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03-08: The Link Between Planning and Urban Expansion
Enabling Market to Deliver Affordable Urban Land and Housing at Scale: What Can We Learn and Adapt from China to Ethiopia?
1World Bank; 2The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing
Ethiopia is urbanizing rapidly and faces tremendous challenge in delivering affordable land and housing at scale. With a public land ownership regime, the country has taken steps to enable market forces to shape the allocation of urban land through the land lease system. Despite progress made, supply of land, housing, and financing needed for urbanization has been lagging. Access to urban land continues to be one of the key constraints for business. An estimated 70–80 percent of the urban population lives in informal dwellings. China’s successful urbanization has been underpinned by land reforms, which enabled the trading of land use rights and a market-driven land allocation, Moreover, urban china has successfully delivered affordable housing at scale, with an average of 5.56 million units constructed every year. This paper reviews China’s experience with rapid urbanization supported by land-based infrastructure financing, with a focus on the lessons learned, adaption needed, and pitfalls to be voided.
Land Use Problems and Land Management: A Land Inventory Study in Istanbul
1Avrasya Land Management and Urban Regeneration Strategy Development Center, Istanbul - Turkey; 2Emlak Konut Real Estate Investment Trust, Turkey; 3Okan University, Geomatics Engineering Department, Turkey
In Turkey; integrated land management policies to ensure the protection of our country’s natural, ecological, and cultural assets as well as sustainable development of its resources are required. Creation of an “land resource inventory” is a top priority for sustainable land management.
This paper seeks an answer to question how it can be achieved land management that meets national needs and expectations by adopting the principles of “Sustainability” and “Integrated Approach.” At this point, the study adopts a holistic perspective as it examines the entire land asset of Istanbul, which is the heart of finance and Turkey’s most populated metropolitan area with its natural structure, historical and cultural accumulation, and industrial structure. The study involves compiling a “land inventory” and “land use plans with the 1/25000 scale” to managing Istanbul’s all land assets centrally as well as creating policies and strategies for such management.
Spatial Planning Beyond Boundaries
Spatial Planning in India is still mostly limited to the urban agglomerations. With a strong urban growth a new type of urbanism arises, that seems to be neither rural nor urban. This so called “Peri-Urban” growth encompasses a large amount of valuable land, and if not regulated, causes high costs for the construction of public (technical) infrastructure and leads to conflicts with other land uses such as agriculture or with environmentally protected areas . Consistent and systematic spatial planning at the level of the region can be an important contribution to plan the rural-urban linkage and to prevent negative consequences of the aforementioned current spatial developments. In this regard, the Land Use Planning and Management Project, jointly implemented by the Indian Mistry of Rural Development and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, want to revive Spatial District Planning as provided for in the Indian Constitution.