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01-10: Impact Evaluation of Land Registration
Community Land Protection in Liberia: The Impact on Neocustomary Norms and Institutions
1University College London, Political Science; 2The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
Is it possible to change property rights norms, even when changes affect the position of powerful constituencies? In this paper, we explore the effects of external changes to informal property rights institutions using a quasi-experimental evaluation of an intervention designed to protect community land and promote the rights of vulnerable groups, including women, in the West African nation of Liberia. We focus on the effect of the Community Land Protection Program (CLPP), an intervention that seeks to empower communities to successfully protect communal land rights, but that also emphasizes full participation of women and other previously excluded groups. We use two rounds of survey data collected in 2014 and 2017 from 43 communities and find evidence that while some behaviors and norms prove persistent over time, others do shift as a result of an outside intervention.
Does Tenure Reform Influence Household Food Security?
Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
This article analyzes the outcome of forest reform on household food security of forest dependent communities. Study involved 2733 respondents, 55 communities and five reforms types, and analysis done using descriptive and inferential analysis. Finding from descriptive analysis suggest the respondents in Peru indicated they were food secure and perceived tenure security had improved. In Indonesia and Uganda, both members and nonmembers were food secure. Finding from the ESR probit model suggest that perceived tenure security, land owned by communities, years of education, ownership of dwelling, age in years, forest products, ancestry and external contact, had influenced membership. Results suggest that tenure security outcomes are sensitive to the range of rights held by communities; food security outcomes are better under situations of full ownership rights regardless of whether dejure or de facto. Food security of forest adjacent communities are placed at risk where rules for harvesting forest products are strict.
Silver Bullets or Shooting Blanks: Estimating the Impact of Formal Land Property Rights on Economic Development in Rural Colombia.
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2George Mason University, United States of America
Economic development literature often portrays secure property rights as essential for growth and prosperity. Four arguments are often put forward to support this claim - First, property rights provide secure tenure from probable seizure. Second, in a situation of insecure tenure, individuals will have to incur in external costs of defending their property, therefore diverting resources that could be used for more productive activities. Third, they provide the possibility to use land to support other transactions, such as gaining access to the credit market. Finally, property rights facilitate gains from trade.
However, solid empirical evidence supporting this claim has been elusive and focused mainly on urban settings. To address this gap, we employ a novel approach to estimate economic output at the municipal level in rural Colombia using satellite nighttime lights data and along with registry-cadastre data, test the validity of the above claim.
Rural property rights and migration: evidence from Ethiopia.
The London School of Economics, United Kingdom
This paper provides evidence that security of ownership over land is of crucial importance to households when deciding whether to send a migrant. The results are particularly relevant to many developing country contexts where property rights over rural land are contingent on the occupant demonstrating productive use of the land. Using a unique farm-household panel dataset from the highlands of Ethiopia, this study demonstrates a robust positive relationship between tenure security and migration. The identification strategy relies on the gradual roll-out of a land certification program at the village level, as well as exogenous variation in water availability, a likely trigger of out-migration from agriculture. The results demonstrate that households with tenure certificates are around 15 percent more likely to have a member that has migrated for work. We further document that water scarcity during the growing season encourages out-migration from agriculture, however, droughts during the planting period discourage migration.