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04-08: Policy Options for Shaping City Form
Achieving Urban Spatial justice in South Africa: Context, Reality and the Integrated Urban Development Framework
City Insight (Pty) Ltd, South Africa
By 2050 eight in ten South Africans will live in urban areas. Colonialism and the apartheid state have created a highly fragmented and unequal urban system. South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP), argues that sustainable development depends on the particular local context in which the settlement development is taking place, including the need for spatial justice, spatial sustainability, spatial resilience, spatial quality and spatial efficiency. This paper describes the methodology used to both define the South African urban system as a whole and also the fragmentation within the urban areas themselves, as part of the process of defining the Integrated Urban Development Framework in South Africa. It calls for a measured and differentiated approach to the New Urban Agenda, taking into account looking at this new deal for South African cities and towns, by steering urban growth towards a sustainable growth model of compact, connected and coordinated cities and towns.
The Concentration Dilemma: Urban-Rural Transition in Metropolitan Area of Chengdu Since Early 2000s
Future Cities Laboratory, ETH Zurich
During the last one and half decade in China, a policy of spatial concentration of rural settlements is widely favored to manage the urbanization of the countryside. And yet, many of the projects developed under this policy have triggered radical and disruptive changes in the social and morphological structure of the countryside, without necessarily delivering the continuous social harmony or economic growth originally envisioned. This paper focuses on this misalignment of policy goals and effects, what we call the “concentration dilemma”, and also some emerging alternative development strategies. Drawing on case studies supported by first-hand interviews, innovative mapping techniques and archival documents, the paper assesses both state-led policy and bottom-up alternatives in terms of short- and long-term socio-economic, community and environmental criteria. In the end, it concludes towards a discussion on the potential of developing more site-specific policies for a more resilient and sustainable scenario for urban-rural transition.
Changing rural to urban in extractive territories. Land administration comparing Argentina, Chile, and Peru
MIT, United States of America
Latinamerica extractive sector is growing and changing rural territories. Extractive cities are developing but they depend on non-renewal resources. Their temporality is, as well, limited. The objective of this paper is to compare land administration sustainability when the core economy of this cities is no longer the extractive sector.
The paper evaluates impacts of extractive economies that lead change in rural territories where environmental, social and economic issues introduce urbanity at a very fast dynamic. On the one extreme, the land administration can be an opportunity to leverage infrastructure and urban expansion. On the other extreme, land speculation without adequate policies can make fail any attempt to plan and equitable growth.
Firstly, I describe rural and urban settings that illustrate how land policies can deal with urban change. Secondly, I analyze the examples given regarding centralization/decentralization and public/private partnerships. Finally, I compare land policies that can finance infrastructure, urban expansion, and housing.
Using Data in Urban Planning To Decongest The City Of Nairobi: Lessons From Other Cities
1University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2Car Design Research Cambridge
Urbanization is important for development but requires better planning to maximize on its benefits and address challenges. The population of Nairobi, estimated to be 5 million, continues to grow despite the expectation that people would move to the counties in the aftermath of devolution introduced by the 2010 Constitution. The transport, water, sewerage and other infrastructure is chocking as more pressure is brought to bear on it by the exponential growth. Traffic jams in Nairobi have increasingly become a nightmare for city dwellers with many hours spent in snarl-ups at peak times in the city and its environs. This paper looks at how data from different sources can be used for more integrated planning of the city of Nairobi to enhance mobility. It analyses the Nairobi Integrated County Development Plan and the Kenya National Spatial Data Infrastructure with a view to identifying entry points for data use in urban planning.