, United States of America; 2UN Habitat, Kenya

.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-02: Farm size & productivity in Africa
Session Chair: Keith Fuglie, USAID, United States of America
MC 13-121 
 

Revisiting the farm size-productivity relationship based on a relatively wide range of farm sizes: evidence from Kenya

Milu Muyanga, Thomas S. Jayne

Michigan State University, United States of America

This paper revisits the inverse farm size-productivity relationship in Kenya. The study makes two contributions. First, the relationship is examined over a much wider range of farm sizes than most studies, which is particularly relevant in Africa given the recent rise of medium- and large-scale farms. Second, we test the inverse relationship hypothesis using three different measures of productivity including profits per hectare and total factor productivity, which are arguably more meaningful than standard measures of productivity such as yield or gross output per hectare. We find a U-shaped relationship between farm size and all three measures of farm productivity. The inverse relationship hypothesis holds on farms between zero and 3 hectares. The relationship between farm size and productivity is relatively flat between 3 and 5 hectares. A strong positive relationship between farm size and productivity emerges within the 5 to 70 hectare range of farm sizes.



Does mechanization reverse the farm-size productivity relationship? Evidence from Ethiopia

Daniel Ayalew Ali, Klaus Deininger, Sinafikeh Gemessa

World Bank, United States of America

Although inverse farm-size productivity relationship is a recurring evidence in the literature of agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa, almost all the empirical applications use data from smallholder agriculture. This paper aims at contributing to the ongoing debate by investigating the relationship over a large variation of farm sizes for major crops commonly grown by small, medium and large farms in Ethiopia. The analysis is further expanded to value of output and some measure of “profit” depending on availability of input prices (e.g., for family labor). The wide variation in farm size allows us to assess the effect of farm heterogeneity arising from level of mechanization which requires contiguous piece of land. We use data from two rounds (2014 and 2016) of smallholder panel household survey (less than 10 ha) and two rounds (2014 and 2015) large and medium panel commercial farm survey (10 ha and above).



Can large farm spillovers foster smallholders structural transformation? Evidence from Zambia

Daniel Ali1, Antony Chapoto2, Klaus Deininger1, Yuanyuan Yi1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2IAPRI

A decade after the global commodity price boom led to a wave of land acquisition in developing countries (and foreigners have given way to locals), the extent to which such investment can act as a catalyst for structural transformation (and by implication policies to maximize such effects) remain poorly understood. Combining a smallholder survey with data on ‘emergent’ farmers shows that mechanization and substitution of purchased inputs for labor allows the latter to outperform small producers. Smallholder farmers located close to emergent farmers who provide traction services to neighbors benefit from spillovers in terms of access to traction, fertilizer use and land productivity. Policy implications of the fact that positive spillovers remain local and limited to ‘small’ emergent farmers are drawn out.



Does sample truncation affect assess the inverse farm size-productivity relationship? Evidence from Malawi

Klaus Deininger1, Fang Xia2, Daniel Ali1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of

To explore if the focus on household-based samples characteristic of most studies of the inverse farm-size productivity relationship (IR) affects results and policy recommendations, we complement household survey data from Malawi with a representative survey of estates. For a wide range of specifications, a strong IR between area operated and yield disappears if profits valuing family labor at market rates are used. An IR at farm level holds irrespectively of the sample but disappears at plot level for estates, supporting the notion of imperfections in labor market that affect smallholders disproportionately being at the root of the relationship. For corporate estates, the IR for yield disappears and a significant negative relationship between farm size and labor use per ha emerges.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-03: Applications of earth observation in rural areas
Session Chair: Thomas Esch, DLR, Germany
MC 2-800 
 

Large-scale land acquisition monitoring with high resolution imagery retrieval and profiling in the ASAP platform

Felix Rembold1, Guido Lemoine1, Matthias Hack2, Christof Althoff3, Patrick Griffiths4, Ferdinando Urbano1, Gabor Csak1

1Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany; 3GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Germany; 4European Space Agency, United States of America

Detailed geographic information on Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA) in developing countries is generally not easily available due to several reasons, including low transparency of such deals, remoteness of the areas concerned and conflicts about tenure rights. In such a situation remote sensing is one of the most promising means for mapping and monitoring LSLAs during their implementation, by detecting land cover and land management changes visible from space. The high resolution viewer of the ASAP (Anomaly Hotspots of Agricultural Production) platform is a recently developed example of such an application. High resolution image time series visualization and analysis provides the geographic evidence allowing detection of phenological crop stages, large open fires, vegetation clearing, flooded areas or new infrastructure (eg. irrigation, greenhouse, roads) implemented in each parcel of an LSLA. This ideally complements non geographic information collected by other projects such a for example the Land Matrix and facilitates impact monitoring.



Geospatial big data platform for water for all in Indus basin

Ather Ashraf1, Muhammad Abid Bodla2, Ijaz-ul-Hassan Kashif3, Ch. Muhammad Ali Nazir4

1University of Punjab, Pakistan; 2Member Water, Planning and Development Department, Govt of Punjab, India; 3Executive Engineer, Irrigation department, Govt of Punjab, India; 4Assistant Chief (Coordination), Planning and Development Department, Govt of Punjab, India

Indus Basin is the backbone of Pakistan water resources and it plays important role in providing water for drinking and agriculture purpose. Although this basin along with its major rivers and glaciers provide rich resources pertaining to water availability, the lack of water governance turns this blessing to a disaster like flooding and drought. An important step towards attaining water governance is to obtain better water information and sharing. The government has taken a step in the direction of use of "Big Data" with data clearinghouse for hydro-meteorological applications at Indus basin level. Big data is helpful in storing and extracting useful information about water resources which is achieved by analyzing data statistically in the temporal and spatial domain. The platform also uses hydraulic and hydrological modeling and socioeconomic data to analyze vulnerability and risk especially for the marginalized area within the river basin.



Realtime digital soil fertility data for fact-based fertilizer selection by smallholder farmers

Christy van Beek1,2, Sally Musungu2, Rob Beens1, Angelique van Helvoort1

1AgroCares, Netherlands, The; 2SoilCares Foundation, The Netherlands

Recent technological innovations in IT, sensor technology and machine learning have opened the possibility to use Near InfraRed (NIR) sensors for on-the-spot, real-time and affordable soil tests within 10 minutes using a Bluetooth connection between the NIR sensor and a software application for data interpretation on a smartphone. Within 10 minutes the farmer receives a soil status report and a fertilizer recommendation for his specific crop selection. This innovation was first released in Kenya in 2017 and has rapidly expanded to 15 countries, and growing. In this paper, the innovation and experiences and new developments since the introduction of the innovation are presented. Within 1 year about 25000 farmers were reached of which more than 50% imported significant yield increases, about 75% changed their farming practices and more than 80% requested soil tests for the next season. By integrating soil data into data platforms more holistic interventions can be developed.



New ways to use remote sensing based phenology and machine learning for mapping irrigated and rainfed agriculture in Africa

Tobias Landmann1, Natalie Cornish1, David Eidmann2, Jonas Franke1, Stefan Siebert3

1Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH, Germany; 2Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany; 3University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

In spite of the need for consistent, explicit and large-scale cropland/farmland information at high spatial resolution for land management decision making and food production estimates, these data sets are not yet readily available for Africa. The cropland layers that are currently available in Africa do not provide thematic detail beyond cropland and non-cropland at a fine spatial scale and essentially do not exploit the wealth of information extractable from longer time-series data (now available from well-processed 30-meter Landsat or 10-20-meter Sentinel time-series data). In our approach, we showed how better thematic detail and mapping accuracies can be attained in mapping irrigated versus rainfed agriculture in Africa using only the function parameters from best fit harmonics, derived from long-term 30-meter Landsat vegetation index observations. We are confident that the current method can be employed for effective and accurate land use mapping and as such complement future land use policy plans.



Use of Remote sensing technology in small holder supply chains in Asia

Suparna Jain, Harsh Vivek, Rajpal Singh, Ernest Bethe, Bas Rozemuller, Rahmad Syakib, Krishna Kumar

International Finance Corporation, India

Majority of farmers in Asian countries like India and Vietnam are smallholders, farming on less than two hectares of land. As food demand increases by 20% and arable land keeps getting scarce, yield improvements through smart land-water use management has the potential to increase food availability. Yield gaps exceed 50% in many Asian countries owing to technology gap. New business models in agriculture, leveraging technology through data analytics and artificial intelligence, can help farmers access information related to their land, agri-inputs, weather, finance, and markets, thereby helping them increase yields, improve incomes,resilience and traceability. In this scenario, IFC MAS advisory is working with CropIN and Farm Force in sugar and coffee value-chains of DSCL (India) and Simexco (Vietnam) to deliver:

• GIS and remote sensing solutions for digital monitoring and digital management of 5000 sugarcane and 5000 coffee farms

• Smart weather-risk digital solutions to farmers providing real-time weather forecast and crop-advisory

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-04: Beyond joint titling: Making land institutions gender-sensitive
Session Chair: Bina Agarwal, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
MC 4-100 
 

Implementing Uganda's gender strategy on land through issuance of certificates of customary ownership : A case of Kabale and Adjumani districts in Uganda

Naome Justine Kabanda1, Henry Harrison Irumba1, Sylla Oumar2, Simon Peter Mwesigye2, Danilo Antonio2

1Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development, Uganda; 2UN-Habitat/Global Land Tool Network, Kenya

Land is a critical resource for both women and men in Uganda. It has multiple values and functions, thus making it more critical for people’s livelihoods.Land is not only a material and productive resource that enables survival,production but is also a symbolic resource that heavily influences status and identity.

Across Uganda, many women tell a similar tale: they use the land to produce food, yet lack secure rights to land,and largely remain mere laborers on land. With secure rights to land,women can improve food security, and economic development for their families. Improving women’s access to and control over land has a positive effect on poverty reduction and economic growth. Ensuring the security of tenure for women on Customary tenure in Uganda by including the woman's name on the certificate of customary ownership has yielded such results issued to over 2000 households in the districts of Kabale and Adjumani in Uganda.



When joint ownership is not sufficient to ensure joint registration: Lessons from Cabo Verde

Elisa Scalise1, Michelle Adato2, Naomi Cassirer2

1Resource Equity, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America

This paper identifies and summarizes lessons learned regarding gender and social integration for the MCC Compact in Cabo Verde’s Land Management Investment Project (LMIP). It is especially relevant to the question of what is required to ensure that legal rights – such as marital property rights that are established in the Family Code - are fully realized in the context of land administration reforms. In this example, the law provides clear property rights to people in relationships (marriage, de facto unions, etc.) but the law alone was not sufficient to ensure that the implementation of the project could address entrenched social and cultural norms that tend to favor men’s interests in property over those of women.



Inclusive and gender-aware participatory land registration in Indonesia

Simon Ulvund1, Eva Maria Unger2, Chrit Lemmen2, Christelle van den Berg2, Tjeerd Wits1, Resti Diah Utami1, Hanhan Lukman3

1Meridia, The Netherlands; 2Kadaster International, The Netherlands; 3ATR / BPN, Indonesia

Utilising a participatory land registration approach, this paper argues how inclusive and gender aware land titling, involving local community teams, can lead to faster, affordable and more socially anchored land registration.

Coupled with building support across authorities such as village chiefs, district heads and government agencies, allows for a both bottom up and top down approach, capturing interest and concerns of all key stakeholders in the process. The paper also demonstrates, that if not taken seriously, these stakeholders can pose serious risks to the success of the project.

By using a local village community land rights committee that with strong representation of women, the land registration process had a high acceptance rate and support in the communities worked in.

We also show that developing a software application that guides such a process, being easy to use for village members, while compliant with government regulations and requirements, is essential.



Promoting women’s right to land inheritance through agriculture incentivization

Rene Claude Niyonkuru1, Louis Marie Nindorera2

1Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; 2Independent Consultant

This paper offers an economic development-driven and empirically-grounded approach to the acquisition and strengthening of land rights for women in Burundi. This involves valuing their contribution to the agricultural sector seen as a cornerstone for the overall development of the country. Based on existing data and realistic projections, we will explore some functional relationships between improving women's access to land and their potential to boost agricultural production and hence open a new perspective on how the Burundian Government and its partners can use current and future incentives in the agriculture sector to improve women’s access to land.

There is an increasing need for activists and policy makers to move beyond legal formalism and articulate the current policy debate and actions aimed at alleviating poverty and development at country level with strategies that promote and secure women’s land rights.



Storytelling: a powerful strategy to increase women’s access to land/property rights in Uganda and beyond

Judith Hermanson1, Natalie R Gill1, Sylvia Luchini1, Jessica A Kaahwa2

1IHC Global, United States of America; 2Makerere University

World Bank data from 2013 shows that 142 countries have laws granting equal property ownership rights to women and men, and 116 countries have laws providing equal inheritance rights to daughters and sons. Unfortunately, laws are insufficient. In Uganda, data from a recent study of property ownership (IHC Global, 2017) highlighted discrepancies between the intent of the laws and exercise of women’s property rights. These discrepancies are largely rooted in conflicts between customary traditions and the laws, coupled with lack of awareness of women’s rights they enshrine. In September 2018, IHC Global piloted a “theater for development” approach that raised issues about women’s ability to exercise their property rights in an accessible, relatable, and non-confrontational way. A community forum followed the production which allowed audience members to discuss the issues raised. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the pilot through an evaluation of event survey data and key informant interviews.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-05: Emerging technologies, data ownership & privacy
Session Chair: Josephus van Erp, Maastricht University, Netherlands, The

WEBEX

MC 5-100 
 

The importance and nature of (land administration) data when using emerging technologies

Jacob Vos

Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands, The



Reflections on the possible privatization of Land Registries by making use of emerging technologies

Mihai Taus

Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania



Embracing emerging technologies; preconditions, threshold, possibilities and guarantees

Lionel Galliez

International Union of Notaries (UINL), France



East-African perspectives and experiences, using modern technology while building up Land Administration systems in the region.

Emmanuel Nkurunziza

Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), Kenya



A brief introduction about the experiences in Brazil, Peru and other countries in South America

Victor Endo

Global Land Alliance, Peru



The experience in Australia with privatising land registries

Sharon Christensen

Queensland University of Technology, Australia

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-06: Challenges of redistributive land reform
Session Chair: Arno Schaefer, European Commission, Belgium
MC 6-100 
 

Valuer general of South Africa; rights, responsibilities, and land reform

Ruel Williamson

Greenfield Advisors, Inc., United States of America

The South African Property Valuation Act, 17 of 2014 provides for the establishment, functions and powers of the Office of the Valuer-General. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides for the protection of property, expropriation of property for public purposes or in the public interest where said expropriation of property is subject to equitable compensation by the government. The government will also take reasonable legislative measures in order to facilitate land reform and restitution of land by which a person or community was dispossessed as a result of past discriminatory laws or practices. This paper will outline how the newly formed office of the Valuer-General is designed to help the government manage its assets. This includes both land reform valuations as well as government property targeted for acquisition or disposal.



The implications of incomplete restorative justice in South African land restitution: lessons from the Moletele case.

Nerhene Davis

University of Pretoria, South Africa

Since 2005, South Africa’s post-apartheid state has opted to impose inclusive business model arrangements between land claimant communities and private sector partners to ensure the ‘successful’ resolution of land restitution claims in the country. The inclusive business model approach was therefore deemed compatible in achieving both, social justice imperatives and capacitation or entrepreneurial objectives framed by the country’s Black economic empowerment (BEE) objectives. In this context however, I argue that the role of the state and private agribusiness partners are substantial but also recalibrated, with private partners and communal land holding institutions increasingly being tasked with functions that have historically been linked to the public sector. Findings from the analyses to date, raises questions regarding the potential of these types of partnerships arrangements to achieve acceptable levels of restorative justice imperatives whilst the entrepreneurial/capacitation potential of these types of partnership arrangements seems equally questionable.



Towards addressing the new land reform policy paradigm in South Africa

Phineas Khazamula Chauke

University of Venda, South Africa

The study was conducted in South Africa to assess challengers confronting the land restitution programme using qualitative data collection and analysis techniques. The general study findings were that when introduced, there was a general lack of knowledge of the claim process and also that land occupiers have developed strategies to retain the land to themselves. The study recommended for either reopening the land claim window that will be proceeded by a thorough engagement with potential claimants around the claim process and the ultimate intention of the land claim.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-07: How to regulate expropriation for large-scale investments?
Session Chair: Leon Verstappen, University of Groningen, Netherlands, The
MC 7-100 
 

Drawing insights from a global comparison of legal safeguards for expropriation

Nina Paustian, Daniela Monika Behr, Rumbidzai Maweni, Kristina Nedelkova

World Bank, United States of America

Arbitrary dispossession or expropriation is often considered one of the greatest threats to land tenure security. We discuss insights gained from a novel cross-country dataset which records legal safeguards on protecting land rights from arbitrary expropriation in 80 countries around the world. Our study provides a comparative assessment on laws and regulations, aiming to spark a constructive debate among policy-makers on how to facilitate legal safeguards and tenure security.



Acquiring land compulsorily at any cost? Policy recommendations for improved resettlement outcomes.

Ellen De Keyser1, Eddie Nsamba-Gayiiya2

1Ellen De Keyser, Belgium; 2Consultant Surveyors and Planners, Uganda

Large-scale land acquisitions forcefully displace thousands of people to make way for renewable energy projects, mines, agribusinesses, roads and other infrastructure, and changes in land use among other purposes often deemed to be in the public interest or for public use. In order to obtain land for such purposes expropriation is often applied. Research demonstrates that people displaced by such projects often face significant challenges in re-establishing their living standards and livelihood strategies, leading to impoverishment, food insecurity, social disarticulation, among other impacts. Based on a review of resettlement outcomes of projects in Africa this paper argues that, in line with the VGGTs, a comprehensive, transparent and participatory expropriation procedure with checks and balances built in is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of compensation, reforms of the policy and legal frameworks governing land acquisition and resettlement and improved resettlement outcomes. This paper outlines the key elements of such procedure.



Assessment of community involvement and compensation money utilization in Ethiopia: Case studies from Bahir Dar and DebreMarkosPeri-urban areas

Sayeh Agegnehu1, Reinfried Mansberger2

1Debre Markos University, Ethiopia; 2University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Austria

Abstract

This article focuses on the involvement of the community during expropriation and the use of compensation money of expropriated farmers in Ethiopia, based on two case studies outlined in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar and DebreMarkos. The data are collected by using survey research methods and analysed by means of descriptive statistics. The studies gave evidence about the high land tenure transformation in the peri-urban areas during the last decades. Though the majority of the expropriated farmers got compensation payments, most farmers did not use the received money for alternative income generating businesses. The payment of compensation has not to be the end in an expropriation process. Technical and administrative support is detrimental for the proper utilization of the compensation money. Besides, communities affected with expropriation should effectively participate in the processes of expropriation and compensation to mitigate externalities of the process.



The question of compensation in the large-scale land acquisition and redistribution in Southern Africa

Justice Mayor Wadyajena

Parliament of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

The single most consequential political act of Zimbabwe’s post-independence history was the wholesale re-distribution of land of the late nineties under the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. Though mythically perceived as an exercise that solely dispossessed the settler minority only to enhance the concentration of ownership amongst the indigenous elite, data has proven broad-base benefit. Many smallholders in the post-land reform resettlement areas have thrived and concrete reconfiguration of the agrarian economy has been achieved. The global political fallout that ensued as was predominantly related to the question of compensation for dispossessed farmers. With a new administration determined to reclaim relations with the global community, the question of compensation to close to 4,000 farmer arises again, and in the face of a challenging economic environment. With South Africa and Namibia undertaking similarly problematic, but equally necessary processes, we must ask what lessons can be learnt from the Zimbabwe experience.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-08: Improving housing delivery
Session Chair: Shishir Ranjan Dash, Tata Trusts, India
MC 8-100 
 

Social mix and social cohesion using housing mix: a review of the Chilean and British experience

Claudia Murray1, Gavin Parker1, Francisco Sabatini2, Luis Vergara2

1University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile

This paper explores the evolution of housing policies in the UK and Chile, and takes into consideration the political and cultural context in which policies were developed. In both states and over time governments using conservative and more neo-liberal political discourses have prevailed. The blueprint of the policies set on the early 1980’s have changed little since favouring home-ownership over any other form of tenure via the ABC approach in Chile and the RTB and HTB in the UK. While Chile pursued a strategy of segregation by creating socially homogeneous neighbourhoods, the UK has always aimed to achieve social mix via tenure mix. However, with decreasing tenure types and wide criticism to ‘forced’ social mix, the UK approach is facing challenging times. The Chilean system in particular is reviewed here with the aim of furthering the debate on homogeneous vs socially mixed neighbourhoods in property-ownership democracies.



Affordable housing: a land suitability perspective

Gayatri Singh1, Tony Hartanto Widjarnarso1, Jose Eduardo Diaz-Azcunaga2, Ricardo Ochoa-Sosa2, Eduardo Perez-Denicia2

1World Bank, Indonesia; 2CAPSUS, Mexico

Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization rates, which have caused an increased demand for housing, especially in central urban areas. There, the supply of land and housing is becoming increasingly limited, causing prices to rise. While centric urban regions become more expensive, low-income families seek for accommodation in the outskirts of the cities, where land is cheaper, but access to services, infrastructure, and economic opportunities decreases, causing a great disadvantage. In this work, the locations of existing social housing projects Semarang city, Indonesia were analyzed according to their implications on: human well-being, distance to central urban areas, and cost of land. Considering these indicators and with the help of the urban planning tool -Suitability- areas to develop future housing projects were proposed. The results of this analysis show that a significant improvement in service accessibility and well-being for urban dwellers does not necessarily implicate high investment costs regarding land acquisition.



Harnessing the real estate market for equitable affordable housing provision through land value capture: Insights from San Francisco City, California

Bernard Nzau, Claudia Trillo

University of Salford, United Kingdom

Affordable housing remains a serious problem in many countries. Even as the housing affordability crisis deepens, most cities continue to exhibit robust real estate markets with high property prices. The low-income and poor households are unable to access affordable housing and remain excluded. This paper draws from empirical research conducted in the city of San Francisco and focusses on the application of Land Value Capture (LVC) through increased Inclusionary Housing (IH) requirements after rezoning San Francisco’s Eastern Neighbourhoods to evaluate its effects on the goals of increasing both affordable housing and social inclusion. Findings reveal that the increased inclusionary requirements used as LVC mechanism enabled 76.2% of all the affordable housing units produced in the eastern neighbourhoods to be financed through the market. The study demonstrates that upzoning underutilized land coupled with a well-planned LVC mechanism can help harness the strength of the real estate market and increase affordable housing

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-09: Enhancing tenure security for forest land
Session Chair: Dietmar Stoian, ICRAF, France
MC 9-100 
 

Gender gaps and actions being taken to address them in forest landscapes

Patricia Kristjanson, Tamara Bah, Anne Kuriakose, Meerim Shakirova, Gerardo Segura, Katharina Siegmann, Margaux Granat

World Bank, United States of America



Closing the gender gap in natural resource management programs in Mexico

Katharina Siegmann1, Zeina Afif1, Graciela Reyes-Retana3, Margarita Gomez Garcia2

1World Bank; 2CIDE; 3Cornell University



Innovation of locally-led adaptive programming in Natural Resource Governance Change in Myanmar

Aung Kyaw Thein, Rick Gregory

Pyoe Pin Institute, Myanmar

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-10: Using public lands as a catalyst for equitable development
Session Chair: Devie Chilonga, Mnistry of Lands, housing and urban development, Malawi
MC 10-100 
 

La privatisation des terres collectives au Maroc: une voie de dynamisation du marché foncier agricole

Mohamed Hicham Ferrassi

MCA-Morocco, Morocco

Les terres collectives revêtent une grande importance dans la vie sociale et économique du pays mais leur potentiel agro-sylvo-pastoral n’est que partiellement valorisé, à cause principalement de leurs exploitations dans l’indivision par les ayants droit.

L’activité Foncier rural du programme financé par Millennium Challenge Corporation(MCC) vise à lutter contre la pauvreté à travers l’amélioration de la productivité agricole caractérisée par de faibles niveaux d’investissement et par la faible dynamique du marché foncier, conséquences directes de leur statut.

Le projet d’article propose de partager l’expérience du gouvernement du Maroc quant à l’approche adoptée dans le développement et la mise en œuvre de l’opération de privatisation de quelques terres collectives, tant dans ses dimensions de politique gouvernementale, par les réformes pensées et appliquées, que dans ses dimensions économiques, sociales et environnementales. Le tout est appuyé par la mise en place des mesures d’accompagnement pour assurer au mieux la réussite du projet.



Institutional reform of the public administration system and its effect on land administration (case study: Republic of Moldova)

Olga Buzu

Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre of the Republic of Moldova, Moldova

The public administration reform currently underway in Moldova covers all ministries, departments and agencies, including the central public authority for land administration, geodetic surveying and cadastre. Although the Agency for Land Relations and Cadastre (ALRC) has been established in particular on the World Bank’s recommendation as an optimal structure enabling integrated development of a number of economic segments and activity types to ensure effective land administration, it will be reorganized and its tasks to develop policies and strategies in the spheres it used to regulate will be allocated to several separate ministries.

The paper discusses and attempts to assess possible effects and consequences of the ALRC reorganization and its influence on further development of the real estate market and its infrastructure, on the quality and state of the multi-purpose real estate cadastre; it also presents the recommendations developed to improve the land administration system in the Republic of Moldova.



An examination of spatial planning impact on development of the agricultural land in Kosovo

Dukagjin Bakija2, Rudina Qerimi2, Arben Citaku1, Luan Nushi1

1Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Republic of Kosovo; 2Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Kosovo

This paper aims to identify some of the main findings on the impact of spatial planning, towards the development of agricultural land as a national priority in Kosovo. The process of protection, regulation, and development of agricultural land through the use of spatial planning instruments is by no means new – in fact, the core idea of planning for future urban expansions and developments is based on the reasoning that key national and local resources necessitate an sustainable approach.

Agriculture has been a key national priority for Kosovo institutions in the last decade or so, taking into consideration that Kosovo’s population living in rural areas is about 62%. Though, the productivity in this sector is severely hampered by unclear land ownership, fragmented and inaccessible plots of land, and especially from the loss of prime agricultural land due to uncontrolled spatial developments.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-11: Land administration: Cases from South America
Session Chair: Maria Elena Garcia Flores, CINDER, Mexico
MC C1-100 
 

CADASTRE and access to land

Hugo Daniel Gatica1, Hugo Daniel Gatica2, Julián Cortina Fraysse3

1Cons Fed del Catastro, Argentine Republic; 2Dirección Provincial de Catastro e Información Territorial; 3Dirección de Catastro Municipio Vista Alegre

Aligned with the motto of the conference on Land and Poverty, the meaning of the word catalyst is assumed as the action of favoring the development of a process. In our case, we will address the way in which an up-to-date, modern cadastre, on a regimen, provides the basic elements to favor the process of access to the land of the most vulnerable sectors, the most vulnerable social actors.

As for the most unprotected sectors, it refers to marginal social sectors that due to the high values of urban land and land policies, are forced to live together with their family group, on land taken under the informal "settlements" mode . Although they access a portion of land in which to develop family life, they are deprived of elementary basic services (water, lighting, sewers, gas, social infrastructure).

It is also proposed analyze two cases visible in the province of residence, Neuquén.



Integrating data for land tenure regularization in the State of Piauí, Brazil

Hérbert Buenos Aires de Carvalho1, Regina Lourdes Carvalho de Araújo1, Camille Bourguignon2, Simone Raquel Mendes de Oliveira1

1Piauí State Land Institute; 2The World Bank

In Brazil, the State of Piauí implements a land tenure regularization program through which small-scale farmers can acquire the ownership of state land. Efforts have been made to strengthen the capacity of the Piauí State Land Institute (INTERPI) to implement this program. Yet, progress remains limited with approximately 4,000 requests received, 2,500 titles issued, and 258 titles registered over the last three years. In this paper, the authors explain that these modest achievements are in part due to INTERPI’s limited capacity and difficulties in obtaining the supporting documents from other public entities. The authors explain how Piauí is addressing this issue through additional investments in the modernization of INTERPI, the creation of a Center for Geotechnology, the reengineering land tenure regularization procedures and the strengthening of partnership with public entities such as the Land Tenure Regularization Center and the Special Unit for Land Tenure Regularization and Fight Against Land Grabs.



Types of land tenure in Brazil: the first estimate from available geo-referenced information

Bastiaan Philip Reydon1, Gerd Sparovek2, Luis Fernando Guedes Pinto3, Vinicius Faria3, Gabriel Siqueira1, Javier Godar4, Toby Gardner3, Rafael Georges5, Gustavo Ferroni5, Caio Hamamura6, Felipe Cerignoni3, Tomás Carvalho3, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos7, Ane Alencar7, Vivian Ribeiro7

1UNICAMP, Brazil; 2GeoLab- Esalq – USP; 3Imaflora; 4SEI; 5Oxfam; 6IFSP; 7IPAM

The Brazilian efforts to create a unified land cadaster that can improve its land Governance are quite large. The land Management System – SIGEF, created in 2013, is contributing to the formation of a georeferenced cadaster of rural land, comprising public and private areas, already showing significant quantitative results of rural, public and private property. The CAR, a self-supplied georeferenced mapping for environmental management has a large coverage of the private land ownership and possession around the country.

The main aim of this article is to present a portrait of the Brazilian land tenure, based on the different kinds of ownership, adverse possession and others, but also on public cadasters, integrating its information, mostly to exclude the overlapping. This is to facilitate the understanding of where, what, how much, who and how land is owned or possessed in Brazil.



A new approach for the establishment of a regional multipurpose cadastre in La Mojana, Colombia – how to overcome large-scale cadastral operations challenges through technological and methodological innovations

Stéphane Georges Guy Palicot1, Loic Daniel2

1GEOFIT, France; 2IGNFI France

In a post conflict recovery program context and as part of a development strategy, Colombia has launched a major national cadastral modernization program. Various pilot projects have been defined. Among these, La Mojana, a vast wetland region affected by economical and post-conflict issues, has been selected as a model of cadastral operations at regional scale.

To establish a multipurpose cadastre, IGNFI–GEOFIT has been tasked by the AFD and the DNP to elaborate a methodology with emphasis on social regularization of rural land rights. For this purpose, we proposed a new model of massive cadastral operation, strongly relying on the use of innovative technologies and methods transferred from large scale industrial manufacturing processes. We will show how the catalysation of these innovative factors into an integrated methodology give acces to a new level of efficiency, quality and user satisfaction at a lower cost of operation than current models.



Standardization and integration of the electronic real estate registry system of Brazil (SREI): the national operator of SREI (ONR).

Ivan Jacopetti do Lago

IRIB, Brazil

Brazilian Federal Law 13.465 of the year 2017 created an entity called "ONR – Operador Nacional do Sistema de Registro Eletrônico de Imóveis” (National Operator of the Electronic Property Registry System), a private non-profit legal entity, which was committed to the implementation and operation, in national level, of the Electronic Property Registration System. The model envisaged for the entity is based on the so-called "Consensual Administration", in which public interest activities that do not require the exercise of public law prerogatives are decentralized to the private sector. The ONR will be of great value for the exercise of land governance by the Public Administration, as well as to the proper functioning of the real estate market, approximating registry, financial intermediaries, notaries and the buyer of property. The new entity has not yet been formally constituted; even so, its technical aspects are already in full development.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-12: Enforcing adherence to standards for large land-based investment
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
MC C1-200 
 

Emerging Practice from the Field: Private sector action on land rights in the upstream

Donald Bryson Ogden1, Christina Healy1, Andy White1, Mark Constantine2

1Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America; 2International Finance Corporation

The Interlaken Group is the leading multi-stakeholder effort to coordinate action between private sector, CSO, government, and community stakeholders towards transforming the supply chains of companies and investors in land-based sectors to support secure community land tenure. This presentation will describe some of the emerging lessons from Interlaken Group engagement with local companies, governments, CSOs, and IP organizations in Kenya, Malawi, Cameroon, and Indonesia to facilitate implementation of corporate commitments to support community land tenure and reform processes.



Etranger et accès a la terre en afrique de l'ouest

Ka Ibrahima

Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal

Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous allons, à partir d’une analyse des politiques et législations foncières des pays situés dans les espaces intégrés comme la Communauté Economique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) et l’Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA), aborder la problématique du traitement de l’étranger en termes d’accès et de contrôle des ressources foncières, surtout dans un contexte d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle ou d’accaparement des terres en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle mettra en évidence le dilemme des Etats qui, d’un côté, tiennent à la consolidation des espaces intégrés en promouvant des principes de libre circulation des biens et des personnes et en misant sur le foncier comme un facteur d’intégration et de l’autre côté, à cause de l’ampleur du phénomène de la prédation foncière, certains Etats en sont revenus à limiter leurs engagements en restreignant les droits des étrangers à accéder ou à contrôler les ressources foncières.



Due diligence in land acquisition - Lawyers and their responsibilities

Margret Vidar1, Kate Cook2, Marianna Bicchieri1

1FAO, Italy; 2Matrix Chambers, UK

Lawyers have responsibilities both to respect human rights and to advise their clients on respecting human rights under the UN Guiding Principles on Human Rights, IBA human rights guidance. The human rights implications of tenure mean that human rights due diligence should also include tenure due diligence and take full account of the standards set out in the VGGT, CFS-RAI and the OECD FAO Agricultural Supply Chains Guidance. Among key issues to consider in due diligence processes is the identification of holders of legitimate tenure rights and other persons potentially affected by an investment, the establishment of a thorough and ongoing process of consultation and engagement, to avoid adverse impacts on the right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food and housing.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-13: Linking global issue to local reality on the commons
Session Chair: Gerardo Segura Warnholtz, World Bank, United States of America
MC 7-860 
 

Consequential trends in global recognition of community-based forest tenure from 2002-2017

Chloe Ginsburg, Stephanie Keene

Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America

Tenure reforms recognizing the rights of Indigenous Peoples, local communities, rural women, and smallholders are a prerequisite for the realization of global climate and development objectives. A new analysis on the distribution of global forest tenure in 58 countries over fifteen years finds that while the forest area legally recognized for Indigenous Peoples and local communities has grown nearly 40 percent since 2002—to a total of 15 percent of forests globally—the rate of recognition has remained slow since 2008. Despite limited progress, forests that were legally recognized between 2013-2017 have much stronger protections for community rights than those recognized during the previous 5 years, signaling an emerging upswing in recognition of community forest ownership. To take full advantage of the opportunities offered by recent legislative advancements that could robustly secure Indigenous Peoples’, communities’, and rural women’s forest tenure rights, more nuanced and appropriately disaggregated data is urgently needed.



From lessons learnt to future options for global forest governance

Anna Begemann, Lukas Giessen, Marko Lovric, Jeanne Roux, Dennis Roitsch, Georg Winkel

European Forest Institute (EFI), Germany

Deforestation remains one of the biggest global environmental challenges. Over the past 25 years a large variety of forest governance initiatives and institutions have evolved at global level, stemming from fields such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, forest management, as well as human rights and trade. Taking stock of lessons learned on these initiatives in a systematic way, and drawing on the insights of both, policy practitioners and academia is a step yet to be undertaken. Against this background, and building on a qualitative, transdisciplinary Delphi methodology, this article aims at (i) drawing lessons from past initiatives, and at (ii) identifying promising forest governance approaches. The findings include rankings of most important challenges and drivers of global forest governance, promising initiatives, influential actors, main effects thus far, ideal and most likely developments until 2030, underexplored research topics as well as key aspects for successful future initiatives on global forest governance.



Evidence on biodiversity conservation impacts: assessing theories, approaches, and outcomes from community engagement

Aireona Bonnie Raschke1, Michael I. Brown2, Samantha H. Cheng1

1Arizona State University, United States of America; 2Chemonics, International

Community engagement is widely assumed to facilitate and enhance environmental and human well-being outcomes of conservation interventions. However, while community engagement is broadly applied, empirical evidence of their impact remains unclear. We sought to examine the connections between the dimensions of engagement, governance/land tenure, and outcomes via a systematic assessment of peer-reviewed literature. Our study illustrated that the current evidence base is insufficient to carry out such an analysis, and uncovered clear deficiencies in research on this topic. Community engagement approaches are not coherently defined such that they can be compared and evaluated, research efforts are widely focused on a few regions and lack longevity and robustness, and there is an overall trend towards surface-level community participation and continued state control of land. Our results suggest that increased cross-sector and historical learning is required in order to test rigorously test current assumed pathways to impact.



Producing useable knowledge for sustainable land governance: Potential contributions from land systems science

Ariane de Bremond1, Albrecht Ehrensperger1, Peter Messerli1, Vincent Roth2, Henri Rueff2

1Global Land Programme/University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland; 2University of Bern, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Switzerland

Land systems lie at the intersection of diverse interests and claims concerning societies’ needs for sustainable development. Thus, implementation of the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may ultimately translate, in many contexts, into competing claims on scarce land resources. Land system scientists are not oblivious to this: since 2015, the scientific community of Future Earth’s Global Land Programme (GLP) has produced over 5000 scientific publications (data from Scopus), many of which address aspects that are relevant to land governance.

With this in mind, we screened the 380 highest ranked articles published since 2015 by GLP’s scientific community to identify references on interactions between different SDG targets, assuming that the latter are representative of the development claims placed on land. Further, we surveyed 50 practitioners to assess their perception about the most important development goals related to land governance.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm07-14: Demarcation of indigenous lands
Session Chair: Raelene Webb, Murray Chambers, Australia
MC 6-860 
 

Jurisprudence of the Supreme Federal court of Brazil in the process of demarcation of the indigenous reserve Raposa Serra do Sol

Jose de Arimateia Barbosa1, Ariane Silva Barbosa2, Rui Barbosa Netto3, Delaíde Passos4

1Secretary of the association of Notaries and regisrars of te State of Mato Grosso- Brazil; 2Lowyer; 3Notary, Brazil; 4UNICAMP

JURISPRUDENCE AND LAND CONFLICT IN THE PROCESS OF DEMARCATION OF THE INDIGENOUS RESERVE RAPOSA SERRA DO SOL

The Raposa Serra do Sol is an indigenous territory located in the extreme north of the Brazil, in the state of Roraima, specifically in the Normandia, Pacaraima and Uiramutã districts, between the Tacutu, Maú Surumu Miang and the Venezuelan and Guyana frontiers. The main objective of this article is to understand the complexity involved in the demarcation of the Raposa Serra do Sol Indian Reservation, considering the need to bring to the discussion the peculiarities of the Amazonian biome, the question of national sovereignty, which in this case was strongly contested by international agents working in the region, and the debate on indigenous law. These discussions have returned with force in the last months, seen diverse declarations on the unconstitutionality of the present demarcation.



Assessing implementers’ perspective on reform processes: Progress and challenges in formalizing the rights of native communities in Peru

Iliana Monterroso, Anne Larson

CIFOR, Peru

Since 1974, the Peruvian government has formally recognized the collective rights of more than 1,300 native communities with titles to over 12 million hectares. Despite this progress, the Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon (AIDESEP) calculates that there are outstanding claims to 20 million ha of land and forest. The context surrounding implementation is complex, with different interests shaping the priorities of each respective government administration. This paper analyses the process of formalizing collective rights to native communities in Peru, from the perspective of government agents involved in implementation procedures, activities and the outcomes derived from this. The analysis is based on a mixed method approach that combines legal and institutional analysis of the implementation framework. It provides lessons on the barriers and limitations to promote more effective processes around the formalization of collective rights to forests and lands in Peru.



Case study: a model for securing the legal recognition of indigenous lands rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kysseline Cherestal1, Alfred Kibiswa3, Kapupu Diwa Mutimanwa3, Keddy Bosulu2, Roger Buhereko1, Betto Nyongolo3, Loic Braune1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2REPALEF, Réseau de populations autochtones pour la gestion durable des écosystèmes forestiers de la RDC; 3LINAPYCO, Ligue nationale des associations autochtones pygmées du Congo

The forests of the DRC support millions, including 700,000 to 1,000,000 indigenous peoples (IP) for whom identity and survival are intrinsically linked to their land. In a backdrop of ongoing land related reforms and legal revisions, IP communities, depending on their geographic location and history, prioritize different land rights (access, use, withdrawal, management, exclusion, alienation, due process and just compensation). This case study will present a model process followed by the national level governance structure of IP organizations in the DRC to elaborate a coherent strategy to secure an array of land related rights, through the development of a set of guiding principles; and of a strategy for securing 1) traditional IP lands, held collectively; and 2) new settlement lands, held by IP individuals and IP families, enabling them to settle at their own pace and integrate into existing communities in a fair and sustainable way.

 
3:30pm - 3:45pmCoffee Break
Front Lobby 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-01: Land records completion and modernization in Asia
Session Chair: Mika-Petteri Törhönen, The World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Indonesia: systematic land regularization and electronic land administration

Embun Sari

The Indonesia Ministry of Spatial Planning and Agrarian Reform, Indonesia

.



Land policy and administration reform in Nepal

Janak Raj Joshi

Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Nepal

.



Uzbekistan real property register and cadastre modernization

Maksud Ruzmetov

Goskomzemgeodezkadastr, Uzbekistan

.



Property registration in India – Delhi perspective

Amlanjyoti Goswami

Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India

..



Discussant

Faiz Faiz-ul-Hassan

Punjab Land Records Authority, Government of Punjab, Pakistan

.



Discussant

Serene Ho

The University of Melbourne, Australia

.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-02: Strengthening professional ethics in the land sector
Session Chair: Maurice Barbieri, CLGE (Council of European Geodetic Surveyors), Switzerland
MC 13-121 
 

Worldwide, Regional and local initiatives to regulate professional ethics

Curtis Sumner

National Society of Professional Surveyors, United States of America

tbd



Professional ethics under pressure, how to cope with technical developments

Maurice Barbieri

CLGE (Council of European Geodetic Surveyors), Switzerland

The CLGE, NSPS and FIG proposes to intensify the efforts amongst their members in the field of professional ethics.

We recommend to emphasize the professional ethics during the whole of 2019. One pertinent action would be to organize the World Bank Round Table in this field.

CLGE suggests three short papers about the subject with the aim to spark the discussion during a subsequent Round Table:

- Worldwide, Regional and local initiatives to regulate professional ethics

- Professional ethics under pressure, how to cope with technical developments

- Ethics, from theory to practice

Curtis Sumner, NSPS executive director, USA

Jean-Yves Pirlot, CLGE director general, European Union

Maurice Barbieri, CLGE president, Switzerland



Ethics, from theory to practice

Jean-Yves Pirlot

CLGE (Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens), Belgium

tbd

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-03: Applications of earth observation to assess urban service delivery
Session Chair: Moses Musinguzi, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
MC 2-800 
 

Catalyzing innovation for global urban monitoring from a holistic utilization of big earth data, artificial intelligence and open knowledge

Thomas Esch1, Felix Bachofer1, Jakub Balhar2, Martin Böttcher3, Enguerran Boissier4, Mattia Marconcini1, Alessandro Marin5, Emmanuel Mathot4, Annekatrin Metz-Marconcini1, Fabrizio Pacini4, Marc Paganini5, Tomas Soukup2, Vaclav Svaton6, Julian Zeidler1

1German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany; 2GISAT s.r.o., Prague, Czech Republic; 3Brockmann Consult GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany; 4Terradue Srl, Rome, Italy; 5European Space Agency (ESA), ‎Frascati, Italy; 6IT4Innovations – VSB Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic

To facilitate the exploration of new opportunities arising from the digital transformation of our society, the Urban Thematic Exploitation Platform (U-TEP) has been set-up. This enabling instrument represents a virtual environment that combines open access to multi-source data repositories (in particular from earth observation) with dedicated data processing, analysis and visualisation functionalities. Moreover, it includes mechanisms for the development and sharing of technology and knowledge. This contribution provides a detailed introduction to and demonstration of the U-TEP system and functionalities, along with a presentation of ‘best-practice” use cases. So far, more than 330 institutions from over 40 countries have requested U-TEP products, services and platform access. Thereby the user feedback indicates that U-TEP can help to implement more effective concepts and strategies towards sustainable urban and spatial development by unlocking the understanding of the complex processes, interdependencies, and effects related to the grand challenge of global urbanization and rural transformation.



Earth Observation for supporting urban land use policy implementation

Thomas Haeusler, Sharon Gomez, Amelie Broszeit

GAF AG, Germany

The National Urban Planning process is comprised of several stages from Feasibility, to Diagnostics, Formulation, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation. In order to implement these steps evidence-based approaches for decision making are needed. Geo-spatial data play a major role in evidence based urban planning; the paper presents case studies from a European Space Agency project collaborating with the Multi-Lateral Development Banks on the application of such products for urban planning in sixteen global Cities. The satellite based land use and derived products such as green areas, transport provided Cities with information on urban growth patterns, urban densification and the development of unplanned settlements. Specific case studies in Africa and Asia will be presented to illustrate the utility of the geo-spatial data for effective and improved urban planning and policy development processes



Earth Observation – A support for the distributed energy sector

Rainer Malmberg, Elke Krätzschmar

IABG mbH, Germany

A sustainable planning of affordable distributed energy installations considers many factors, requires draft but up-to-date analysis of settlements potentially effected, in combination with their surroundings. It provides a picture of the actual situation, its potential effect on local development, and with this can support a well-balanced improvement in line with the UN SDG 7.

This presentation will show, on how Earth Observation Services can support site identification and assessment by providing up-to-date information layer, such as urban extent, infrastructural and agricultural elements as well as information related to relief and potential hazards, among others. The significant qualitative increase in site identification accuracy will be shown exemplarily and is based on intense stakeholder engagement within the African context.

The outcomeis to provide ready-to-run cost-efficient, standardized solutions suitable for a scalable site identification process following different aspects, such as remoteness of a region, economic viability, vulnerability regarding natural hazards or other.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-04: Ways to secure women's tenure in practice
Session Chair: Janet Edeme, African Union Commission, Ethiopia
MC 4-100 
 

The impact of land regularization in rural Tanzania; gender, rights and anti- poverty case: the civil society organization’s parallel support to the land tenure support programme

Nasieku Kisambu1, Jonathan Kioko1, Mary Richard2

1We Effect, Tanzania; 2Tanzania Women Lawyers Association, Tanzania

Land Tenure Regularization is a priority for both rural and urban Land Tenure Regularization is a priority for both rural and urban Tanzania. The main drive is security of tenure and subsequent economic benefits including access to financial services. Rural Tanzania (approximated at 80%) is categorized as village land. While the government of Tanzania prioritize land formalization to promote and guarantee security of tenure, and ultimately economic benefits to citizens, several other factors must be considered in order to cement on the real security of tenure and thus contribute effectively to poverty reduction. This paper discusses Gender, land formalization as a human right issue, and a tool for poverty reduction. Specific lessons are drawn from the parallel CSO support project which focuses on fostering equitable engagement, consultation and representation in the land regularization process being undertaken by the government of Tanzania under the Land Tenure Support programme (2014-2018).



A multi-stakeholder approach to advancing women’s land rights using the SDGs framework: experience from Tanzania

Godfrey Massay

Landesa, Tanzania

The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 has inspired actors to use the SDGs to advance specific agendas of interest at the national and global level. The actors who are working on the land sector have, in the spirit of leaving no one behind, organized themselves in advocating for data collection on tenure security, land law reforms, re-classifications of indicators, as well as localization of the indictors in national development plans. In Tanzania, Landesa in collaboration with the Ministry responsible for Gender established a Multi-stakeholder Platform on Women’s Land Rights in order to generate discussions and exchanges that encourage and support the government to take responsibility and to act more effectively and quickly to support women’s land rights. This paper highlights the milestones and lessons one year on since the platform was created.



Women’s tenure rights and land reform in Angola

Allan Cain

Development Workshop, Angola

Current Angolan municipalisation reforms present a unique opportunity to affect local practice on how community and individual land-holder tenure is administered and to protect women's equitable rights to land. Angola is a post-war country, with weak land tenure legislation and limited local government management capacity. Customary traditions are practiced in the various regions a of the country do not respect women’s rights of ownership and inheritance. More than 62 percent of the population live in informal settlements with insecure land tenure under the threat of forced evictions. Families living in poor communities affected by the expansion of cities and towns are particularly vulnerable. Of these, families lead by women are the most at risk. Securing rights to land and housing assets are important to livelihoods of women headed households by permitting access to financing that they require to grow their enterprises as well as for incrementally upgrading their housing.



Using institutional cooperation, focusing on Capacity Building, to secure Gender Equality

Kent Johan Ronny Nilsson1, Grace Nishimwe2

1Lantmäteriet, Sweden; 2Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda

Rwanda has a unique position in the world of land administration, achieving extraordinary results in limited time with limited resources and limited land available. We might be able to find other successful examples, such as Botswana, but how do you continue to develop and take the next step?

Land data is best served fresh and together with other data it can provide a basis for development of any country but without reliable data any country’s economy could collapse.

Sweden is supporting Rwanda via Sida and an institutional cooperation between Lantmäteriet and RLMUA, focusing on capacity building “Capacity Development in Land Administration”.

Women’s rights are vital to reach the SDG's, including No Poverty, Gender Equality and Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. How can innovation help making actual progress for the poor and vulnerable women living on and from the land?

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-05: Urban land research, land assembly and land markets in China
Session Chair: Fang Xia, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China, People's Republic of
MC 5-100 
 

Land-constrain-induced poverty and land-capitalization-supported poverty alleviation strategy in China: A case study of Shaanxi Province

Jinfeng Du

Xi'an Jiaotong University, United States of America



Impact of land certification on land and labor allocation in China

Xuwen Gao1, Longbao Wei1, Xinjie Shi1,2, Shile Fang3

1Zhejiang University, China, People's Republic of; 2Australia National University, Australia; 3Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Science, China, People's Republic of



Reduction of industrial land beyond Urban Development Boundary in Shanghai

Zhengfeng Zhang

Renmin University of China, China, People's Republic of China

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-06: The political economy of land tenure reform
Session Chair: Caleb Stevens, USAID, United States of America
MC 6-100 
 

State of land in the Mekong region

Micah Ingalls1, Jean-Christophe Diepart2, Nhu Truong3, Daniel Hayward4, Tony Neil5, Chanthavone Phomphakdy1, Rasso Bernhard1, Sinu Fogarizzu1, Michael Epprecht1, Vong Nanhthavong1, Dang Hung Vo6, Dzung Nguyen7, Phong Nguyen8, Thatheva Saphangthong9, Chanthaviphone Inthavong10, Cornelia Hett1, Nicholas Tagliarino11

1University of Bern, Lao PDR; 2Mekong Region Land Governance Project, Lao PDR; 3McGill University, Canada; 4Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development, Thailand; 5Independent; 6Hanoi University, Vietnam; 7World Bank, Vietnam; 8Institute for Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam; 9Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao PDR; 10Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Lao PDR; 11UN Habitat, The Netherlands

The Mekong region—comprised of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam—is exceptional for its social and ecological richness. Over the last decade, the region has undergone rapid transformation in land and its agricultural sector. Key data and information to inform effective decision-making necessary to understand and navigate this transformation are limited. The State of Land in the Mekong Region seeks address this gap by presenting key data and information with regard to status and change in socioeconomic conditions of agriculture and the rural population, the land resource base upon which this population depends, and the ways in which land resources are distributed across society. We evaluate tenure security and governance conditions that shape rural land relations, and assess the ways in which large-scale land acquisitions, the trade in land-intensive commodities, and regional and global investment flows articular with sustainable development in the Mekong region.



New innovations-old problems: the case of the flexible land tenure system and communal land registration in Namibia

Charl-Thom Hilgardt Bayer

Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

The development of new institutional innovations in Namibia to improve tenure security for informal settlement residents as well as communal land residents has been fraught with problems and has not had the expected impact. It is argued that this is due to the fact that these innovations are not sufficiently embedded in the registration functions, or society, but are driven from the top. Instead the FLTS and the NCLAS have created an innovation architecture that is parralel to the existing systems, rather than building on the current parcel registration system. The research concludes that innovations that are incremental in nature, and that is embedded on the functions it serves to improve upon, is more likely to succeed. Such an approach is more likely to gain support with the private sector to help establish a land market and leverage investment in land and agriculture.



"A limited contribution to a complex development problem"? Land titling and land tenure in the Mekong region

Michael Dwyer2, Naomi Basik Treanor1, Phuc Xuan To1,3, Quang Nguyen1, Sophal Chan4, Kevin Woods1, Thoumthone Vongvisouk5, Jean-Christophe Diepart6

1Forest Trends, United States of America; 2University of Colorado, United States of America; 3Australian National University, Australia; 4Centre for Policy Studies, Cambodia; 5National University of Laos, Lao PDR; 6Mekong Regional Land Governance Project, Lao PDR

Using a comparative analysis of agribusiness models and associated land tenure in the Mekong region, this paper speaks to current debates about land titling in the Mekong region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam) and elsewhere. Over the past three years, we examined cases in these four countries in which titling and other property formalization intersected with land-based investments. We found that while formalization fundamentally changes how smallholders fare in the face of agricultural expansion, the details depend heavily on a range of other contextual factors. Specifically, we argue that that: 1) titling can enhance security, but can just as easily undermine it; 2) titling should prioritize rural livelihoods and the needs of marginalized groups; 3) titling is a “modular” process that should be tailored to design socially optimal forms of recognition; and, 4) better regulation of land investment is badly needed to complement existing and future titling initiatives.



What policy lessons can we learn from stalled land reforms? Insights from Senegal

Marie Gagne1, Cheikh Oumar Ba2, Ibrahima Ka2

1University of Toronto, Canada; 2Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale (IPAR), Senegal

In the last 20 years, the Senegalese government started a land reform process on three occasions but interrupted it each time. What does this pattern of stalled land reforms reveal about state-society relations in Senegal? What policy lessons can we draw from these inconclusive efforts? In this paper, we identify the constellations of actors and interests that have led the Senegalese government to shelve land reform proposals, with a focus on the latest attempt started in 2012. We argue that the reasons explaining the reluctance of the Senegalese state to bring successive land reforms to completion oscillate between avoidance in the face of a strong civil society and strategic accommodation to the status quo through piecemeal, incremental changes to the current legal system. Our findings are based on a careful analysis of institutional documents, interviews with experts, and participant observations in meetings of the 2012 National Commission on Land Reform.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-07: Can building regulations be designed properly?
Session Chair: Richard Grover, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom
MC 7-100 
 

Process of buildings legalization in Republic of Macedonia from the perspective of the real estate cadastre

Sonja Dimova

Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of

Objects constructed without licenses are generally known as illegal constructions, and are phenomenon that has occurred immediately after the Republic of Macedonia declared its independence. The obstructions pertaining to legal trade of the land under the influence of socialism (state ownership), typical for the period before the declaration of the independence (1991), accompanied by the accelerating migration of the population from rural to urban areas, high expenses associated with the regular construction of buildings, as well as the weak economic power of the population, to name but a few of the reasons contributing to the phenomenon of objects constructed without licenses, i.e. illegal constructions. In accordance with the legal regulations, objects that have been built without construction permission, or objects built contrary to the construction permit and beyond the planning scope, shall be considered as objects constructed without licenses.



Guidelines for formalization of informal constructions

Chrysi Potsiou1, Steven Nystrom2, Rik Wouters3

1FIG International Federation of Surveyors, Greece; 2FIG, United States of America; 3UNECE WPLA, The Netherlands

UNECE and FIG recognize the need for guidelines to address informal development and to reduce the phenomenon. This paper deals with the terminology, provides a rational about the impact of no formalization, the concept underlying the need for formalization, explains why we need guidelines and who can benefit from these, as well as how these guidelines should be used. It then describes a global process for formalization that includes the cost-analysis of the problem, the preparation of a strategy, a communication plan, and of the framework for formalization. The framework includes guidelines for the definition of the various categories of informal constructions, the preparation of all legal and regulatory issues, the process to be followed for formalization, registration and monitoring, the penalties and fees, the involved institutions and the administration system. It also deals with the actions that should be taken in parallel and after the formalization and provides conclusions.



Between informal and illegal: comparative analysis of non-compliance with planning and building laws

Rachelle Alterman

Neaman Institue for National Policy Research, Technion, Israel

The degree of illegal / informal/ irregular development varies across counties, and most strikingly between the global north and global south. In the south, the reasons are often basic human needs for food or shelter. Land occupancy is often informal and tenure rights may be customary. Among the advanced economies, illegal construction usually occurs on one’s legally owned land. Why is it so difficult for governments to achieve compliance with planning laws, even where land right are not an issue?

The discussion of noncompliance usually neglects a key player: the structure of the planning laws and institutions. I will argue that planning laws are not “innocent” or neutral regarding degrees of compliance. Their format and contents may be contributing factors in the degree of non-compliance. The paper will provide a cross-national comparative analysis of different types and degrees of non-compliance and the response (or non response) of enforcement measures.



Modernizing planning and development regulations in the Gaza Strip, Palestine

Zeyad Elshakra1, Usama Sadawi2, Farid Alqeeq2, Nermin Zourob2, Rami Abuzuhri1

1UN-Habitat, Palestinian Territories; 2Palestinian Housing Council, Palestinian Territories

The current planning and building regulations and by-laws prevailing in the West Bank and Gaza Strip do not fit the existing and the future Urban Development needs, hence reviewing and amending the existing planning by-laws becomes a must to achieve sustainable urban development in Palestine. The current building regulations depends mostly on determining the minimum setbacks and the maximum height limit the ability of architects to shape the urban form. This paper sheds light on new experiences to develop new set of regulations that the municipal councils have the ability to endorse in order to improve resilience of Palestinian communities through sustainable local development, building rights and access to basic services. These new attempts to update building and construction laws in the Palestinian territories will boost the efforts in the future to adopt regulations and standards that will achieve improved housing affordability, housing quality and sustainable human settlements.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-08: Land tenure insecurity and land-related investment
Session Chair: Michael Kirk, University of Marburg, Germany
MC 8-100 
 

Customary tenure and agricultural investment in Uganda

Laura Meinzen-Dick

University of California Davis, United States of America

In customary tenure systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, multiple actors hold different rights over a given parcel. Distributing rights influences (perceived) tenure security: anticipating another's actions can cause insecurity. I incorporate this strategic interaction in a model of agricultural investment, predicting how farmers under different tenure regimes respond to an intervention in different land value environments. Rising land values may lead local elites to assert their historic sales rights to outsiders. The farmer, anticipating this, makes fewer investments on customary land as land values rise.

I bring qualitative insights to an economic framework, modeling how farmers respond to incentives, and quantitatively documenting effects of elite capture. I propose an empirical test, in the context of an RCT in Uganda. I use household fixed effects, as many Ugandan farmers operate under multiple tenure regimes. Rather than using tenure type as a (poor) proxy for tenure security, I consider tenure type throughout.



Rural land in Mauritania facing the challenge of development

Cheikh Saad Bouh Camara

Université de Nouakchott, Mauritania

In all countries of the world, the redistribution of wealth poses serious problems. Natural resources and especially land are a major issue in most underdeveloped countries. In Mauritania, for example, "after the Diama anti-salt dam" has triggered a wave of claims of all kinds. The old farmers, strong in the theory of autochthony, consider themselves the most legitimate; other citizens want, as taxpayers, to participate in the development of newly developed land through public investment. Both are encouraged by the state, which wants to develop an important potential for food self-sufficiency. Public funds are injected for the benefit of the operators, which further exacerbates the competition.

We will report specific facts where investor intervention is considered grabbing. The public argument will be explained thus the forms of claims of the former owners or so-called owners.



Going for hybrid maize: the importance of land for the success of maize crop insurance in Tanzania

Meine Pieter van Dijk

Erasmus university Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Netherlands, The

Increased drought contribute to farmers' problems in Tanzania, but the core problem is low agricultural productivity. Local extension services are not functioning properly, while farmers need to move from traditional to hybrid seeds to assure food security. A non-commercial private sector initiative is helping them by providing crop insurance. The Swiss Capacity Building Facility, a non-governmental organization (NGO) financed by ten Swiss insurance companies, funded four projects in Tanzania aiming to introduce crop insurances for maize farmers in the Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions. Land is an important asset for these farmers and our study analyzes the role of land, owned or leased and the prices paid for land. The impact of the size of the holdings was analyzed, showing that there is something like a land market in Tanzania and that the bigger farmers benefit relatively more of the opportunity to get inputs and insure themselves for crop failure.



Land rights and livelihoods in rural South Africa – a gendered perspective

Kezia Batisai

University of Johannesburg, South Africa

The global food price and financial challenges that emerged towards the end of the third quarter of the decade beginning 2000 witnessed a wave of studies located in the land grabbing phenomenon. The analytic gaze of academics and civil society in Africa subsequently shifted towards conceptualisations of land grabs somewhat pushing micro-level analyses to the peripheries of mainstream agrarian research. To ensure that ‘the micro’ retains a meaningful spot in mainstream debates, this article goes beyond land grabbing discourses to explore gendered and classed institutions – marriage and kinship among others – that shape and legitimise longstanding labour structures and hierarchised agrarian and social relations in rural South Africa. Through a contextual and gendered analysis, this article concludes that women from Mtubatuba – a local Municipality north-east of South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province – challenge intersecting socially produced institutions and structures that regulate access to (non-)agricultural resources key to rural livelihoods.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-09: Expanding land markets and investments
Session Chair: Cornelis de Zeeuw, Kadaster, Netherlands, The
MC 9-100 
 

“A Land Market is the strategy for access to land for development”. Which land market? For whose benefit? An analysis of the Ugandan case

Judy Adoko, Liz Neate

Land and Equity Movement in Uganda - LEMU, Uganda



Land governance and urban development find a challenges in the perspective of social safeguards

Md Mayen Uddin Tazim

Asian Development Bank (ADB), Bangladesh, People's Republic of



Ghana: Collateralizing land use rights on customary land. Lessons and challenges for growing the mortgage market

Ian Rose1, Emmanuel Noah2

1DAI, United States of America; 2BenBen, Ghana

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-10: Community empowerment to ensure a fair investor negotiations
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom

WEBEX

MC 10-100 
 

Legal empowerment in commercial agriculture: can small-scale producers secure their fair share?

Lorenzo Cotula, Emily Polack, Thierry Berger, Brendan Schwartz

IIED, United Kingdom

Increased private sector investment in commercial agriculture can create both risks and opportunities for rural livelihoods in low and middle-income countries. The ability of rural people to make informed choices, exercise rights and have their voices heard when dealing with the government or the private sector is a key factor in enabling investments that deliver positive sustainable development outcomes. Yet interactions between governments, agribusinesses and rural people usually involve major asymmetries in capacity, resources, influence and negotiating power.

This paper shares findings from the scoping study for a new project to empower rural producers in commercial agriculture. The paper examines the value chain relations that link small-scale rural producers, their organisations and their wider communities on the one hand, and agribusiness actors on the other. It also takes stock of experience with legal empowerment to support producers in their relations with agribusinesses and public authorities.



Innovative financing solutions for community support in the context of land investments

Sam Szoke-Burke, Kaitlin Cordes

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America

As investor companies seek to use community lands and resources, affected communities often struggle to access the legal and technical support needed to protect their interests. Host governments rarely dedicate funding to community legal support and foundations and donors cannot meet the legal support needs of every affected community.

Where, then, might we find new sources of capital to finance community legal support? Who, apart from governments and institutional donors can help to meet this need? And what innovative solutions exist to mobilize and scale-up available resources to better meet the legal support needs of affected communities?

This paper explores these questions focusing on government marshaling of funds, independently administered basket funds, and the potential for impact investment. Other approaches, such as third party funding, crowd funding, and affordable user fees are also considered.



Rural development, dynamic political economy and social license: a case study in renewable energy project governance missteps and lessons learned.

Andrew Buchman, Dean Slocum, Atma Khalsa

Acorn International, LLC, United States of America

Extractive energy companies frequently rely on social performance elements—including impact assessment; stakeholder identification, analysis, and engagement; community social investments; consultative approaches to livelihood restoration and enhancement, etc.—as a means of establishing themselves as a ‘good neighbor’.

Alternative energy companies are increasingly looking to the experience of ‘traditional’ energy projects as they attempt to manage non-technical risks. Alternative energy sponsors may view their investments as ‘win-win’, offering economic opportunity—but also governance ‘gains’ associated with transparent implementation of good international practice social performance.

Yet project implementation is often far from straightforward; in some cases what is catalyzed by a new project is conflict, rather than innovation. Anticipating land-related governance challenges associated with developing country and agrarian contexts is far from a simple calculation. In this paper, the authors consider a recent solar power project in Nigeria, and present lessons learned regarding the difficult challenges and choices facing project investors.



Assessing community capacity to respond to external threats to land tenure

Rachael Knight

Namati, United States of America

In 2018 Namati undertook research to understand how communities who had completed community land protection efforts (drafting bylaws for responsible land governance and sustainable natural resources management, mapping community lands, etc.) responded when government officials, elites, and investors arrived seeking community lands. The central question explored was: “How do community land protection efforts effect communities’ tenure security, when faced with external threats to their land and natural resources claims? The study systematically gathered stories of community-outsider interactions from sixty communities across Mozambique, Uganda and Liberia, then analyzed the anecdotes as a coherent group. The findings indicate that although communities' experiences illustrated legal empowerment and commitment to good governance of their lands and natural resources, the communities had difficulty successfully advocating for their interests when potential investors were accompanied by powerful government officials and when significant economic benefits were promised.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-11: Land administration: Cases from Eastern Europe
Session Chair: Mihai Taus, Romanian Land Registry Association, Romania
MC C1-100 
 

Jointly towards improvement of land administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosiljka Predragovic1, Zeljko Obradovic2, Andja Zimic3, Denis Tabucic2, Stojan Jungic1, Dejan Jeremic3

1Republic Authority for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Federal Administration for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 3Capacity Building for Improvement of Land Administration and Procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina - CILAP project

Strengthening of the land administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina is recognized as an important goal that can significantly contribute to the secured tenure rights, an efficient property market, the European Union accession and consequently to overall economic and social development and growth.

Joint efforts of geodetic authorities with the support of various carefully coordinated projects are leading to the fulfillment of ultimate goals, improvement of land administration system and facilitation of public service provision. The dedicated work on the establishment of accurate and up to date property registers, address registers and sales price registers has attracted many stakeholders enabling continuous activities on data integration and interoperability.

Exchange of data via web services with other authorities and local governments raising efficiency of work in land administration for user benefits. This prevents data duplication, issuance of incorrect data from unauthorized sources, helps in clear definition of roles and jurisdictions among public institutions.



Innovative technology combat for still pending privatization, legalization challenges, rooted in the communist regime

Marianna Posfai1, Odeta Näks2

1NIRAS OY; 2Independent

Is there a light at the end of the tunnel?

Comparative study on ease Kosovo and Albania burning property rights problems, as a key topic for progress in EU-Albania relations.

Property issues are very complex in the region; the countries still struggle with a mixture of issues such as compensation of former owners, illegal constructions and legalizations. Corruption, organized crime and lack of capacity of the state to protect the rightfulness of legal owners still exist; causing serious social conflicts and unrest in the last two decades. The paper assesses how modern innovative technologies, transparent systems, centralized, harmonized databases are the ultimate tools for fighting old problems, how technology would assist most effectively to solve complex legal situations.

The still unregistered properties, due to the pending dispute cases, the remaining restitution and compensation issues, the slow legalization of unpermitted constructions all rooted in the unharmonized and incorrect property related databases.



Innovative approaches in Georgian land registration reform

Elene Grigolia, Teimuraz Gabriadze

National Agency of Public Registry (NAPR), Georgia

The new land reform aimed resolving several overarching challenges to land registration in Georgia. It ultimately ensured centralization of registration process through “one-stop-shop” principle, time and effort saving, use of alternative dispute resolution mechanism, free-of-charge services, regulation of non-standardized surveying activities, avoid “overlapping” of boundaries of land parcels, security of ownership rights and reach full coverage of the country. successful implementation of reform has, follow-on benefits for the country, resulted in a more effective and efficient public administration. For example, the complete inventory of land parcels introduced the opportunity to develop appropriate land administration and land use policies that promotes continual economic growth in the agriculture and agribusiness sectors, the contribution was not only to economic growth but also to the improvement of the livelihoods of the general public The new land reform also added transparency and accountability of Georgian land governance and improved investment attractiveness of the country.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-12: Improving decision-making on common lands
Session Chair: Steven Lawry, Center for International Forestry Research, United States of America
MC C1-200 
 

Responding to the global agenda: valuation of undocumented lands to promote responsible land governance and human rights recognition

Danilo Antonio1, Agatha Wanyonyi1, Oumar Sylla1, Clarissa Augustinus2, Mike McDemortt2

1UN-Habitat/GLTN, Kenya; 2Independent Consultant, Kenya

The paper highlights the challenges associated with valuation of unregistered lands given their complexities and magnitude. It highlights the guiding principles for the valuation of unregistered land supporting the SDGs and global commitments including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Likewise, it features the critical importance on the implementation of these and other human rights approaches to achieve fair and accountable methodologies in implementing valuations of unregistered lands, ensure responsible land governance and the domestication of these principles at country level is emphasized.

It further recommends adoption of fit for purpose principles to decrease cost of valuation and helping countries to identify the key principles and practices needed to incrementally build their valuation policies, industries and systems and to manage capacity development challenges.



Securing forest tenure for rural development: an integrated assessment tool

Jenny Springer1, Gerardo Segura Warnholtz2, Malcolm Childress3, James Smyle4

1The Equator Group, United States of America; 2World Bank, United States of America; 3Land Alliance, United States of America; 4Independent, United States of America

This Integrated Assessment Tool is the second product of the Securing Forest Tenure Program for Rural Development Program implemented by the World Bank under the Program on Forests (PROFOR). It is a companion piece of an Analytical Framework previously developed to highlight the relevance of secure tenure to sustainable development goals and to identify key elements from evidence and best practice for ensuring that community-based tenure is secured. This new contribution integrates a set of methodologies for assessing both why it is important to secure community-based forest tenure in a specific national or sub-national context, and what needs to be done to strengthen forest tenure in that context. This work includes an overview of the two-part assessment methodology for understanding the different dimensions of community-based forest tenure, reflecting on points of entry for conducting assessments; and step-by-step process guidelines for conducting assessments.



Whose land is it anyway? Exploring new ways for consensus building in policy making

Chilombo Musa

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Navigating the politics of land policy making presents a challenge many countries are yet to surmount. This paper uses evidence from interviews and archival research to trace the land policy making process in Zambia. Using the analogy of a game, actors are scrutinized in relation to their position in the game and their influence on the process. The paper finds that the dominant playmaker, the government, influences the pace and direction of policy making. However, a key player, the traditional leader and defender, is not accorded the necessary game time and space, thus tension is rife in negotiations. The paper concludes with a call for referees, international observers, to play a more pivotal role in directing the pace of the game. Other key players such as civil society and non-governmental organizations are called to co-coordinate the game in the interest of the poor and marginalized.



Land rights progress a participatory land governance tool for Cameroon

Samuel Nguiffo1, Lorenzo Cotula2, Brendan Schwartz2, Jaff Bamendjo3

1Centre pour l'Environment et Development, Cameroon; 2International Institute for Environment and Development, Cameroon; 3Network to Fight Against Hunger

Cameroon faces several land governance issues, which can be explained by the weaknesses of the land laws, adopted in the mid-70s, demographic growth and the increase of land related investments, creating a growing land scarcity on the territory. The European Union-funded project LandCam aims to generate lessons for the land law reform, through a combination of tools and approach, including field and national level dialogue and using a land governance tracking tool designed specifically for Cameroon, but easily replicable in other African countries. The tool focuses on four points and results will be publish in an annual flagship report: (1) Action research in pilot sites; (2) Yearly in-depth research on a specific land-related theme; (3) National level tracking of land policy changes based on a set of criteria extracted from the international commitments of the State; (4) Remote sensing, used to complement field data, especially participatory maps

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-13: Land and post-conflict: the case of Colombia
Session Chair: Mike Mora, Organization of American States, United States of America
MC 7-860 
 

First social then legal: what 902 decree – law changed. Follow-up on the Colombian Peace Agreements and land tenure issues II

Margarita Maria Varon Perea

Colombia Rural, Colombia

Decree Law 902 was signed by the Colombian Government after 1.5 years of preliminary discussion and was recently ratified by the Constitutional Court as a valid agrarian law issued in compliance of Point No. 1 of the Peace Agreements. This paper studies the extent to which the decree complies with the compromises, how they address land tenure policy and what is still missing.

One of the main features of Decree-Law 902 is the design of the legal process as a dependent product of the interaction between rural inhabitants and authorities and the informal institutions currently operating. Properly implementation of Decree 902 implies intrusion of the social perspective over the formalities of the traditional legal approach and requires the development of a new way to create and apply law. Decree-Law 902 creates the basis for what could be a new rural justice still pending for a legal development: the agrarian court.



Between over-innovation and business as usual: another look at the reasons for delay in the implementation of the rural dimension of the Final Agreement in two departments of Colombia (Caquetá and Putumayo).

Klaas Geert van Vliet1, Erika Andrea Rámirez2

1CIRAD, France; Network for applied research on Transitions in Latinamerica and the Caribbean; 2Foundation CERSUR, Colombia, Network for applied research on Transitions in Latinamerica and the Caribbean

The “Final Agreement" signed on 24 November 2016 has been presented as being innovative with respect to other peace agreements. However the first evaluations on implementation point at shortcomings, specifically regarding those measures involving the rural dimension of the agreement. The authors argue that the low rate of implementation of the rural dimension observed in Caqueta and Putumayo, should be sought, firstly, in the quality of the formulation of the text of the agreement itself and the process through which it was produced; secondly, in the way in which the national government steadily added financial, institutional and organizational arrangements for implementation, into the existing State apparatus, without questioning and rethinking its functioning thus far; finally in the way the international “community" managed external resources for support of the implementation. The authors then suggest alternative paths, with a focus on the future managing of land issues in the two departments.



Land markets, social networks and land-grabbing in Colombia.

Camilo Pardo

George Mason University, United States of America

During the past three decades Colombia witnessed what can be cataloged as the most recent chapter in its history of agrarian conflicts, when massive extensions of land were abandoned by internally displaced populations and their property rights were affected during their absence. Simply put, large tracts of land were stolen while people were running for their lives. In the Colombian context this has been labeled as land-grabbing.

Social Network Analysis techniques are used to analyze the context following intense armed conflict in the municipality of El Carmen de Bolivar, where large extensions of land were purchased by a few individuals foreign to the region from local owners forced to leave as a consequence of mass violence. Based on information contained in judicial decisions, it proposes an alternative, network-based explanation for the mass land-theft that occurred in the country in the past thirty years.



Effects of land tenure formalization on illicit crop production in Colombia

Ivonne Astrid Moreno Horta

WORLD BANK, Colombia

Colombia must address longstanding structural deficiencies that have disproportionately affected rural communities, including illegal crops (171.000 hectares. UNODC/2018). Addressing the conditions of poverty that drove thousands of smallholder farmers to illicit crop cultivation, includes securing their land tenure rights. The average land tenure informality is 60%; while in areas with illicit crops, can reach up to 80% (National Land Agency/2017).

Land titling in drugs-affected contexts increases the sustainability of substitution programs. Municipalities with higher levels of formal property rights witnessed a greater reduction in illicit crops; in fact, the formalization of one hectare of land is associated with a decrease of approximately 1.4 hectares of coca crops (Ministry of Justice and UNODC/2017).

In this sense, in the illicit crops affected areas, the rural cadastre and land tenure formalization measures, should be strengthened. This along with productive projects, affordable housing solutions, improvement of public goods and security conditions.



Extended models from the Colombian LADM Profile as support of Territorial Planning

Oscar Zarama1, Fabián Mejía2, Moisés Poyatos3, Daniel Casalprim3

1IGAC, Colombia; 2BSF Swissphoto, Colombia; 3BSF Swissphoto, Spain

Colombia faces transcendental changes to define public policies related to land governance because of the Peace Process between the FARC and the Colombian Government. Among other initiatives, Colombia has been working on the construction of the Multipurpose Cadastral Data Model. This will help to define the expansion phase to the entire country, where the inter-institutional participation will be crucial.

The Project “Modernization of Land Administration in Colombia”, funded by SECO, has supported the Government in developing a Colombian profile of the norm (LADM-COL) and the building of the extended models for land administration, focusing on the land-use planning one (LADM-COL-OT).

The document presents the stages that have been identified and the tools that have been developed to define and put into operation the LADM-COL models based on INTERLIS and the challenges that Colombia will face to consolidate the concept of the modularity through definition, building and implementation of new models.

 
3:45pm - 5:15pm08-14: Recognizing indigenous rights
Session Chair: Hubert M. G. Ouedraogo, DID international, Burkina Faso
MC 6-860 
 

The rights of indigenous people to the enjoyment of Human Rights to Land and Natural Resources in Uganda.

Rebecca Apio1, Lilian Achola2, Emmanuel Egaru3, Freda Orochi4, Rebecca Atayo2, Betty Odur4

1Trocaie Uganda, Uganda; 2Landnet Uganda; 3Land Justice Network; 4Uganda Land Alliance

The indigenous people in Uganda comprise of former hunters/gatherer communities such as the Bennet and the Batwa also known as Twa. They also include minority groups who include the Irk, the Karamojong and the Basongora. Ancient communities of hunters and gatherers, living in forested areas and practicing their cultural and economic way of life.The above group of people do not enjoy fundamental human rights like other Ugandans. The suffer discrimination,severe poverty and exclusion. The discrimination and marginalisation experienced by the indigenous communities range from lack of security of tenure, marginalisation in terms of political representation, poor education and provision of social services, negative stereotyping and segregation. They have common experience of state-induced landlessness and historical injustices caused by the creation of conservation areas. Their right to both land and other natural resources are well established under international and national legislation yet ignored and not implemented thus human rights violation



Understanding the key Drivers of Land use and Livelihood dynamics in the Drylands of Kenya: The Case of Fodder production in Isiolo County

Saada Mohamed Sala, David Jakinda Otieno, Jonathan Nzuma, Stephen Mwangi Mureithi

University of Nairobi, Kenya

In the face of increasing pressure on land and natural resources, combating land degradation in arid rangelands of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is essential to ensure sustainable productivity of these environments. The successive droughts coupled with environmental and demographic factors remain a threat to livestock-based livelihoods, hence limiting the livelihood opportunities available to millions of resource-poor pastoralists. This study assessed the influence of adopting fodder production on land use and livelihood changes in Isiolo County of Kenya. Data was collected using key informant consultations, focus group discussions and individual household survey. The findings showed that adoption of fodder production promotes productive land uses and pastoralists’ participation in diversified income-earning activities. Therefore, resilience focused interventions through asset creation are vital pathways that facilitate pastoralists’ access to resources, and opportunities towards self-reliance, hence aiding the achievement of a sustainable socio-economic development in line with Kenya’s vision 2030 and global development agenda.



Land and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa: lessons learned

Joanita Okedi

Open Society Initiative for Eastern Africa (OSIEA), Uganda

This paper presents lessons learned, experiences of OSIEA and her partners working with pastoralists in securing land rights using both traditional and modern systems. We believe that it is the extent to which pastoralists are able to mobilize amongst themselves that will ensure to enable them positively influence policy processes.

 
5:45pm - 7:15pmSpec-21: Launch of publication: “Securing Forest Tenure Rights for Rural Development: An Analytical Framework”.

By invitation only. Please contact: Gsegura@worldbank.org - see also 

https://www.profor.info/content/securing-forest-tenure-rights-rural-development-analytical-framework-0

MC 2-800 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-01
MC Atrium 
 

Cyber security for Fintech and their role in sustainable development goals

Manohar Velpuri

TLF Tech Private Limited



Handbook for geospatial best practices for land administration

Stephen Calder

GIS/Transport, United States of America



Exploring UAS mapping to improve land and resource management in a Native American community

Adam Benjamin1, Grenville Barnes2, Casey Swanson3, Kevin Barthel4, Christen Corcoran4

1University of Florida Geomatics Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States of America; 2University of Florida Geomatics Program, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Gainsville, FL, United States of America; 3Land And Natural Resources Division, Forest County Potawatomi, United States of America; 4Global Land Alliance



SOLA open source for improving tenure governance - way forward

Maria Paola Rizzo1, Rumyana Tonchovska1, Louisa Jansen1, Jan Van Bennekom-Minnema2

1UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, Italy; 2COWI A/S, Denmark



Blockchain revolution in Georgia

Elene Grigolia

National Agency of Public Registry (NAPR), Georgia



Masterclass on designing smart contracts for land administration

Todd Miller

ChromaWay, Sweden and United States of America

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-02
MC Atrium 
 

AI-powered spatio-temporal analytics to detect electricity theft from public road lighting infrastructures and support the efficient use of energy in degraded areas

Prof. Dr. Vassilios Vescoukis1, Dr. Emmanouil Malliotakis2, Georgios Papakyriakopoulos3, Konstantinos Papaspyrou1

1NTUA, School of Surveying Engineering, Spatial Intelligence Research Group; 2Public Power Corporation S.A; 3The World Bank



National security integrated land data bank for Nigeria

Olorunfemi Isaac Olu Adedurin

OGIS Consult Limited, Nigeria



Perceived tenure (in)security in the era of rural transformation: a gender-disaggregated analysis from mozambique

Hosaena Ghebru1, Fikirte Girmachew2

1International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia



Adopting data integration and interoperability as a tool for optimizing land and water governance

Paul Machogu

University of Nairobi, Kenya

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-03
MC Atrium 
 

India’s de-urbanization of manufacturing sector

Ejaz Ghani

World Bank, United States of America



Financial accessibility and private investment in developing countries

Ndilengar Mbatina Nodji1, Sawadogo Tounwendé Alain2

1Pan African University, Cameroon; 2Ecole Supérieure Multinationale des Télécommunications (ESMT)



Land access and perceived tenure security in the era of social, economic and environmental dynamics/ transformation in Africa

Hosaena Ghebru1, Fikirte Girmachew2

1International Food Policy Research Institute; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Ethiopia



Centralized traffic control (CTC) for greater Gaborone city

Polychronios Akritidis, Panagiotis Papadakos, Aris Karlaftis

NAMA S.A., Greece



Neighbor to neighbor: detroit's first property tax delinquency census

Alexander Alsup

Quicken Loans Community Fund, United States of America



The complementarity of education and use of productive inputs on economic outcomes among smallholder farmers in Africa

Oliver Kirui

Center for Development Research, Germany

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-04
MC Atrium 
 

Socioeconomic indices for townships in Myanmar

S Zaung Nau, Dora Marinova

Curtin University, Australia



Integrating evaluation into program cycle – opportunities and challenges in land policy reform programs

David Ameyaw

International Center for Evaluation and Development, Kenya



NGOs roles in cross-sector collaborations with SMEs and impact investors in developing countries: a values creation approach

Francesca Nugnes

FAST Finance Alliance for Sustainable Trade, France



Land Rights – an investment worth it? Case study from Ghana

Simon Ulvund1, Eva Maria Unger2, Chrit Lemmen2

1Meridia; 2ITC



Does tenure security influences soil quality and household resilience? Evidence from Senegal

Tamsir Mbaye1, Katim Touré2, Marieme Fall ba1, Dioumacor Fall3, Moussa Dieng4, Sofia Espinosa5, Francesca Romano5

1Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA)/ Commission nationale de réforme foncière (CNRF),Senegal; 2L'Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agriculture, Université de Thiès, Senegal; 3Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA)/ Le Conseil national de régulation de l'audiovisuel (CNRA), Senegal; 4Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA)/ Centre de Recherches Agricoles de Saint-Louis (CRA), Senegal; 5Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-05
MC Atrium 
 

Innovation for meeting investments and traditional landrights

Marianna Posfai

NIRAS, Finland



Payments for environmental services on agricultural land: evidence from a choice experiment with tree planting contracts in Ethiopia

Kaleab Haile, Nyasha Tirivayi, Wondimagegn Tesfaye

UNU-MERIT, The Netherlands



Digital commodification of agriculture in Colombia: enclosures or collaborative land control mechanisms

Guillermo Medina

Lancaster University, Colombia



Corporate social responsibility and poverty alleviation: a case study of Wanda Danzhai village

Eric Heikkila1, Manita Rao1, Jingwen Zhang2

1University of Southern California, United States of America; 2Tsinghua University, People's Republic of China



Urban land governance and secure tenure in Latin America and the Caribbean: status and actions

Paola Siclari

The New School, United States of America



Land governance “AmBisyon 2040” : up-valuing Carp investments, millennial rural-urban inclusive growth

Eva Benita Tuzon

Department of Agrarian Reform-Support Services Office, Phillipines

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-06
MC Atrium 
 

Participatory and ecological aspects of rural revitalization in China

Michael Klaus1, Karl Spindler2, Fahria Masum3

1Hanns Seidel Foundation, Germany; 2Planungsbüro Spindler, Germany; 3International Consultant, Germany



Innovation in land administration to aid agro-business investment, diversification of the Nigerian economy – Kano approach

Malandi Umar Kura

Kano State Bureau for Land Management, Nigeria



Private sector responsibility in supporting sustainable development

Cecilie Ravn-Christensen, Kenneth Norre

LE34, Denmark



Gender parity via digital land systems

Gitanjali Swamy1, Phillip Auerswald2, Ignacio Montero-Dasso3, Karol Boudreaux4

1IoTask, Zilla Global, EQUALS- United Nations; 2George Mason University, Zilla Global; 3UTec, Peru, Zilla Global; 4Landesa, Zilla Global



Land predation, climate change and poverty in Burkina Faso: a computable general equilibrium analysis

Yaya KY, Habi KY

Pan-African Research Center for Economic and Social Development (CARDES), Burkina Faso



The Brazilian Forest Service strategic for conservation, restoration, social and economic local involvement: The Arboretum Program

Lidiane Moretto1, Natália Coelho Barbosa Albuquerque1, Janaína de Almeida Rocha1, Carlos Eduardo Portella Sturm1, Fábio Fernandes Corrêa2, Tito Nunes de Castro1, Cristina Galvão Alves1

1Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil; 2Public Prosecutor`s Office of the State of Bahia, Brazil

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-07
MC Atrium 
 

Mainstreaming Earth observation in agricultural development – preliminary demonstration results of the EO4SD initiative’s dedicated activity cluster on agriculture and rural development

Annemarie Klaasse1, Remco Dost1, Evelyn Aparicio Medrano2, Eva Haas3, Silvia Huber4, Almudena Velasco Rodriguez5, Arjen Vrielink6, Raul Zurita-Milla7

1eLEAF, The Netherlands; 2Nelen & Schuurmans, The Netherlands; 3GeoVille, Austria; 4DHI GRAS, Denmark; 5SpaceTec, Belgium; 6Satelligence, The Netherlands; 7ITC, The Netherlands



How disruptive innovation can be incubated in any NGO or large business with minimal change to the procurement process

Alexis Hannah Smith

IMGeospatial, United Kingdom



Innovative private sector initiatives to incentivise public buy-in to land administration services – examples from Ethiopia

John Leckie1, Christina Mayr2, Ignacio Fiestas2

1DAI, United Kingdom; 2Nathan Associates, United Kingdom



Smallholder land registration with the value chain, increasing productivity

Thomas Vaassen1, Eva Maria Unger2, Chrit Lemmen2, Jonathan Seipl1, Simon Ulvund1

1Meridia, Netherlands; 2ITC, Netherlands



Effects of investment decisions on land formalization for rural households in Colombia

Alejandro Rueda Sanz

Banco de la República, Colombia

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-08
MC Atrium 
 

Land policy and political economy in Nigeria

Osahon Igun

Arconstruct Limited, Nigeria



Reforming land registration and administration through innovation in Kenya

Zubeda Mucheke1, Ben Sihanya2, Lizahmy Ntonjira3

1Ministry of Lands and Physical Planning, Kenya; 2University of Nairobi, Kenya; 3Technical University of Kenya, Kenya



Effects of investment decisions on land formalization for rural households in Colombia

Alejandro Rueda Sanz

Banco de la República, Colombia



Land invasion and urban development in Zambian cities: form, causes, effects and possible solutions

Anthony Mushinge1, Ephraim Kabunda Munshifwa1, Sam Mwando2

1Copperbelt University, Zambia; 2Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia



Linking land tenure and use, catalyzing land use innovation for grassroots women

Grace Loumo, Ben Wacha

Action for Women and Awakening in Rural Environment, Uganda

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-09
MC Atrium 
 

Do farmers really like farming? Indian farmers in transition

Bina Agarwal1, Ankush Agrawal2

1University of Manchester, United Kingdom; 2Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India



From ministry to farm house - building trust in post conflict rural Colombia by a multilevel and participative approach of land administration

Ernst Peter Oosterbroek1, Victor Endo2, Alvaro Ortiz3, Katherine Smyth4, Mathilde Molendijk1

1Kadaster, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands; 2Administracion del Territorio Consultores, Lima, Peru; 3Universidad Distrital, Bogota, Colombia; 4Esri, Washington DC, United States of America



Mismanagement of diversity as bane to effective land administration in Nigeria: the way forward

Thomas Ashaolu

The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Nigeria



Land governance in Namibia: challenges and opportunities

Ase Christensen

Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia



The confluence of land administration and land policy as determinants of formal land accessibility in Nigeria

Thomas Abiodun Ashaolu, Kazeem Bolayemi Akinbola

The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Nigeria

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-10
MC Atrium 
 

Land policy distortions, credit constraints, and agricultural productivity: evidence from China’s apple growers

Xingguang Li, Jundi Liu, Xuexi Huo

Northwest A&F University, People's Republic of China



Are farmers really reluctant to land paid withdraw in China?

Mingyue Gong

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China



Land tenure dynamics and contributions to livelihood diversification in Baringo County, Kenya

Ritah Setey1, David Otieno1, John Busienei1, Per Knutsson2

1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2University of Gothenburg, Sweden



Access to land and poverty reduction in a rural north western part of Cameroon

Besong Timothy Tambi1, Ozker Kocadel1, Ngwafor Ephraim Ndeh2

1Cyprus International University, Cyprus; 2University of Yaounde II, Cameroon



Impact of overseas farmland investment on grain import based on difference-in-difference model

Yunzhu Chen

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, People's Republic of China



Integrated development and land planning in rural areas in kenya for improved livelihoods

Ian Mbote, Patricia Kameri-Mbote

Car Design Research Limited, United Kingdom

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-11
MC Atrium 
 

Rural indebtedness and land tenure-pre colonial, colonial and post colonial legacies

Sandeep Kandikuppa

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States of America



Sustainable land reforms as a comprehensive migration management agenda: a perspective of social inclusion in postcolonial Africa

Samuel Wanjiku

Tübingen University, Germany



Land management in Brazil

Maria Bernadete Lange

The World Bank, Brazil



Assessment of policy frameworks guiding preparation and implementation of resettlement action plans for extractive projects in Kenya

Mwenda Makathimo

Land Development and Governance Institute, Kenya



Registration of forgotten lands, publicly owned land

Swagile Msananga

Ministry of Lands, Tanzania

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-12
MC Atrium 
 

Achieving fair and equitable tax valuations with fit-for-purpose data strategies

Paul Bidanset, Dorothy Jacks

IAAO, United States of America



Agriculture under conflict – satellite earth observation to measure impact on food security

Annemarie Klaasse, Remco Dost

eLEAF, The Netherlands



Positioning-as-a-service for fit-for-purpose applications

Stephanie Michaud

Trimble Inc, United States of America



Improving paddy rice statistics in Southeast Asia using area frames

Lakshman Nagraj Rao, David Megill, Pamela Lapitan, Anna Christine Durante

Asian Development Bank, Philippines



The use of machine learning processes in the deployment of satellite image data

Tom Mchugh

The Icon Group Ltd, Ireland



Citizens’perceptions on land security: evidences from Senegal

Ibrahima KA, Cheikh Faye, Ndèye Yande Ndiaye

Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale, Senegal

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-13
MC Atrium 
 

Going beyond capturing and analyzing data: effective and inclusive methods of communicating spatial data

Anastasia Zammit1, Marcello De Maria1, Lisette Mey1, Rogier Jongeling2, Paul van Asperen3, Rik Wouters4

1Land Portal, Canada; 2Plan B; 3University of Twente; 4Kadaster International



Preparing and using satellite images as a mapping tool in difficult tropical environments

Thomas Dubois

Niras Consulting AB, Sweden



Cadastral mapping using low-cost inertial navigation system

Vipul Sharma, Aswani Kumar Munnangi, Bharat Lohani, Onkar Dikshit

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India



Integration of land tenure monitoring in agricultural development projects in Malawi using geospatial technologies

Kefasi Kamoyo, Rex Baluwa

Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Malawi



Experiences in the application of participatory land information tools for improving tenure security in developing countries

John Gitau, Danilo Antonio, Hellen Nyamweru

United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Kenya



Land Electronic Card. Using the Palm Vein system to curb land fraud and forgeries

Bashir Kizito Juma

Buganda Land Board, Uganda

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-14
MC Atrium 
 

Monitoring drought and crop loss using satellite imagery on the cloud

Anna Mae Green, Yonah Bromberg-Gaber, Louisa Nakanuku-Diggs

Radiant Earth Foundation, United States of America



Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data for Citrus crop management support and water monitoring.

Loubna El Mansouri1, Rachid Hadria2, Hamid Mahyou2, Tarik Benabdeouahab2, Said Lahssini3, Moha Elayachi1

1Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II, Morocco; 2National Institute for Agricultural Research, Morocco; 3National School for Forest Engineering, Morocco



Remote sensing and GIS in land use and cover analysis of the northwest zone, Nigeria. Problem identification through change detection

Ayodele Oduwole1,2, Foluke Oduwole2

1University of Lagos, Nigeria; 2The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Nigeria



Remote sensing based monitoring of fenced area dynamics around the Dadaab Refugee Camp in Kenya

Felix Rembold1, Massimiliano Rossi2, Michele Nori3, Simon Mureithi4, Gert Nyberg5

1Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy; 2The Rainforest Foundation UK; 3Global Governance Programme - European University; 4University of Nairobi; 5Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea



Integrated geospatial information framework – partnerships for implementation

Rumyana Tonchovska1, Kathrine Kelm2

1UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, Italy; 2World Bank group, USA



Speed-up sustainable energy for the Amazonian – remote sensing and participatory mapping as support tool for the global development agenda

Valerie Graw1, José Jara2, Javier Muro1, Richard Resl3, Esteban Calderon2

1Center for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL), University of Bonn, Germany; 2Tratural, Cuenca, Ecuador; 3AmazonGISnet, Quito, Ecuador

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-15
MC Atrium 
 

Smallholder oil palm intensification, where do we start?

Shofia Saleh, Bukti Bagja, Thontowi Suhada, Surahman Putra, Zuraidah Said, Andika Putraditama

World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia



The link between land markets and sustainable land administration

Richard Baldwin1, Charles Ruharu2, Sam Biraro3, Felicity Buckle4, Bernis Byamukama5

1iLand Consulting, United Kingdom; 2University of Rwanda, Rwanda; 3Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda; 4DAI Europe, United Kingdom; 5DFID Rwanda



Formalization of rural land rights transactions; the search for an innovative approach in Ethiopia

Andrew Smith1, Gizachew Abegaz1, Michel Magis1, Menberu Allebachew2, Assefa Admassie3

1DAI, Ethiopia; 2Niras; 3Ethiopian Economic Association, Ethiopia



Fit for purpose in Brazil: a successful test case of fast and affordable land administration in Mato Grosso

Bastiaan Reydon1, Mathilde Molendijk2, Gabriel Siqueira1, Nicolas Arroyo2, Luciana Vasquez1

1Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil; 2Kadaster International - Netherlands, The Netherlands

 
7:00pmPoster Board 02-16
MC Atrium 
Date: Thursday, 28/Mar/2019
8:30am - 10:00am09-01: Redistributive land reform in the 21st century
Session Chair: Michael Taylor, International Land Coalition, Italy
Preston Auditorium 
 

From fragmentation and elite capture to building new bridges in partnership: repurposing agrarian reform in South Africa in a new era

Laurel Oettle

AFRA, South Africa

.



Land reform policy in Indonesia

Harison Mucodompis

Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Management/National Land Agency, Indonesia

.



Land reform debate in Indonesia

Dewi Kartika Abdul Hamid

Consortium for Agrarian Reform (KPA), Indonesia

.



Land reform policy in Colombia

Margarita Maria Varon Perea

Colombia Rural, Colombia

.



Land reform policy in Colombia

Javier Perez-Burgos

Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural, Colombia

.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-02: Land tenure security and deforestation
Session Chair: Michael Toman, World Bank, United States of America
MC 13-121 
 

Indigenous land rights and deforestation: evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

Silke Heuser, Ariel BenYishay, Daniel Runfula, Rachel Trichler

The World Bank, United States of America



The impacts of a land tenure clarification project on deforestation and forest degradation in Guatemala

Ana Reboredo Segovia1, Eric Bullock1, Leonardo Corral2, Christoph Nolte1

1Boston University, United States of America; 2Inter-American Development Bank, United States of America

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-03: Potential and pitfalls of using drone imagery
Session Chair: Edward Anderson, World Bank group, Tanzania
MC 2-800 
 

Governance frameworks for the sustainable implementation of UAVs in Rwanda.

Ine Buntinx, César Casiano, Joep Crompvoets

KU Leuven, Belgium

Conventional systematic survey approaches adapted from western perspectives have been found to be of limited value in supporting vulnerable communities in East Africa. At this pace, it would take centuries to deliver adequate coverage. To respond to this challenge, an alternative approach entitled ‘fit-for-purpose’ (FFP) approach has been developed. Within this context unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are increasingly gaining importance. The aim of this paper is therefore to introduce the application of a new developed framework named the ‘Fit-for-purpose governance assessment framework. This framework is an attempt to develop further the FFP approach from a governance perspective. To do so, we have conducted 37 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders from the government, private companies and NGO’s. By applying the FFP elements, we found that the Rwandan governance system is not yet flexible and upgradable, rather not inclusive and participatory, partly affordable but already attainable and reliable.



Smart cadaster. Coupling imagery from drones and street-view with proper incentives to promote sustainable urban cadasters in developing countries.

Victor Endo1, Luis Triveno2

1Global Land Alliance, Peru; 2World Bank, USA

Cadasters are broadly recognized as the core of land information systems and a key tool for land administration towards sustainable development. However, many developing countries are unable to address the institutional hurdles and financial constraints to build cadasters and more important, to maintain the land information current over time. This paper, through the analysis of specific case studies, provides a framework to overcome the institutional barriers that typically affect developing countries and a methodology to combine high-resolution imagery taken from the sky and from the street with algorithms to extract pertinent information that reduces the cost of cadastral surveys.



A study on supporting reservoir management using spatial information for preparations for drought

Jinwoo Park

LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Global warming is causing various disasters and drought is one of them. Drought is a big issue not only in Korea but also in the whole world. As the drought continues, huge budgets are being spent every year, but the effect is insufficient. Countermeasures against agricultural drought are focused on the development of new water resources such as constructing a new reservoir. In order to solve agricultural drought, it is necessary to systematically investigate and manage the existing reservoirs.

Therefore, in this study, the purpose is to investigate the reservoirs, and to calculate the beneficiary areas receiving the water from the reservoirs on a monthly basis.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-04: Harnessing benefits from urban planning
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
MC 4-100 
 

Contribution of urban green infrastructure to achieve sustainable development goals: an innovative mechanism to bring different actors together

Sisay Nune Hailemariam

World Bank, Ethiopia

Cities around the world are responsible for 70% of CO2 emission globally. Hence, the Paris Agreement cannot be achieved without action by mega-cities to limit GHG emissions. Similarly, achieving the 17 SDGs will be difficult since SDG-13 is all about climate action. Many Sub-Saharan African cities are not yet taking decisions likely to set stage for the adoption of a model of urban development that can support economic prosperity and manage the rate of growth of carbon emissions. Green Infrastructure (GI) is an innovative concept which refers to interconnected networks of multifunctional features of different land uses having environmental, social and economic benefits. The objective of the review was to assess current state of Green Infrastructure in Ethiopia and make recommendations for policy makers regarding the benefits if fully implemented. The concept is recommended to be captured at the national policy levels. Actions to Catalyze the innovation are recommended.



Inclusive development? Paradox of state-led land development in India

Urmi Sengupta1, Sujeet Sharma2

1Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom; 2Architecture, Planning and Environment LTD, United Kingdom

Urban land development in India is changing under the auspices of economic liberalisation. India has been in the forefront of this transformation through distinctive state-led land development model. The paper uses New Town, Kolkata (also known as Rajarhat) to articulate the ways in which the state is implementing its neoliberal agenda in land development. There are inherent contradictions within the state-led model due to aiming to foster capitalist interest while fulfilling welfarist principles. Interesting insights have emerged that point to a policy paradox. On one hand, the process follows market principles of efficacy and efficiency; on the other hand, state's keenness to extend control persists, thereby creating a highly uneven terrain for state—market interaction. It reflects a typical quasi-market condition shaped by the monopolistic state, the poorly structured role of the private sector, an absence of civic bodies, and minimal land and housing provision for the poor.



Assessment of urban upgrading interventions in mekong delta region in Vietnam

Mansha Chen1, Van Thang Nguyen2

1World Bank, United States of America; 2National Economics University, Vietnam

To improve living conditions of the urban poor, the World Bank has supported two urban upgrading projects in Vietnam, including Vietnam Urban Upgrading Project (VUUP) (2004 – 2014) and Mekong Delta Region Urban Upgrading Project (MDR-UUP) (2012 – 2018). The two projects covered nine cities, including 6 in Mekong Delta areas, with a total budget of $926 million. In order to learn from the accumulated experiences in the implementation of VUUP and MDR-UUP, we conducted a study to assess key dimensions of living conditions and dynamics of land and property values within upgraded and resettlement sites from these urban upgrading projects in two cities Can Tho and Tra Vinh, identify achievements as well as limitations in the projects’ designs and implementation, and offer recommendations for future projects. This paper presents the methodology, key findings and lessons learnt from the study.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-05: SDGs on land: Methodology and reporting
Session Chair: Sydney Gourlay, World Bank, United States of America

VC/ webex

MC 5-100 
 

Reporting on SDG indicator 1.4.2 for high income countries: the case of the U.S.

Benjamin Linkow1, Caleb Stevens3, Jennifer Lisher2

1Landesa, United States of America; 2Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America; 3USAID, United States of America

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include a process of identifying globally comparable targets, indicators and harmonized data to measure progress towards each goal. One of these, SDG indicator 1.4.2, measures the percentage of the population with secure tenure rights to land, where security of tenure rights is proxied by whether people (a) have documented rights to land and (b) perceived their rights as secure.

While much attention has been devoted to data collection efforts for the SDGs in developing countries, it is also vital for European, North American, and other high income countries to report. These higher income countries can still face considerable challenges in establishing and institutionalizing data collection efforts sufficient to fully report on the indicator. This paper presents some of the challenges and potential options for the U.S. Government to report on indicator 1.4.2, which may have important lessons for other high income countries.



Considering the multidimensional nature of tenure security in land policies

Anni Valkonen

University of East Anglia, UK

This paper considers tenure security through the politics and policies of land tenure. The key argument is that seeing tenure security solely through one lens, for instance that of securing tenure through land registration, hides some of its more dynamic aspects related to political, social and cultural relations defining tenure, and to interaction between actors located at different levels. This omission can be detrimental for the success of land policies which instead of enhancing tenure security can reinforce existing and/or create new sources of tenure insecurity. The paper hence invites to consider tenure security from a multidimensional perspective and throughout a policy process. To build the argument, the paper builds on literature on the politics of land and examines the land policy process in Madagascar.



Measuring perceived tenure insecurity: issues, challenges, and recommendations

Benjamin Linkow

Landesa, United States of America

An important outcome in land tenure programming and research that has been receiving increasing attention is perceived tenure security- that is, the extent to which individuals perceive their tenure to be protected against threats and risks. Perceived tenure security is a component of SDG indicator 1.4.2., while impact evaluations of land tenure interventions increasingly seek to incorporate perceived tenure insecurity as an outcome.

However, measuring perceived tenure security presents some important conceptual and methodological challenges. To date, a systematic assessment of these challenges and recommendations on addressing them has been lacking. The purpose of this paper is to help address this gap. The paper discusses conceptual and methodological issues in defining and measuring perceived tenure security, reviews existing attempts at measurement, and provides recommendations and sample modules. The paper aims to promote the use of more analytically and conceptually rigorous perceived tenure security measures in future data collection and research.



Discussant (Webex)

Leman Yonca Gurbuzer

Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy

Discussant based on experience with SDG data collection

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-06: Monitoring global commitments on land tenure
Session Chair: Astrid Jakobs de Padua, World Bank, United States of America
MC 6-100 
 

The Global Land Rights Index: a new methodology to measure human rights frameworks for land

Tiernan Mennen

Abt Associates, United States of America

Despite the inclusion of land-related indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is still no comprehensive, legal or human rights framework that can guide countries to reform laws to strengthen land tenure security. The Global Land Rights Index (GLRI) was created to address this gap. It analyzes six elements of land and resource rights frameworks and then scores countries based on adherence of their laws and regulations. It helps fill the gap in the monitoring of land-related SDGs 1.4, 2.3 and 5.a, by providing measurable clarity to indicator terms such as: “equal rights”, “secure”, and “equal access”. The authors present the GLRI methodology in detail and examine the findings and rankings from the initial analysis of 12 countries, including scores for each field and category. We then discuss the policy implications and particular laws that would need to be reformed to improve the scores.



Land Governance Indexes: Opportunities to assess progress of adoption of VGGT principles in policy, legal and institutional framework of land governance

Brian Gideon Washe Kazungu1, Francisco Carranza2

1Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Kenya; 2Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (HQ)

As the globally accepted principles guiding improvements in tenure security, the VGGT (FAO, 2012) have commonly been adopted at national level through ensuring that policy and legislative reform are in conformity with the guidelines. Despite adoption of VGGT principles in law, other factors such as political goodwill, civic education for awareness of rights to land and financial support (or lack thereof) remain key components that may catalyze (or stall) the progress in improving tenure governance. To track the progress different countries are making towards realizing responsible governance of land and land-based resources, there is need for developing a set of quantifiable global ideals that each nation can work towards achieving. Having a set of globally accepted quantifiable standards could be the key to making tenure security a priority in a way that will be easily understandable for governments and political leaders who may not fully understand the tenure security issues.



Guidelines for effective and impactful SDG reporting of progress on land rights

Diana Fletschner

Landesa, United States of America

To fully leverage the extraordinary opportunity provided by the SDGs, it is critical that a wide range of stakeholders report the progress (or lack thereof) towards countries’ commitments on land rights. This paper seeks to encourage widespread and effective reporting that holds governments accountable to their land rights commitments, celebrates the progress made and encourages action, and promotes widespread learning that empowers others to follow effectively.



Creating effective data and information tools for monitoring the VGGT

Neil Sorensen1, Laura Meggiolaro1, Romy Sato2

1Land Portal Foundation, Netherlands; 2Global Donor Platform for Rural Development, Germany

Numerous efforts to track and monitor progress on the implementation of the VGGT. Significant efforts to make to monitor and track the VGGT and make this information widely available to stakeholders are underway from a multiplicity of actors. This paper will describe the diversity of initiatives currently underway to monitor and amplify efforts focused on the VGGT. It will describe the relevance of institutional efforts, such as the Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), for monitoring the VGGT, for ensuring the implementation of country-level action plans. It will also look at related civil society initiatives established evaluate VGGT implementation. It will describe how these efforts are complemented by the Global Donor Platform’s Land Governance Programme Map, which monitors donor investments in implementing the VGGT. Finally, this paper will feature the work of the Land Portal Foundation to consolidate all of these efforts in a global hub.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-07: Building crowd-sourced data into formal systems
Session Chair: Achilles Kallergis, New York University, United States of America
MC 7-100 
 

Is it possible to collect low-cost household data on slum conditions? Evidence from slum dwellers enumerations

Achilles Kallergis

New York University, United States of America

At present, there is little information about the conditions occurring in informal settlements, making it extremely difficult to effectively target resources in efficient ways. This paper investigates whether survey protocols developed by Slum/Shack Dwellers International can credibly provide much-needed local data on the housing and neighborhood conditions occurring in informal settlements. It uses data from Uganda and Ghana, and investigates informal housing demand showing that income, household size, dwelling and infrastructure quality are strong determinants of rent values. The paper further explores the links between household and dwelling characteristics and shows that households with lower incomes and education levels, have an increased likelihood of occupying inferior quality dwellings with no access to services. The empirical results conform to findings produced by more expensive and one-shot surveys. This implies that the survey instrument could serve as an effective low-cost basis for obtaining better information for informal settlements across time and space.



Evidence-based community-driven mapping: Catalyzing city planning and service provision in Muntinlupa and other cities

Louie Robert Cabaltera Posadas1, Deanna Ayson2, Ruby Papeleras3, Christopher Ebreo1, Lunalyn Cagan4, Danilo Antonio4, John Gitau4

1Technical Assistance Movement for People and Environment Inc. (TAMPEI), Philippines; 2Philippine Action for Community-led Shelter Initiatives Inc. (PACSII), Philippines; 3Homeless People's Federation Philippines Inc. (HPFPI), Philippines; 4Global Land Tool Network (GLTN), Kenya

This paper narrates the experiences of the Homeless People’s Federation Philippines Inc. and its partners in facilitating citywide community-driven mapping activities in Muntinlupa and other cities. While these initiatives follow no specific format, it was observed that critical elements define the legitimacy of the approach being promoted. Community participation is essential in all phases as it provides an accurate, up-to-date representation of the needs and aspirations of informal settler families (ISFs). Validation of mapping results at different levels is equally important as it generates ownership of the process among ISFs and ensures delivery of demand-driven services. As a people’s process, the results of mapping can be used in numerous ways—housing, basic services provision and city management. The framework which focuses on the mapping process as a mobilizing platform and an empowerment tool presents a concrete example of a genuine participatory approach in informing an evidence-based, inclusive and sustainable city planning.



“Information is power only if used “-Improving Tenure security in informal settlements using participatory data collection: The case of Informal settlements in Gobabis Namibia

Menare Royal Mabakeng

Namibia University of Science and Technology

The paper looks at understanding the land tenure security of informal settlers, and how socioeconomic and spatial data generated by communities themselves has been used in aiding the implementation of solutions that are pro-poor and Fit for Purpose. Additionally, it provides a description on how enumeration has an influence on the perception of tenure security. Could participatory enumerations be a catalyst for improving services and registering land rights? Can the data that informal settlers produce be suitable for using in planning and land rights registration?

The paper considers the data producers and the data users, to understand how the community’s input through data collection influences planning by the local authority. The paper concludes that, if the data generated by the community is to be used for; land recordation, decision-making or to prove ownership, there is a need for direct involvement of local authority officials in the management of the data.



Count me in: the case of improving tenure security of slum dwellers in peri-urban Lusaka

Charity Chinsenda- Kalombo1, Hellen Nyamweru-Ndungu2, Moonga Chilanga3, John Gitau2, Oumar Sylla2, Danilo Antonio2

1Lusaka City Council, Zambia; 2UN Habitat, Kenya; 3UN Habitat, Zambia

The paper highlights experiences and lessons learned on the adoption of affordable geo-spatial solutions and participatory approaches in an urban context (informal settlements), and within a national regulatory framework in which informal tenure is integrated into a system recognized by public authorities. It will also explore the different stakeholders’ interactions and how they relate in slum-upgrading related processes, as well as how the local government authorities attempt to make the different aspirations of the SDGs and other global frameworks, become real to communities, households and individuals, particularly to those who are at risk of falling behind.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions
Session Chair: Heather Huntington, DevLab@Duke, United States of America
MC 8-100 
 

Evaluating the impact of community forestry practices in Sumatra island, Indonesia

Andika Putraditama1, Yeon-Su Kim2, Andrew Sánchez Meador2

1World Resources Institute, Indonesia; 2Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, United States of America

Managing common-pool resources has always been a local challenge with global implications. Community-based forest (CBF) management is often cited as a solution to improve livelihood of communities while conserving the forests. This study investigates the extent to which CBF practices in Indonesia managed to achieve its dual mandates. We focused on evaluating impacts of Community Forest (CF) scheme on forest cover loss, as it is the most likely mechanism to expand community control of forests in Indonesia. We applied propensity scoring approach to empirically measure the relative performances of conservation and watershed protection forests with and without CF concessions in reducing deforestation rate between 2007-2016 in Lampung province. CF concessions have managed to maintain forest loss in relatively low levels compared to those that are not managed by communities. This result shows that generating economic benefit and improving communities’ access to forest resources does not necessarily lead to forests degradation.



Impact, diffusion and scaling-up of a comprehensive land-use planning approach in the Philippines – Results from a rigorous impact evaluation

Gerald Leppert

DEval - German Institute for Development Evaluation, Germany

The authors present results from a rigorous impact evaluation, applying a quasi-experimental and mixed-methods design, of a large-scale, multi-level land-use planning intervention in the Philippines. We assessed the impact on core aspects of socio-economic development, environmental sustainability, disaster risk management, local governance, and also estimated innovation diffusion to non-intervention municipalities.

The intervention by the Philippine-German cooperation supported municipalities to conduct comprehensive land-use planning and aimed at reducing vulnerability to negative effects of uncontrolled development and to multiple hazards, including human-made risks, and climate change. We show the impacts of this technical approach on municipal planning capacities, on plan quality and comprehensiveness, and in five impact fields. We shed light on the implications resulting from mainstreaming the approach into national policy-making.

Based on our results, we provide several conclusions and recommendations for policy makers, development agencies and local stakeholders involved with land-use planning, disaster risk management and local governance.



Results from land tenure formalization activities in the Senegal River valley: a mixed-methods evaluation at medium-term

Sarah Hughes, William Valletta

Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America

In 2015, Senegal completed a five-year project of land tenure formalization, registration and land management capacity building, which was combined with irrigation, drainage and road system construction in nine municipalities in the Senegal River valley. The MCC-funded project included post-project evaluation to measure the impacts and outcomes of the activities, provide lessons, and help insure the sustainability of the capital investments, processes and reforms. Early findings showed that local citizens had improved understanding of the rights and benefits of land tenure formalization and were coming forward in significant numbers to request agricultural parcels or formalization of parcels they already held informally. This paper presents updated, medium-term evaluation findings in the format of case studies of four of the nine municipalities, focusing on the land-related outcomes. The variations of the situations of these communes help explain differences in the quantitative outcomes and citizen perceptions reported in the midterm evaluation.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-09: Bottom-up approaches: A key to land use planning
Session Chair: Klaus Ackermann, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
MC 9-100 
 

Increasing access to land for housing for Irula tribal families: Lessons from implementing the Solid Ground Campaign in India

Rebecca Ochong1, Rajan Samuel2, Suseela Anand2

1Habitat for Humanity International, Philippines; 2Habitat for Humanity, India

For many poor households, access to decent, secure land for even the most minimum housing needs continues to be a fundamental problem. This is despite land being an inseparable ingredient for them to survive, earn, thrive and lift themselves out of poverty. In India, the government has put in place laws and policies that govern land use and land tenure. However, deep-rooted perceptions, religious and cultural practices continue to dictate how land is used, or accessed. Through the Solid Ground Campaign, an innovative approach to mobilizing existing and new supporters to influence policy makers toward promoting policies and systems that improve access to land for shelter, Habitat for Humanity India focuses on the lived experiences of a historically marginalized tribe, the Irulas. This paper will elaborate lessons learned from implementing the Campaign in India as well as discuss potential policy actions to address land rights of such marginalized communities.



Giving the land back to people : solving colonial cases of land-grabbing in Madagascar

Ketakandriana Rafitoson

Transparency International - Initiative Madagascar, Madagascar

During the French colonial period (1896-1960), large agricultural areas had been titled on behalf of French, Greek, Creole or Indian companies. Nowadays, most of these concessions, which may span several hectares are occupied by indigenous peasants, migrants, or descendants of farm workers who are considered as squatters. Such a situation impedes agricultural potentialities and threatens human rights of millions of Malagasy citizens who are considered as strangers on their own land. Worried about the impacts of such land insecurity, Transparency International - Initiative Madagascar (TI-IM), a Malagasy association specialized in anti-corruption, decided to set up an innovative and corruption-free mechanism intended to solve it. After the launch of a Guidebook on land rights, TI-IM mapped these land conflicts in the Diana region (North of Madagascar) and developed an innovative technical and legal mechanism in order to give back these pieces of land to their legitimate owners: the Malagasy people.



Examining how land laws have implemented GLTN tools

Nicholas Tagliarino

UN Habitat, The Netherlands

This study examines the various legal criteria that should be incorporated into legal frameworks in order to support the implementation of GLTN's Access to Land and Tenure Security Tools as well as its Land Administration and Information Tools. This study presents illustrative examples of legal frameworks that, to some extent, support the implementation of the GLTN land tools, including frameworks enacted in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Rather than only discussing countries in which GLTN has supported the implementation of its Land Tools, this study focuses more broadly on a range of country that (either intentionally or unintentionally) adopted the guidance provided by these Tools. By identifying a menu of legal options for promoting access to land, tenure security, and effective land administration, this report provides a useful snapshot that can inform and influence law- and policy-makers to adopt GLTN Land Tool guidance in domestic legal frameworks.



Sustaining sustainable development: Leveraging human rights structures to implement land-related SDGs

Bethany Roberts

Landesa, United States of America

Links and overlaps between the Sustainable Development Goals and the human rights realms results in a catalytic space for land rights advocacy. Both realms share common goals: human dignity and well-being, achieved through substantive empowerment and poverty alleviation. And in both realms, bridging the gap between policy and ground-level realities presents a set of challenges with overlapping solutions and needs for cross-sector coordination.

This paper will explore the potential of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) to serve as a bridging mechanism between the human rights realm and SDGs implementation and institutionalization. It will explore the following questions, featuring Myanmar’s NHRI as a case study:

• How does the role of an NHRI already relate to SDG implementation?

• What specific actions could an NHRI take to facilitate the coordination needed for SDG implementation?

• What capacity-building would be needed to enable NHRIs to play a robust role in SDG institutionalization?

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-10: Land administration: Cases from Africa
Session Chair: Chris Penrose Buckley, DFID, United Kingdom
MC 10-100 
 

Appropriateness of land administration domain ontological model for the national land governance and the promotion of foreign investments

Moulay Abdeslam Adad1, El Hassane Semlali2, Moha El-Ayachi3, Fatiha Ibannain4

1ANCFCC, Morocco; 2IAV Hassan II, Morocco; 3IAV Hassan II, Morocco; 4ANCFCC, Morocco

Among the land and real estate sector shortcomings influencing the international direct investment is how to identify various land statuses and stakeholders, to secure the immovable property right and to share data concepts and relationships between them. One way to handle this is to set and adopt a comprehensive ontology model for the domain of land administration. This serves two major purposes: On the national level, land sub domains should be integrated and interoperable, namely state and non-state lands, land shaping and improvement, taxation. On the international level, foreigner investors in land, real estate and dependent economic sectors need good perception of the land administration domain and demand expert knowledge about its concepts as well as transparency in rules and procedures in force. This paper contributes in providing a knowledge ontology system and a land administration domain model to help in land governance and its promotion for international direct investment.



Scaling up the more systematic land certification method in Madagascar – issuing 106,000 land certificates in seven months

Soja Sesy1, Zo Fanantenana Ravelomanantsoa1, Danielle Haingonavalona2, Lie Maminiaina1

1Agriculture Growth and Land Management Project, Madagascar; 2Ministry of Land Management and Land Tenure, Madagascar

Madagascar maintains the priority to promote land tenure security by issuing land certificates. A grouped certification method has issued 106,000 land certificates in 7 months, the equivalent of 74% of the production since 2005. This action led by the CASEF project and the Decentralized Land Management Departement of Ministry of Land aims to establish 500 000 land certificates until 2021. It is expected that for the family farming, the security of the land incitates investment, facilitates the access to loan or contracts of market-oriented production, secures the transmission of rights, and allows to register secondary rights contracts, a source of access to land for the most vulnerable. For the Commune, land identification facilitates the extension of family farming and investments. Land database enable to manage taxation, source of financial means and incentive to update land information.



Indicators' assessment of Land Governance in Morocco: a preliminary study

Moha El-ayachi1, Tayeb Tachallait1, Omar Amanar2, Tarik Ouachaou2, Loubna EL Mansouri1

1Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medecine, Morocco; 2Graduate Engineers, Morocco

Two institutions are governing land tenure system in Morocco. One is the abstract deed system to guaranty land ownership and land transactions. The second is the titling system based on Torrent principles. The Torrent system is sporadic, time consuming, and expensive. Many operators are facing challenges in terms of land market transactions and land rights management. The issues are linked to the diversity of the land regulations and the bureaucracy of many institutions. Indeed, it is necessary to assess land governance in Morocco. The LGAF tool as the basis of a highly participatory approach analyzing various dimensions of land governance in a systematic way was adopted to achieve this purpose. the goal behind is to identify good practices and build consensus on priority areas for land administration enhancement. The results of the analysis will enable stakeholders to address key governance gaps and elaborate a clear roadmap of improving land governance.



Land Sectoral Policy document: the ultimate challenge for efficient land governance.

Nyamwoga Bayengeha Floribert

D. R. CONGO Government, Congo, Democratic Republic of the

A sectoral Land Policy document is the place where the major options for land governance for a country are laid down, to guide the design and implementation of legislation. Despite its land's huge potential for economic development and community empowerment, the Democratic Republic of Congo has never designed a Land Policy document since the colonial period. The land existing land legislation has derived many of its principles from the colonial model, thus failing to address the societal evolution, the evolving economic competition over land as well as the need for sociocultural stability founded on land.

Through a challenging land reform process, the country is designing its first land policy document. What are the challenges for this crucial exercise, and what are its potential implications for improving land governance while addressing economic and social issues directly related to land ?

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-11: Land as instrument for post-conflict peacebuilding
Session Chair: David F. Varela, Global Land Alliance, Colombia
MC C1-100 
 

Housing, land and property (HLP) rights for Syrian women

Laura Cunial, Juliette Syn

Norwegian Refugee Council, Syria

Years of warfare in Syria have resulted in mass destruction and a breakdown in essential infrastructure and service provision in major cities, as well as smaller towns and villages. Housing land and property issues are massive and include loss of property documents, secondary occupation, eviction and expropriation. While such challenges apply to all Syrians, the difficulties for women will be particularly acute, especially those who have lost husbands or other male relatives during the conflict.

Based on extensive research and interviews with over 2000 Syrian internally displaced people, this paper describes the particular obstacles and challenges that women face and that prevent their ability to exercise HLP rights. This includes barriers based in both law and custom, as well as the complicating circumstances created by years of war and displacement. The paper provides recommendations to policymakers and practitioners on how to prepare for the immense challenges that lie ahead.



Developing land tenure risk indicators in FCV contexts

Paul Prettitore

The World Bank, United States of America

Access to land is critically important in FCV settings. Land is an important social and economic asset and is often the most considerable asset a household may hold in post-conflict situations. FCV settings can increase land tenure insecurity further through displacement, insecure land tenure, and fraudulent land transfers, land grabbing and the undermining accountability mechanisms. Yet often there is little data available to assess the channels by which land tenure is undermined.

The proposed paper will examine pilot efforts to develop new forms of data collection through GIS and big data (satellite imagery, traditional media, social media, administrative data) that in turn will be used to design land tenure risk indicators. Pilot indicators will include: housing destruction; secondary occupation; land grabbing; implementation of discriminatory regulatory regimes; and fraudulent land transfers. Indicators will be adjusted to fit the local context in several FCV situations.



Technology, policy, national systems and local civil society: using a mobile application to protect the housing, land and property rights of displaced people in Honduras

Jamila El Abdellaoui1, Lorena Nieto Padilla2, Juan Carlos Betancur2

1UNHCR, The Netherlands; 2UNHCR, Honduras

In Honduras an innovative partnership with parishes and government plus mobile technology is helping to solve displaced people’s problems of housing and land. Many of the nearly 200,000 Hondurans internally displaced by violence and organized crime had little prospect of regaining their homes and land if they returned, because the country’s legal framework and administrative capacity was not adapted to protect forcibly abandoned housing and land. UNHCR supported the government to form a Housing and Land Working Group and mobilized parishes with equipment and training to identify abandoned housing and land and record the data with a mobile application. This data is being incorporated into the national Property Institute’s registration system—thereby strengthening a national system and enabling the government to handle claims for redress efficiently. This fast-tracks a solution to a key impediment to return and empowers government and civil society to handle this aspect of displacement much better.



Environmental peacebuilding through participatory social cartography: land, property and social data mapping of ground zero or most affected area to assist Marawi city recover from violent conflict

Michelle Angelica Go

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Republic of the Philippines

The Participatory Social Cartography Project is basically land, property and social data mapping of ground zero of the war in Marawi City, Philippines which was recently the site of violent conflict. The project is framed under the ‘Environmental Peacebuilding’ architecture with the strategy of leveraging on land, land resources and the environment to achieve the broader goals of ‘Sustaining Peace’ and ‘Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.’

Marawi City was recently the site of violent conflict waged by extremists that resulted in deaths and destruction of properties in Marawi City. The result of the research conducted by a Committee headed by this author revealed a defective land titling system resulting in thousands of overlapping and misaligned land titles. Land and property data gathering thru PPK/RTK drone mapping, RTK/Total Station land survey and participatory enumeration can address the root causes of the conflict thus, leading to lasting peace.

 
8:30am - 10:00am09-12: How can large investors be held accountable?
Session Chair: Samuel Kimeu, Transparency International Kenya, Kenya
MC C1-200 
 

Open EIA reporting and contracting for sustainable land and natural resource development in Cambodia

Thy Try, Hindley David

Open Development Cambodia (ODC), Cambodia



Undisclosed: Practical examples of financial sector disclosure and why it’s critical for communities to know who is financing activities on their land

Shona Hawkes, Christian Donaldson

Oxfam International, Australia



Estimating industrial concession area in the developing world: Results and conclusions

Donald Bryson Ogden, Christina Healy

Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America

 
10:00am - 10:30amCoffee Break
Front Lobby 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-01: Indigenous tenure for resilience and reconciliation
Session Chair: Enrique Pantoja, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

Modelling land-use change for indigenous socio-economic development: Curve Lake First Nation, Canada

Robert Fligg1,2

1Natural Resources Canada; 2University of Waterloo, Canada

Land-use change is mainly driven by factors of socio-economic development, a relationship between economic activity and social life to improve the well-being of people. The indicator of socio-economic development used for Indigenous communities in Canada is the Community Well-Being Index (CWB). A CWB score for a community is based on income, education, housing, and labour. The relationship of these CWB variables to socio-economic drivers of land-use change such as demography, technology, industry, and employment is complex; modelling these variables will explain the relationship.

An integrated agent-based model on land-use decision-making that will assist First Nations to understand the relationship of CWB variables to socio-economic drivers of land-use change is being developed in collaboration with Curve Lake First Nation, a community 120 km’s north-east of Toronto. The model will be validated if it simulates a realistic-like scenario, such that it assists First Nations in land-use decision-making.



Innovations in Indigenous land tenure in Canada: Reconciliation as the catalyst

Akbarali Karsan, Gavin Lawrence, Robert Fligg, Erin Tompkins, Steven Rogers, Brian Ballantyne

Natural Resources Canada, Canada

The Government of Canada (hereafter Crown) is committed to achieving reconciliation with Indigenous peoples “through a renewed, nation-to-nation, government-to-government, and Inuit-Crown relationship based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation, and partnership as the foundation for transformative change.” Implementing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) means that Canada’s relationship with Indigenous peoples must be transformed. Such transformation has resulted in 10 principles, rooted in s35 of the Constitution Act 1982, in UNDRIP, in the Royal Commission on the Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) and in the Calls to Action of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Thus, innovations in Indigenous land tenure engage both the Crown’s fiduciary duty to Indigenous peoples and the Honour of the Crown. This means that spatializing Canadians now means rethinking borders and boundaries. Six Crown projects illustrate meaningful and uplifting engagement with Indigenous peoples vis-à-vis-land tenure.



Exploring pluralism: building resilience and respect

Raelene Webb

Murray Chambers, Australia

When the British came to Australia in 1788, they brought with them notions of land governance based upon commerce and individual ownership that were in sharp contrast with those of the original inhabitants whose land governance systems were underpinned by communal ownership and inalienability.

Ignoring the knowledge and techniques of the Aboriginal people well adapted to the land, the British settlers dispossessed the original inhabitants of their land. Despite the impact of dispossession, Aboriginal governance systems and relationships to land remain strong.

Even after recognition of Indigenous land rights, traditional land governance systems are required to give way to Western notions of land management. The challenge is to reconcile Western land policy approaches with Indigenous concepts. The way forward is a dialogue based on respect for Indigenous land governance systems, rather than a desire that they “yield” to, and conform with, non-Indigenous land policies.



First nations' post-counter map praxis

Francis Cadeau

Royal Roads University, Canada

First Nations Geomatics: a Post-Counter Map Praxis

Historically, survey and map making have represented power and authority for land holders and within contested lands space. In the examination of past Canadian counter map actions, a new theory building is proposed of ‘Post-counter mapping’. The theory's evidence is from an emerging geomatics praxis happening in First Nations today with new innovations in geomatics technologies and implementations.

This theory was derived from semi-directed interviewees, of indigenous based agents, geo-industry professionals and topic knowledgeable academics. These groups were interviewed about their counter map views of: past, present, and future comments on a topic which all knew about in varying degrees over recent times.

Triangulation of these counter map dialogues provides new evidence as to a Post-counter map praxis perspective. This theory building offers with the literature, new research examining and gaining qualitative knowledge as to a future reconciliation avenue via current geomatics.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-02: How to achieve the SDG goals and global commitments on land?
Session Chair: Clarissa Augustinus, Independent, Ireland
MC 13-121 
 

Global donor working group on land: what is the way forward?

Chris Penrose Buckley

DFID, United Kingdom

.



Discussant

Mika-Petteri Törhönen

The World Bank, United States of America

.



Discussant

Fridah Githuku

GROOTS Kenya, Kenya

..



Discussant

Janak Raj Joshi

Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation, Nepal

..



Discussant

Jolyne Sanjak

Tetratech, United States of America

..



Discussant

Michael Taylor

International Land Coalition, Italy

.



Closing remarks

Peter Sidler

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Ethiopia

..

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-03: Potential and pitfalls of using drone imagery
Session Chair: Tobias Landmann, Remote Sensing Solutions GmbH, Germany
MC 2-800 
 

Drones and the structure from motion (SfM) technique in cadastral surveying

Walter Volkmann

MicroAerial Projects LLC, United States of America

The use of small drones is spreading rapidly into several application fields. The adoption of drone operations has been quicker in cases where the relative safety and economic advantages are easily demonstrated or where they are blatantly obvious. Opportunities such as power and pipe line inspections, aerial plant health monitoring, commercial photography and video work, roof inspections and search and rescue support have been seized very quickly by entrepreneurs in general. Cadastral surveying however is practiced almost exclusively by highly qualified and certified specialists and is subject to rigorous rules and strict standards. Before the benefits of drones and the important structure from motion (SfM) mapping technique can be realized in cadastral surveying the regulatory environment needs to be amended accordingly. This presentation discusses how regulatory hurdles in the adoption of drone/SfM techniques can be effectively addressed to achieve legitimization of drones/SfM as a valid tool in surveying.



Drone-based geomatics land data acquisition methodology - case study: city of Adama and rural area of Mojo, Ethiopia

Sukhee Cho1, Munseok Lee1, Solomon Kebede2

1Hojung Solutions CO. LTD, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, The Government of Ethiopia

One of the basic challenges of establishing a sound land governance system is finding a fast, reliable, economical, and sustainable land measurement tool. It is difficult to have a complete and practical land administrative system without an efficient method of cadastral data production to feed into the overall land information framework.Through a cadastral surveying project conducted in Ethiopia, our project made several observations on the effectiveness of a bottom-up approach to land governance projects through a cadastral survey methodology using a combination of drones and conventional resection survey conducted in collaboration with the local survey team. This methodology is ideal to introduce strategically in local areas. This drone-based solutions is an effective means of catalyzing innovation not simply because it introduces a new technological application but because the methodology is believed to be adaptable, transferable, empowerable and sustainable by the local community of land survey experts.



Evaluation of UAV-based technology to capture land rights in Kenya: displaying stakeholder perspectives through interactive gaming

Claudia Stocker1, Mila Koeva1, Jaap Zevenbergen1, Rohan Bennett2,3

1University of Twente ITC, The Netherlands; 2Swinburne Business School, Australia; 3Kadaster International, The Netherlands

Limitations of western-oriented land administration systems and traditional surveying approaches have indisputably contributed to a reality where approximately 70% of the world’s land rights are not recorded. Amongst others, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are evolving as a remote sensing tool for alternative data acquisition. However, so far UAVs have only been tested and rarely been implemented in the context of land tenure mapping. To investigate technology uptake and to unlock the potential of UAV-based remote sensing, this paper introduces an interactive game. Key stakeholders were asked to rank four different means of data acquisition, namely satellite images, aerial images, UAV images and ground surveying according to six predefined indicators. The results of the board game visually unveiled opportunities and drawbacks of each data acquisition technology from the perspective of the stakeholder while the continuous group discussion provided valuable insights into existing workflows and different perceptions.



The challenges and opportunities of AI and drone technology in land management and poverty assessment

Daniel Cocanu1, Bogdan Nedelcu2, Traian Rebedea1, Marius Leordeanu2

1Teamnet, Romania; 2Autonomous Systems, Romania

Urban areas are quickest to adopt and implement smart technologies in order to improve decisional processes, thus increase the quality of life, while rural areas and rural communities are much more conservative and backwards facing.

We investigate the opportunities that arise from using up-to-date high resolution in-situ information collected with drone technology into a decisional platform for local authorities to support better land governance and land use practices while providing coherent land policies. Using Machine Learning techniques such as Deep Learning, our goal is to turn data collection into actionable information systems supporting smart development.

Combining drone imagery, GIS technology and Artificial intelligence, cadastral work and urban planning is sped-up drastically, decreasing the amount of work necessary to update previous erroneous collected data, providing visual proof of the present-day situation of both land-uses as well as households and buildings, helping rectify long overlooked information in property deeds and local registries.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-04: Harnessing the scope for incremental tenure upgrading
Session Chair: Abdu Muwonge, World Bank, Kenya
MC 4-100 
 

Formalizing the informal through incremental tenure strengthening in urban Battambang: Experience on tenure transformation in Cambodia

Rebecca Ochong1, Bells Regino-Borja2, Bernadette Bolo-Duthy2, Keo Kanika2

1Habitat for Humanity International, Philippines; 2Habitat for Humanity, Cambodia

Equitable access to land continues to remain a growing problem in the global urban South. In Cambodia for example, demographic pressure, the enduring effects of decades of conflict, increasing urbanization and persistent rural and urban poverty have intensified insecure tenure and unequal access to land for many poor families. As a way of dealing with the problem of access to land, in March 2003, the Cambodian government unveiled the Social Land Concessions, a mechanism for enabling transfer of state private land to private individuals or groups for social purposes. In an effort to test different approaches for providing the poor with access to land, the Cambodian government prepared a Civic Engagement Framework and created several pilot projects. This paper will discuss outcomes and lessons learned in one such pilot project in urban Battambang, Cambodia which, provided avenues for poor households to incrementally move informal settlers towards greater tenure security.



The Odisha Liveable Habitat Mission: The process and tools behind the world’s largest slum titling project

Frank Pichel1, Shishir Ranjan Dash2, G. Mathivathanan3, Shikha Srivastava2

1Cadasta Foundation, United States of America; 2Tata Trusts, India; 3Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Odisha State, India

In the eastern Indian state of Odisha, the state with the second highest number of slum households nationally, the need for formal land rights is acute as without documented rights, citizens are unable to open bank accounts, get credit from financial institutions, enroll children in schools, and access government benefits. Furthermore, without data on land use and holdings, and limited property tax collection, urban living standards fall as local governments struggle to meet demand for services.

Recognizing the need to clarify the rights of informal settlements, the Odisha state government enacted a landmark legislation, the Land Rights to Slum Dwellers Act 2017. As per this Act, slum dwellers across the state will get heritable and mortgageable land rights for residential use free of cost.

This paper details activities over the past year to implement the Act, resulting in 2,227 households being formalized, and another 250,000 households in process.



Urban landholding registration in Ethiopia: law and practice

Abdu Hussein

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

This paper presents the current status of urban landholding registration system in Ethiopia, the different problems faced with the system and the practical solutions to the problems. Land is the basic element of development and more especially on developing countries such as Ethiopia. A good land administration system is a prerequisite for proper land registration and information about parcels of land is the basis on which is good land administration and land information system can be built. In this review, issues and problems pertaining to urban land registration in Ethiopia are examined. The roles of various stallholders, the nature and format of the urban landholding registration are discussed and how handling of this information has affected land registration in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the various efforts being taken by the government of Ethiopia in addressing urban landholding registration problems are highlighted. Finally, possible solutions to urban landholding registration problems in Ethiopia are proposed.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-05: The role of land in structural transformation
Session Chair: Jonathan Conning, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, United States of America
MC 5-100 
 

Poverty, Inequality, and Agriculture in the EU

Joao Pedro Azevedo, Rogier J. E. Van Den Brink, Paul Corral, Montserrat Ávila, Hongxi Zhao, Mohammad-Hadi Mostafavi

The World Bank, United States of America



Small farms, large farms and international productivity differences

Yaoqi Lin1, Jonathan Conning1,2

1The Graduate Center, City University of New York, United States of America; 2Hunter College, City University of New York, United States of America



The misallocation of land and other factors of production in India

Ejaz Ghani, Gilles Duranton

World Bank, United States of America



At what price? Price supports, agricultural productivity, and misallocation

Nandita Krishnaswamy

University of Southern California, United States of America

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-06: Data to determine compensation for land acquisition
Session Chair: James Kavanagh, RICS, United Kingdom
MC 6-100 
 

Utilizing UAV images for large-scale land development compensation: A case of prevention for compensation speculation in South Korea

Hyeondong Yang

LX Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corp., Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

The compensation issue is considered as the biggest matter when land development operator implements a large-scale land development. South Korea has is unusual behavior that landowners install new facilities to raise compensation on their lands, just before the project takes place, called as 'Compensation Speculation'. To prevent that behavior, LX, the Korea Land and Geospatial Informatix Corporation, attempted to analyze the ‘ortho-image’ taken by UAV. A day before the land development implement notice date, LX took the image for the project site. This ortho-image was completed as basic data for compensation by superimposing with cadastral map. Using this image, operator able to obtain objective data that could accurately identify the target of compensation at the time of the project was noticed and allowed to calculate compensation to be determined without survey it directly in the field.



Improve the land acquisition system with a technology based processes approach

Jean Brice Tetka

Transparency International-Secretariat, Germany

The land acquisition process could be described as a series of interconnected steps where the output of one step is the input to another, resulting in the acquisition of a piece of land. As the leading organisation in the fight against corruption, Transparency International (TI) has innovated various approaches to addressing corruption. The process-based approach, described in this paper, improves case management by reducing the time spent on addressing issues such as transparency (or lack thereof) while maximizing efforts to address corruption. TI conceived and developed this approach to improving the land acquisition process, in order to contribute to building a transparent, effective and accountable land management system. This method is called the ‘process approach’ and it incorporates both business process management and reporting technologies. This experimental technology is currently being implemented in Zambia and Sierra Leone.



Analysing governance in the informal land compensation approaches in customary areas of Ghana

Anthony Arko-Adjei1, Elias Danyi Kuusaana2, Emmanuel Offei Akrofi1

1Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

In peri-urban areas, increasing urbanisation and land development leave indigenous farmers forcibly evicted from their farmlands. Farmers who lose their land to these land development activities are mostly not compensated. Over the past decade, many customary areas of Ghana have developed and adopted different compensation packages based on different sharing formulae to address the problem. This paper analyses the governance issues in the compensation approaches in stool land areas of Ghana and highlights the conditions for scaling up the process in other customary areas. The paper shows that though the compensation approaches have been developed on local customary norms and structures, they have the potential to be scaled both horizontally and vertically across different customary areas. Addressing issues on participation, equity and transparency in the development in the sharing formulae can improve governance in the implementation of the compensation approaches.



Valuation and compensation under Zimbabwe post 2000 land reform program

Maxwell Mutema

Independent Consultant, Zimbabwe

Between 2000 and 2005 the Zimbabwe Government embarked on compulsory acquisition of commercial farms which were predominantly owned by white commercial farmers. This attracted a lot of negative international headlines and condemnation.To this day, compensation of the acquired farms is still a major outstanding and topical issue. Until this is resolved this shall remain a major stumbling block in efforts to rebuild Zimbabwe’s agriculture. Land acquired under this program shall remain contested and this has domino effect in terms of security of tenure, decisions on long term investments, value of the land and use of such land as collateral.

The compensation quantum is estimated to run into billions of dollars and is probably one of the world largest compensation programs today.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-07: New aspects of land reform in Africa
Session Chair: Michael Becker, GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo
MC 7-100 
 

Using remote-sensed data and machine learning to measure the impact of Zimbabwe's Fast Track Land Reform Programme on crop cultivation and vegetation quality

Dieter von Fintel1,2, Tawanda Chingozha1

1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn, Germany

Zimbabwe carried out agrarian reform in 2000 to correct colonial land imbalances. Dubbed the Fast Track Land Reform Program (FTLRP), the program is widely considered as the single most important trigger to the country’s economic misfortunes. We estimate the effects of the program on crop cultivation areas and vegetation quality. The unavailability of nationwide survey data confined earlier empirical work to localised studies, limiting the extent to which existing results can contribute to the debate. We use remote sensed data that covers the whole country and estimate the effects on welfare using semi-parametric differences-in-differences with genetic matching. Specifically, we employ Night Lights Data (NLD), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and machine learning-generated land cover changes in crop hectorage. We find a high correlation between these indicators and ward level poverty estimates for the 2012 Population Census. Land reform had large negative impacts on crop production, but not on light luminosity.



Land reform policy-induced access to agricultural land and nutritional outcomes in Zimbabwe

Carren Pindiriri, Innocent Matshe

University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

One of the major constraints to increased rural agricultural economic activity and better nutrition outcomes is linked to the availability of land. In this paper, we use Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data to examine the impact of increasing access to land (through a reform policy) on nutritional outcomes. The results suggest that resource access policy such as land reform improves child nutrition. In particular, the findings indicate that increasing the production of domesticated birds, goats and pigs directly linked to increased access to land is crucial for improving nutrition. However, Zimbabwe’s current livestock policy thrust emphasizes support to cattle production, although the results show no association between cattle ownership and nutrition. The study, thus, recommends increased access to agricultural land in rural areas for improving child nutrition and suggests a land policy review for support to also be aligned with chicken, goat and pig production for increased nutritional outcomes.



Building a National Spatial Data Infrastructure one step at a time- the case for Zambia

Emmanuel Tembo, Joseph Minango

Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Zambia

The Government of Zambia has established the National Spatial Data Infrastructure starting in 2014. NSDI has been implemented through a project entitled “Provision of and Processing of Aerial Photography and Satellite Imagery and Development of National Spatial Data Infrastructure”. The main focus of the project was to establish the technological infrastructure of the NSDI. This has involved the capturing of aerial and satellite imagery for the whole country, development of a centralized database and the development of web-portal for citizen access to the spatial data that has been collected and assembled in the centralized database. Apart from the development of the technological foundation of the infrastructure there is a lot more that needs to be done to achieve a semblance of an effective NSDI.

There is now need to establish the framework for an institutionalized NSDI and governance structure for sharing spatial information



Assessing communal land use management related policy /legislative setting and applications in Bir-Temicha watershed, upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

Tenaw Hailu Tedela

GiZ, Africa Union, Ethiopia

Communal land tenure system has been a controversial and politicized issue in Ethiopian. This study was aiming to assess the communal land administration and use policy setting and applications.The study deploys household survey, key informant interview, focus group discussions & document analysis method. Content analysis technique, load factor ratio and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the findings. Legislative instruments to govern communal land administration were adequately set and placement of stable state structure that goes down to the lowest administration level to implement communal land administration was found encouraging. However, absence of national land use policy, weaker policy and legislative application weak updating of communal land adjudication process, low level community participation & involvement in decision making was found as a gap.This needs further research on socioeconomic and political dimensions. Besides, policy and legislation evaluation and revision has to be considered with correction measure to bring a sustainable communal land use management.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-08: Evaluating impacts of tenure interventions
Session Chair: Andreas Lange, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
MC 8-100 
 

Endline evaluation findings for USAID’s responsible land-based investment pilot in Mozambique

Lauren Persha1, Jacob Patterson-Stein2, Sarah Lowery3

1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2Management Systems International, United States of America; 3United States Agency for International Development, United States of America

Mozambique’s land law of 1997 recognizes customary and community land rights, and also aims to facilitate growing private investment in the country. Many rural smallholder farmers have low familiarity with the country’s land laws and the majority still operate under undocumented customary arrangements, leaving them vulnerable to expropriation. We present the endline findings from an evaluation of an innovative USAID-funded private-sector partnership to strengthen land tenure security and minimize risks associated with large-scale agricultural investments in Mozambique. The project supported participatory mapping and delivered land rights certificates for 1,642 land users around a sugar cane estate. The evaluation uses a qualitative pre-post design coupled with a 500-person telephone survey of pilot participants at endline to examine community perceptions and effects on land management, tenure security, and engagement with private sector investors. Findings add to the limited evidence on use of the private sector-focused Analytical Framework to reduce land tenure risks.



The impacts of Second-Level Land Certification (SLLC) in Ethiopia: empirical evidence using panel data

Hosaena Ghebru1, Fikirte Girmachew2

1International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America; 2Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia

In 2013, Ethiopia has launched a mega project on second-level land certification program in the four major regions in the country (Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray). The program aims to enhance tenure security, transferability of land, access to credit and land related dispute resolutions. This study, thus, aims to investigate these program outcomes using a unique 3-wave panel data of 6600 households collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2013, 2015 and 2018. The fact that the first-round survey in 2013 is collected just before the DFID-sponsored mega SLLC program in the country provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impacts of the SLLC program with the data before-and-after the program was launched. Findings from the study are expected to provide insights to inform policy directions in the form of formalization of land rights not only in Ethiopia but also elsewhere in the continent.



Mobilizing for title: A mixed-methods randomized evaluation of a homestead land rights initiative in Bihar, India

Andre Nickow1, Sanjay Kumar2

1Northwestern University, United States of America; 2Deshkal Society, India

Bihar state law guarantees each rural household the right to hold title over a plot of homestead land, yet many poor households lack title. This article studies a social accountability program that established, trained, and mobilized village-level community-based organizations to assist households in obtaining homestead title. The study employs a survey-based field experiment to estimate the program’s impact while qualitative methods are used to examine ground-level processes. We find that the program strongly increased perceived land security and access to entitlements, moderately increased asset ownership and homestead satisfaction, and exerted a modest but significant positive effect on food security. However, we do not find evidence for impacts on investment in dwellings or homestead-based livelihood activities. The qualitative analysis suggests a key mechanism by which the program improved entitlement access: enabling target households to circumvent profit-seeking intermediaries. Results contribute to development studies research on social accountability, service delivery, and land rights.



Certified to stay? Experimental evidence on property rights and migration in Benin

Ioana Botea1, Markus Goldstein1, Kenneth Houngbedji2, Florence Kondylis1, Michael O'Sullivan1, Harris Selod1

1World Bank, United States of America; 2Agence Française de Développement, France

Women’s ownership and control of land in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is often mediated through their relationship to a male spouse or a male relative. These limited rights can rapidly disappear in the event of the death of the husband – with stark welfare implications for the widow and her children. We examine the following question in the context of a randomized controlled trial in rural Benin: can land formalization interventions strengthen a widow’s right to stay? Drawing on two rounds of data from approximately 3,500 households, we find that female-headed households are more likely to remain in their original community, and this effect is driven by widows in treatment villages. We also find that the land intervention leads to a change in planned inheritance patterns away from sons and towards daughters and wives.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-09: Capacity building: Lessons from experience
Session Chair: Charl-Thom Hilgardt Bayer, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
MC 9-100 
 

Equal partnership in the capacity building project Eduland2: conceptual design, implementation, successes, challenges & lessons learnt

Reinfried Mansberger1, Sayeh Kassaw Agegnehu2, Gerhard Navratil3, Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi4

1University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria; 2Debre Markos University, Ethiopia; 3Technische Universitaet Wien, Austria; 4Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

The capacity building project “Implementation of Academic Land Administration Education in Ethiopia for Supporting Sustainable Development is a bilateral project between Austrian (BOKU Vienna, TU Vienna) and Ethiopian universities (DMU, BDU), funded by the Austrian Development Agency.

EduLAND2 is a trigger for the design and running a research-driven bachelor curriculum at DMU, for joint problem-oriented research, for the building academic staff capability, for joint research activities and for the preparation of demand driven community services – all on the topic of land administration.

Gender mainstreaming and the principle of equal partnerships between all project partners are central elements of EduLAND2. The presentation considers the conceptual design and the realisation for guaranteeing an equal partnership in the project. Based on the experiences gained by project members in EduLAND2, challenges and success factors for a successful and equal partnership are outlined. Recommendations for a long-term and successful equal partnership are given.



Encouraging women’s land rights and promoting female land professionals: A twin track approach to enhancing land governance

Zerfu Hailu Gebrewold, Gladys Savolainen, Tommi Tenno

NIRAS/Ethiopia, Ethiopia

Second Level Land Certificates (SLLC) have been issued to 10,634 households on 36,590 parcels. Proportionally, 63.9%, 21.5% and 14.5% of the certified households are married couples, female-headed and male-headed households, respectively. As married couples are registered with equal rights on their joint holding, females with recognized land rights are much higher than males.

Totally, 154 technicians are trained on rural cadaster and land registration. Proportionally, 28.6% of the graduates are female. Yearly percentage of female graduates varies from 26.3% to 45.5%. In 2019, there are 219 trainees attending courses on rural cadaster and land registration; of which 37% are female trainees. The female trainees at different levels vary from 30% to 51.9%. Proportionally, there are more female trainees in the current attendees than graduated ones. This breakthrough using a twin track approach enhances land governance and contributes to SDGs goals, targets and indicators.

Breakthrough, Equal rights, Female-headed, Male-headed, Married couples



The land research capacity of Africa: new research centre concept for catalysing improved land governance

Uchendu Eugene Chigbu1, Gaynor Paradza2, Simon Peter Mwesigye3

1Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2Independent Consultant, South Africa; 3UN-Habitat / GLTN, Uganda

This article explores a renewed approach to research centre. It uses desktop review and interviews with key informants from African universities to investigate the specific features that should characterise a research centre on land governance in Africa. The investigation also focuses on how to package and implement research centre concepts in land governance. It uses the SCImago Journal Rank platform to access data and analyse (and present) the research capacity country rankings of top 10 countries in Africa, as a way of understanding how African countries rank in general research outputs and in specific land governance subjects. It also deals on how to operationalise research centres in land governance to enable improved African-wide research outcomes. By way of an outcome, the article presents a new research centre concept for catalysing innovative research (learning) in land governance.



The ADLAND model: Transformative experiences and lessons in human capital development in land governance in Africa

Pamela Duran Diaz

Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany

ADLAND “Advancing Collaborative Research in Responsible and Smart Land Management in and for Africa” is a research model based on a strategic partnership for scientific, academic support in capacity development in land management to selected African universities. Grounded on the principle that African universities could act as decisive nodes for knowledge creation and exchange, a network of universities from the global North collaborate with them in developing human capacity.

ADLAND activities include capacity development workshops, research writing workshops with jointly written scientific papers, curricula development and review, and staff exchange to enhance knowledge transfer. The outcomes of such activities have successfully involved in the past 10 months more than 115 participants from 16 different African countries. With this perspective, Africa is becoming a place rather than a subject of research and education.



Scaling emerging geospatial technologies for land administration: understanding institutional innovation dynamics through a Technological Innovation System perspective

Serene Ho1,2, Tarek Zein3, Placide Nkerabigwi4, Valérie Pattyn1,5, Joep Crompvoets1

1KU Leuven, Belgium; 2RMIT University, Australia; 3Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany; 4INES Ruhengeri, Rwanda; 5Leiden University, The Netherlands

A combination of push and pull factors are stimulating geospatial innovation to respond to land administration challenges. Yet, as these alternative tools begin to move from development to implementation, we still know little about how the institutional environment helps or hinders innovation and importantly, scaling of these technologies to deliver impact. This paper contributes to this gap by applying the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework in the context of an ongoing project in East Africa where four new geospatial tools are being developed and tested as alternative land tools. The outcomes of the analysis provides country-specific insight into how actors, their interactions, and the institutional arrangements impacts adoption and scaling of the geospatial tools, but also presents a generalized view of the extent developing countries are ready for disruptive geospatial innovation in land administration and raising awareness of those institutional aspects that are helping or hindering innovation.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-10: Land administration: Cases from Africa
Session Chair: Dominik Wellmann, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany
MC 10-100 
 

From registration to sustainability: developments in Rwanda

Nishimwe Marie Grace, Biraro Sam

Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority, Rwanda

This paper briefly review the national Land Tenure Regularisation programme which was implemented in several phases in Rwanda and how it was established and implemented and then it focus on the problems that arise post-LTR – setting up the nationwide systems to support transactions, informing and changing public behaviour so that they understand the need to register changes and discourage informal transactions. The big question is how to provide sustainable land administration and land use management that can be implemented in an affordable manner, yet meet the many diverse needs of the country and its citizens while promoting economic growth and social wellbeing. We focus in how Rwanda has tried to develop a sustainable approach, and what lessons can be drawn from this.



EDOGIS comes online, an evaluation

Stephen Calder

GIS/Transport, United States of America

An evaluation of Edo State Geographic Information Service (EDOGIS) is presented.

The governor of Edo State, Nigeria establishes a new land agency in early 2018, backed by an enabling law. A private company is awarded a Design, Built, Operate, Transfer contract to implement the agency. The new program is to be fully digital, fully automated and centered on an LIS / GIS / LAS networked system. A comprehensive, high resolution orthophoto imagery is employed in the program as well. The project also entails a fully renovated and environmentally controlled building, file tracking management, rigorous training and other international best practices. This paper is an evaluation at one year on of the successes and shortcomings of EDOGIS, and of contributing factors and lessons learned.



Piloting urban land systematic adjudication and registration in Ethiopia:

Solomon Mammo1, Alexius Santoni2

1Federal Urban Land and Landed Property Registry, and Information Agency, Ethiopia; 2IGN France International, France

The Government of Ethiopia has embarked on incremental land reforms. The 2011 Federal Urban Land Holding Proclamation No. 721/2011 provided a legal basis for leasehold and old possession. According to Proclamation No. 721/2011, land acquired before the introduction of the leasehold system is taken as old possession/permit-hold. Following the Urban Land Holding Proclamation, the Proclamation to Provide for Registration of Urban Landholding No. 818/2014 was passed in 2014 to mandate a common legal cadastre for all urban areas. The establishment of legal cadastre over urban areas aims to secure tenure for all urban land holds to bring good governance in urban land administration and enable the facilitation of investment and the operation of the real estate market. The realization of the objective of urban legal cadastre will probably take a decade or more, hence the program will be phased into at least three project phases.



The innovative national rural land administration information system of Ethiopia

Tarek Zein1, Tigistu Gebremeskel2, Tommi Tenno3, Yohannes Redda3, Teweldemedhin Aberra4

1Hansa Luftbild AG, Germany; 2Ministry of Argriculture and Natual Resources, Ethiopia; 3NIRAS, Finland; 4IINTAPS, Ethiopia

The National Rural Land Administration System (NRLAIS) of Ethiopia was developed and implemented for the country’s Ministry of Agriculture to harmonize the rural land administration. The system was developed on the basis of free and open source software (FOSS) components, applies the ISO Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) standard and provides Open Geospatial Consortium compliant services. It stores all data, geometries and their associated textual information. The architecture is innovative and follows a modular “toolkit” approach. The system can easily be adapted for the different legal requirements of the Ethiopian regional states. It applies unique holding and parcel identification numbers. It represents all processes of the Ethiopian rural land administration which are carried out at the various administrative levels, from the central ministry to the district (woreda) level. The system also includes a mass registration solution for systematic land registration and a data migration tool to convert existing land records.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-11: Remote sensing and deep learning for agricultural productivity
Session Chair: Felix Rembold, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
MC C1-100 
 

Use of earth observation and land parcel identification in supporting the implementation of the common agricultural policy

Felix Rembold

Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy

tbd



Satellite crop monitoring within World Bank project on land management transparency in Ukraine

Nataliia Kussul1, Denys Nizalov2, Andrii Shelestov1, Mykola Lavreniuk3, Sergii Skakun4, Andrii Kolotii1, Vladimir Vasiliev5, Eugene Karlov5

1Space Research Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and State Space Agency of Ukraine; 2University of Kent/ KEI at KSE, United Kingdom; 3National Technical University of Ukraine, Ukraine; 4University of Maryland College Park, United States of America; 5EOS Data Analytics, Ukraine

Remote sensing of agricultural land use is one of the essential objectives of the EBRD project “Supporting Transparent Land Governance in Ukraine”. The main goal of the project is Land Cover/Land Use classification based on free satellite data as well as development of efficient automated technologies of land management utilizing remote sensing data.

Within the project we have investigated the applicability of three information platforms — Sen2Agri (developed under ESA support), Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform and our own approach based on artificial neural networks.

All the results of the pilot project should establish the preconditions for transparent functioning of agricultural land market, improving efficiency of land use and creation the foundations for investments in the agricultural sector and rural development.



Proximate sensing of food types and land uses in Thailand using street-level photography and deep learning

Martha Bohm, John Ringland, So-Ra Baek

University at Buffalo, United States of America

We present new tools to exploit street-level imagery to inventory crop types and land uses. We describe two classifiers using Google Street View imagery and a deep convolutional neural network. First, a multi-class classifier distinguishes six crops and three land uses. Second, a specialized detector recognizes the presence of a single species. We tested these tools along roadside transects in Thailand.

The overall accuracy of the multi-class classifier was 83.3%. For several classes the producer's accuracy was over 90%. This performance compares favorably to some remote-sensing classifiers. The overall classifier accuracy on the top 40% of images is excellent: 99.0%. The area under the specialized detector’s receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9905, indicating excellent performance.

This approach shows potential for fine-grained analysis over large areas. We are developing it further for places where home gardens provide significant diet supplementation, but are poorly characterized when quantifying macro-economically important crops.

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-12: Large investments: Protecting human rights & environment
Session Chair: Ward Anseeuw, International Land Coalition, Italy
MC C1-200 
 

The ASEAN guidelines on promoting responsible investment in food, agriculture and forestry

Sarah Brewin, Francine Picard Mukazi, Carin Smaller

International Institute for Sustainable Development, Switzerland



Private law and agricultural development – Improving agricultural land investment contracts and making them consistent with the VGGT and CFS-RAI Principles

Ignacio Tirado1, Neale Bergman1, Margret Vidar2

1UNIDROIT, Italy; 2FAO, Italy



Agricultural investments under international investment law

Jesse Coleman1, Sarah Brewin2, Thierry Berger3

1Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America; 2International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada; 3International Institute for Environment and Development, United Kingdom



Undermining justice: The investment treaty regime and affected third parties

Jesse Coleman, Lise Johnson, Kaitlin Cordes

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America

 
10:30am - 12:00pm10-13: Legal pluralism and tenure reforms: Has there been progress?
Session Chair: Richard Gaynor, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC 7-860 
 

Stakeholder narratives on tenure transformation in Morocco

David Balgley

Georgetown University, United States of America

The Moroccan government and development organizations have repeatedly identified the legal complexity of collective land, which makes up one-third of Morocco’s territory, as a barrier to rural development. In 2017, the government began a project to transform 46,000 hectares of collective land in the Gharb irrigated perimeter into private property with funding from the Millennium Challenge Corporation. I explore how diverse stakeholders to this privatization project mobilize different narratives to express their implicit and explicit objectives, concerns, and future expectations on the outcomes of titling collective land. I trace the historical trajectory of collective tenure in Morocco, as well as analyzing the likely outcomes of privatization on economic livelihoods, administrative shifts, and the implications of privatization on agrarian social relations. I conclude by exploring some potential policy options that could achieve project objectives and alleviate stakeholders’ concerns while maintaining local usage of newly-titled land in the Gharb region.



The heavy burden of the past - The political economy of rural reform in Colombia.

Camilo Pardo

George Mason University, United States of America

Conflicts over the distribution of land have been a constant in the history of Colombia and consensus exists around the idea that inequality in access to the resource is at the core of the intense civil war the country has gone through.

As part of the peace agreement reached with the FARC, the Colombian Government has embarked on an Integral Rural Reform (IRR) strategy with the potential to address historical agrarian issues that have hindered the pace of development and generated protracted conflict.

However, its results are expected to alter the historical status quo and consequently affect the interests of some actors. The paper describes the political economy of the IRR agreement by identifying the actors and the issues from which either support for, or resistance to, the initiative is likely to materialize.



Real change or paper tigers? An assessment of legal support for community property

Liz Alden Wily

independent, Kenya

This paper assesses the application of new land laws since 1990 which provide for community property, defined as lands which communities traditionally or contemporarily possess, use and govern. A substantial background on legal trends is provided. This includes a shorter review of the global situation and a longer analysis of new land statutes on the African continent since 1990. Implications in trends and substance are then critiqued. The paper then turns to issues of application and uptake of the law. Could it be that the wave of legal reformism that promises to bring majority untitled land interests in Africa out of the cold as unprotected interest, is predominantly a paper tiger, promising more than it ever intends to deliver? If so, why?

 
12:00pm - 2:00pmLunch
Front Lobby and Preston Lounge 
12:00pm - 2:00pmWomen's caucus
MC 4-100 
12:30pm - 2:00pm00-15: Climate change, forest landscape restoration and tenure
Session Chair: Robert Nasi, CIFOR, Indonesia

Mitigation the effects of climate change requires catalyzing ecological restoration from below and above. This session discusses public and private initiatives and incentives around forest landscapes, while focussing on lessons learned from implementing law and policy towards strengthening community rights to land and forests.  

VC

Preston Auditorium 
 

Scramble for land rights: reducing inequity between communities and companies

Peter Veit

World Resources Institute, United States of America



Madagascar experience with role of tenure in forest restoration

Julien Noel

Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Madagascar



Role of tenure in protecting and restoring the Amazon forests

Brenda Brito do Carmo

Imazon, Brazil



Lessons from tenure and gender research for restoration

Anne Larson

CIFOR, Peru



Discussant

Fritz Jung

Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany



Discussant

Delfin Jr Ganapin

World Wide Fund for Nature International (WWF International), Singapore

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-01: Round table: Innovative land policies for sustainable development
Session Chair: Klaus Deininger, World Bank, United States of America
Preston Auditorium 
 

The importance of land reform for agricultural transformation

Henri Eyebe Ayissi

Ministry of State Property, Surveys and Land Tenure, Cameroon



Enhancing land tenure security and functioning of land markets in Zambia

H.E. Vincent Mwale

Ministry of Local Government, Zambia



Towards secure land rights for all in Uganda: Remaining challenges and ways of monitoring progress

Dorcas Wagima Okalany

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Uganda



Key challenges to advancing land tenure security in Malawi

Janet L. Banda SC.

Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Malawi

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-02: Political economy of tenure change
Session Chair: Jonathan Conning, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, United States of America
MC 13-121 
 

Market access, property rights and small-holder farming in colonial Southern Rhodesia

Tawanda Chingozha1, Dieter von Fintel1,2

1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn, Germany



The role of informal institutions in change: land reform in urban and peri-urban Ghana

Devanne Brookins

Harvard, United States of America



Customary institutions and customary land tenure: Regulating dualism to inhibit land-related conflicts?

Daniela Monika Behr1, Roos Haer2

1World Bank, United States of America; 2Leiden University, The Netherlands



The legacy of Mexican land and water in California

Gary Libecap1, Dean Lueck2, Julio Ramos-Pastrana2

1University of California, Santa Barbara and NBER, United States of America; 2Indiana University, United States of America

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-03: Improving interoperability of registries & open data access
Session Chair: Connie Fair, Land Title & Survey Authority of British Columbia, Canada
MC 2-800 
 

Local Land Charges - Laying the foundation of a new national digital service.

Allison Bradbury, Emma Vincent, Nick Eccles

HM Land Registry, United Kingdom

Each of the 326 local authorities in England is required to hold a Local Land Charges register that records obligations affecting properties within its administrative area. Across the country there are some 26 million charges that are held in differing formats and to different data standards, often in non-digital, paper or electronic format.

Obtaining evidence from this dataset that describe restrictions on the use of the property such as building restrictions or listed building information take up to several weeks and impact property buying decisions and timelines.

Working in partnership with the local authorities, the United Kingdom’s Her Majesty’s Land Registry (HMLR) has begun to centralise and transform this data, which can now be accessed through a new innovative online digital service. The new service provides instant online access to citizens, speeding up the home buying process.



Digitalization of public registers and the role of legal professionals – a connection for the future

Lovro Tomasic

GIZ/Bundesnotarkammer, Germany

Public registers are an essential element in the legal systems of most developed economies. In the digital age, registers are kept electronically and there is a strong desire to allow electronic access to the registers. How can courts, registers, notaries and other legal professionals remain accessible to all citizens, and maintain the existing high standards of integrity, reliability and professional secrecy in the digital age? The project “Electronic Communication of Notaries with Public Registers“, which currently attempts to develop practical, locally applicable solutions for six countries of the Western Balkans, will be presented. The session will illustrate the challenges and show a range of answers adopted in the Western Balkans region. The audience will be able to learn from the different experiences and answers to the omnipresent challenges of digitalization for legal service providers and reflect on which approach might be most appropriate in a given situation



Modern technology in land administration - a call for governance and structuring data in view of privatising land administration processes

Jacob Vos

Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), Netherlands

Data are of the most interesting items of value for commercial entities and parties to implement modern technologies such as blockchain technology and (especially) artificial intelligence in various processes. This sometimes seems to implicate that the true meaning and value of data are of minor importance to some of these parties. In Land Administration processes the proper use of data is of the utmost importance. Especially in cases where Land Administration processes seem to be outsourced to commercial entities – or the complete Land Administration is privatised – it is important to set rules and implement a well-function system prior to outsourcing land administration activities. We describe the implementation and use of modern technology (eg. blockchain, AI and Internet of Things in Land Administration and the possible privatisation of land registry activities. The most frequently stated arguments not to privatize the Land Registry organizations will be discussed.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-04: Demand for and impacts of land tenure regularization
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
MC 4-100 
 

The socio-economic impact of implementing land registration and land information systems in Saudi Arabia

Philip Auerswald1, Muhamad Alrajhi2

1George Mason University, United States of America; 2Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Crop prices and the demand for titled land: evidence from Uganda

Viviana Maria Eugenia Perego

The World Bank, United States of America



The effects of land title registration on tenure security, investment and production: evidence from Ghana

Andrew Agyei-Holmes2, Niklas Buehren1, Markus Goldstein1, Robert Osei2, Isaac Osei-Akoto2, Christopher Udry3

1World Bank, United States of America; 2Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, Ghana; 3Northwestern University, Department of Economicsm, United States of America



Early lessons from the evaluation of land management reforms in Cabo Verde

Audrey Moore, Evan Borkum, Irina Cheban

Mathematica Policy Research, United States of America

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-05: Land and water governance
Session Chair: Marie-Laure Lajaunie, World Bank, United States of America
MC 5-100 
 

Linking irrigated land and water scarcity: a global view

Susanne Maria Scheierling, David Olivier Treguer

World Bank, United States of America

Based on an innovative analysis of country-level data reported from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization—in particular on area equipped for irrigation (a proxy for irrigated land), agricultural water withdrawals, and total renewable water resources—, the paper explores the link between irrigated land and water scarcity at the global level. Trends in agricultural water withdrawals show large increases, though with declining rates of growth since about 1980. Countries’ agricultural withdrawals are closely linked to total water withdrawals, and also to the area equipped for irrigation. At the global level, agricultural water withdrawals are closely linked to water scarcity levels. With increasing scarcity, interventions related to irrigated land should therefore be moving to the center of water management concerns. In many countries, however, even high levels of water scarcity seem to have had little effect so far on trends in agricultural withdrawals and area equipped for irrigation.



Land and water: the rights divergence

Stephen Hodgson

SPRL KH & Associates, Belgium

Ensuring secure access to both land and water is key to the eradication of rural poverty and increased agricultural production. Yet, the legal and policy mechanisms for the allocation and use of land and water are increasingly divergent: water was actually omitted from the VGGT. Building on, and updating, an earlier FAO study, the aim of this paper is to trace this divergence in terms of rights to land and water resources and to seek to identify possible new approaches and areas for intervention. The obsolescence of traditional land tenure-based water rights in the face of increased pressure on water resources has led many countries to introduce ‘modern’ permit based water rights that sever the link to the land. The land-water divergence is further exacerbated by the SDG mandated introduction of integrated water resources management (IWRM) with its own specific methodologies and approaches.



Intensification of irrigated agriculture: the case of the Boudnib plain in Morocco

Omar Aloui2, Anne Chohin-Kuper1, Mathilde Crosnier3, Jeanne Chiche4

1Independent consultant, Morocco; 2Agroconcept, Romania; 3INRA SAD, ISARA Lyon, France; 4IAV Hassan II, Morocco

Agricultural development in the Sahara is relatively recent in Morocco as compared to North African countries. The plain of Boudnib, located in the South East of Morocco, is interesting for it differs in terms of rythm, actors, land rights and political setup. A “visible revolution” involves the national capitalist groups consolidated by liberal policies. The anticipated high rent created by the exploitation of natural resources - unlimited rangeland and abundant groundwater- to produce high value Medjool date palm and the high mobility of production factors contribute to the emergence of a specific model. It creates a visible agricultural boom and at the same time it induces local communities to request the access to land and groundwater for small scale extensions on the basis of their historical land rights. However, individual allocation of land may not be the best way to share the hydraulic rent and alternative pathways are needed.



Irrigation Modernization in Spain: what influences the Effects on Water?

Elena Lopez-Gunn1, Manuel Bea1, Rosa Huertas2, Victor del Barrio3, Javier Fernandez Pereira3

1ICATALIST, Spain; 2Valladolid City Council, Spain; 3Duero River basin agency, Spain

This paper presents the results of a proof of concept study undertaken for the FAO/UNU on the concept of water tenure and its application to an irrigation modernisation project in the Duero basin in Spain, and a follow up study funded by the Duero River basin agency on the effectiveness of subsidies for irrigation modernization to comply with the European Union Water Framework Directive.

The study analyses the impacts of a switch in irrigation technology on changes in land and water use that are often ignored or underestimated. These land-water relationships, if not well understood and monitored, could mean that decisions in either agricultural policy or water policy have unintended consequences, including potential negative impacts on resource use. Aligning water and land use planning ex-ante to account for these interactions is key for a deeper and more nuanced understanding on the close connections between land and water use.

 
2:00pm - 3:30pm11-06: Improving resilience via better land data
Session Chair: Luis Triveno, World Bank, United States of America
MC 6-100