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06-06: The Political Economy of Land and Mining
The Capture of the Commons: Militarized Pastoralism and Struggles for Control of Surface and Sub-Surface Resources in Southwest Central African Republic
Tetra Tech ARD, United States of America
Deep seated political and economic instability in the Central African Republic (CAR) is linked to the migration of militarized pastoralist groups from surrounding countries into the southwest long occupied by sedentary peoples engaged in farming, forest product extraction, and artisanal mining of rich alluvial diamond and gold deposits. Pastoralist herds owned by urban elites of the surrounding countries are attracted to the rich water and pasture resources of the southwest, but also, the gold and diamond deposits, a major source of income from illicit mining. Traditional and statutory land management institutions have collapsed over the past decade, thereby rendering large parts of the country a defacto open access resource tenure regime. The situation may appear intractable, but this paper suggests that Local Pacts, negotiated conventions advocated by the Bangui Peace Forum, may resolve deep seated struggles over surface and sub-surface resources while contributing to peace building and social cohesion.
Customary Tenure Adaptation and the International Economy: Engagement with Global Markets through the Transformation of Surface and Sub-Surface Customary Tenure Regimes in Diamond Mining Areas of northern Côte d’Ivoire
Tetra Tech ARD, United States of America
The West African Sahel and Sudano-Guinean zones have long been integrated into the global economy through commodity exports. Few studies explore how resource tenure evolves as a consequence. This paper portrays how two diamond mining areas of northern Côte d’Ivoire (Séguéla and Tortiya) are adapting in an astonishingly rapid fashion not only to changing dynamics in the diamond economy, but also, around new markets for cashews. Both customary and statutory tenurial institutions and local level rule-making are redefining traditional land use norms and resource tenure arrangements to surface and sub-surface resources. Local communities plan for the use of their territorial spaces, and as in these two cases, community land use planning is often more efficient, effective, and adaptable than government land policies and land use development plans. Weak states, confronted with severe human and financial constraints should encourage these endogenous planning processes rather than impose cumbersome territorial land use planning.
Managing Conflict and Fostering Cooperation Between the State and Customary Land Owners as a Precondition for the Effective Formalization of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in West Africa: The Case of Diamonds in Côte d’Ivoire
Tetra Tech, United States of America
The disconnect between customary and statutory land tenure systems is a key feature and challenge in francophone sub-Saharan Africa, especially with respect to mineral resources. Policy-makers and practitioners engaged with artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), however, rarely take a property rights lens on the social, political and environmental challenges of the sector. Instead they focus on the concept of formalization, and how removing barriers to legalization and better integration into the formal economy helps promote good governance and local development. This paper examines how the customary-statutory divide in land management can help explain and offer new policy options for ASM formalization. The paper draws upon the case of artisanal diamond mining in Côte d’Ivoire and the ways in which conflict and cooperation between state and traditional land owners over diamond mining during the last 30 years has been decisive in determining the extent and sustainability of formalization.
Customary Authorities and their Impact on the Political Economy of the Artisanal Mining Sector in Eastern DRC
Tetratech, ARD, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
In Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) customary authorities have varying roles related to tenure rights, and in particular access to land and mineral resources. This presentation draws on two case studies to illustrate differences in how customary authority impacts the local mining economy and the establishment of conflict free minerals supply chains in the DRC. This includes n access to mineral resources, investment,and related impacts for conflict free sourcing initiatives.
The first case study focuses on Walungu Territory, where the traditional authority owns the rights over land. The second case study focuses on Mwenga territory where traditional authorities do not have rights over land.
The impacts of these two different models of customary authority on the artisanal mining sector and land use/access will be discussed, including implications for policy, investment and the establishment of conflict free minerals for the DRC