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07-09: Forest Tenure and Migration
Emergent Dynamics of Migration and Their Potential Effects on Forest and Land use in North Kalimantan, Indonesia
1Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia; 2Brunel University London, UK
Based on a mixed-method research in Malinau District, Indonesia, we find educational purpose is the main driver of youth migration. The need to finance youth migration affected the left behind's livelihood strategies and land use decisions.The stage of development of an area played a role in defining what strategy was adopted. In addition, discussions with the educated youth returnee migrants and current education migrants reveal youth aspiration to return home upon the completion of their education. These youths also indicated their aspiration to continue agriculture and forest-based livelihoods upon their return, albeit as a side job. Our findings are significant for two reasons. It questions a common assumption in the contemporary discourses on rural development that youth are exiting agriculture/forestry sectors. It points to the need to include the next generation and their shifting aspirations and life trajectories, in policies and programs aimed at promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
What Is The Impact Of Out-migration For Employment On People and Land? Lessons For Policy And Research In Nepal
1Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia; 2Forest Action, Nepal
This presentation will highlight findings from a collaborative CIFOR-Forest Action research on how out-migration for foreign employment purposes is impacting on left behind and land uses in forestry and agriculture in rural Nepal. Our research reveals that migration is a highly gendered and generation-specific phenomenon. Whether or not migration contributes to the welfare of migrant-sending communities is contingent on modes of inclusion, exclusion and adverse incorporation into migration processes. One of the profound effects of migration across the research sites is the growing disassociation of land with agriculture and food production. While one research site is experiencing greater commodification and speculation of land, another is undergoing heightened instances of fallow and underutilization of land. The findings point to the importance of broadening the debate on migration and its effects on the country, and considering the relationship between migration and land use change more seriously in policy research and public policy-making.
The effects of migration on property rights and livelihoods on forest frontiers in the Peruvian Amazon
Center for International Forestry Research, Peru
In the Peruvian Amazon, migration is a common strategy used by residents to access land and adapt to environmental or economic change. These patterns have drawn the attention of policy makers that flag migration and migratory agriculture as crucial drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. However, the lack of information about current migration processes and their effects on forest access have inhibited effective policy responses to perceived threats to the region’s forests. This paper draws on recent research among twelve non-indigenous rural communities to understand variation in household migration patterns, property claims and the influence of these factors on livelihood and forest. We conducted 24 focus groups and interviewed 240 randomly selected households to understand the linkages between migration patterns, property rights and forest use. While land titling initiatives have increase property rights security, informal claims persist and the interpretation of regulations excludes options for forest management by smallholders.
Land Tenure Security, Migration and the VGGTs
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
A good understanding of the relationship between land tenure security and migration is of strategic importance for political and development agendas. Yet, relatively little attention has been given to its study and a strong evidence base, necessary for adequate policy formulation and programme development is lacking. Hypothetically, increased tenure security would be associated to reduced migration through a weakening of push factors, while tenure insecurity would constitute an important push factor and hence increase migration. However, the relationship is more complex. China evidence shows an increase of rural-urban migration with increased tenure security in the absence of rental rights. Many dimensions in the security of tenure as well as contextual factors may alter the relationship and produce different migration outcomes. This article analyses the current literature on the subject, proposes a framework for its analysis and discusses the relevance and scope of the application of the VGGT to address the relevant issues.