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02-08: Approaches to Land Delivery for Urban Expansion
Market-led Initiatives To Land Tenure Security In Ghana: Contribution Of Gated Communities
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Ghana, like many Sub-Saharan African countries, has instituted a system of land title registration to address problems in its land market, namely; multiple sales of customary lands, endless land litigations and indeterminate boundaries of customary lands. Yet, despite this intervention, the problems bedeviling the land market persist. Gated communities have emerged to solve these problems and to further guarantee homeowners land tenure security. This paper examines how developers of gated communities provide tenure security for their homeowners. Using Greater Accra Metropolitan Area as case study and collecting data from six gated communities through self-administered surveys and interviews with key stakeholders and residents living in gated communities, the study found that most residents in gated communities strongly perceive that the presence of fence walls, and security systems in gated communities provided them the assurance that their land tenure security was guaranteed and hence only a few have secured land title certificate.
Impact and Effectiveness of Urban Planning on City Spatial Development – A Case of Tanzania Secondary Cities
1World Bank, United States of America; 2Ardhi University, Tanzania
This is the phase 1 findings from an ongoing study investigating the spatial development characteristics of Tanzania secondary cities with and without urban plans, and attempting to assess the impact and effectiveness of such urban plans. In this 1st phase, we focused on establishing the context, determining the case cities and study area, as well as developing the detailed Background Profile of Cities. The case write-ups feature qualitative and empirical description of these cities, including the history/evolution of urban plans, local urban planning policies, processes and associated broad physical, economic, social and environmental development trends or relevant incidents which had significant influence on the city’s physical development. Findings from this first phase will inform the 2nd phase where we will investigate: (i) the urban form and city development of the selected cities based on the identified spatial and socioeconomic metrics; and (ii) effectiveness in the implementation of urban plans.
Impact of Litigation on the Real Estate Market in Mumbai
1Tata Institute of Social Sciences; 2IDFC Institute; 3George Mason University; 4Brookings India and Member, Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council
The formal housing market in Indian cities has not been responsive to the growth in urban population. A striking feature of land and real estate markets in urban India is weak property rights, unclear titles, encroachment and complex regulatory processes which increase the likelihood of legal disputes and choke supply of land and housing. This paper aims to understand the impact of litigation on the real estate market in Mumbai by making use of a unique dataset on ongoing real estate projects. We find that litigations have a positive and statistically significant effect on completion times of projects and may be contributing to severe delays. Policy reforms focusing on improving land titling and tenure for urban land, simplifying regulations and process of granting approvals could help resolve this problem.