Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
03-10: Impact Urban Land Reform on Affordable Housing
Tuesday, 20/Mar/2018:
2:00pm - 3:30pm

Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
Location: MC 10-100


Land Tenure Systems and Urban Land Use: theory, and evidence from Kampala City

Julia Bird, Tony Venables

University of Oxford, United Kingdom

The local land tenure systems within Kampala strongly correlate with the density of different types of households and firms. However this simple analysis doesn’t control for the economic geography of the city. Using a Computable Spatial General Equilibrium Model, we develop a benchmark version of a city with firms and households optimally making their location decisions across the urban space, when faced with transport costs for shipping goods, commuting, and a fixed supply of urban land. The model is calibrated using detailed disaggregate data on Kampala, revealing local productivity and amenity parameters. These are explained using city-wide variation in land tenure systems. The evidence reveals that Mailo and Customary land, areas with relatively weak land rights, are particularly dense in informal housing, and difficult for firms to locate on. Simulating changes in local land tenure reveals potential economic benefits of land reform, and the unequal distribution of these welfare gains.


Understanding Housing Consumption Behavior Across The Formal And Informal Land Market Divide: Econometric Estimations And Household Views From Metropolitan Buenos Aires

Cynthia Goytia1, Robin Rajack2

1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic; 2Inter American Development Bank

In Latin American metropolitan areas, the mismatch between formal supply and demand for housing and serviced land is generally attributed to the dynamics of land markets including land market regulation. These regulations define an implicit, spatially differentiated upper bound on how many households can be accommodated within the formal housing sector. If the actual population exceeds the absorptive capacity of the formal sector, informal settlements are an inevitable outcome. The challenge addressed in this study is to build on a theoretical model of formal and informal housing sectors, enhancing its potential for application to specific LAC real world context, to understand the housing consumption behavior across the formal and informal land market divide, conditional on the effects of the land use regulations. The empirical estimations are based on innovative data, including households’ income & expenditure data, land use regulation and land prices, covering formal (regulated) and informal land markets.


The Brazilian Housing Program - Minha Casa Minha Vida – Effect on Urban Sprawl

Ciro Biderman, Frederico Roman Ramos, Martha Hanae Hiromoto

Fundacao Getulio Vargas - Sao Paulo, Brazil

The Federal Brazilian Housing Subsidy Program “Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida”-PMCMV (My House My Life) was created in 2009 and has been the largest housing Program ever implemented in Latin America. We analyse the effects of the PMCMV on urban sprawl and its trend comparing the urban footprint in 2005 and 2015 and then the change in trend from 1995 to 2005 vis a vis 2005 to 2015, using satellite images. The conclusion is that the Program itself has no significant impact on urban sprawl: municipalities that received investments from the Program did not sprawl more than municipalities that did receive those investments. However, the number of house units do have an impact on the spatial pattern of the urban footprint. This is not a clear indication that the Program is causing sprawl, but it is an evidence that the Program does have an impact on the urban footprint.


Housing at the Centre of Urban Policies: The Case of Peru

Emilio Matuk1, Luis Triveno2

129x55, Peru; 2World Bank

The “Housing at the Center” requires a paradigm shift from basic construction of houses to a more holistic approach which integrates regulatory frameworks, urban planning and finance, human rights and the need to place people at the center of sustainable urban development. The existing government’s strategy, programs and budget in Peru have been inadequate to the achievement of such goals. In this paper we produce multiple binary indicators for housing deficit that could close these information gaps that prevent housing policies in Peru to be more effective. We do so by using the National Household Surveys from 2001-2016 (near 100,000 questionnaires), where detailed information from the housing characteristics (including land tenure) and its occupants. With this information base, we have been able (i) to characterize the process of housing improvement and (ii) to identify the impact from labor income