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04-06: Adressing Impact of Large Scale Land Investments
From Abundance to Scarcity: Consequences of Large Scale Land Acquisitions in central Mali.
Lancaster University/IIED, United Kingdom
This longitudinal study of land and livelihoods in Kala, central Mali explores how the bush has filled up with migrant farmers, and consequences for agricultural sustainability, and farmer-herder relations. In 1980, when I first visited the region, the villagers of Kala said – “the bush is so big, it can never finish”. Now the villages say sadly “the bush is finished”. How has land abundance turned to scarcity? From the 1970s, farmers have been fleeing from villages close to the irrigated Office du Niger because of bird damage to crops. In 2009, 20,000 ha was given by the Malian government to a Chinese sugar company, to the south-east of Kala. Hundreds of farmers lost their farms, and they too are all now flooding into the Kala area begging for land to cultivate. Satellite images for the last 20 years illustrate clearly how space around this and neighbouring villages is filling up.
Bottlenecks and Opportunities to Generate Economic and Environmental Benefits out of Sustainable Forest Plantations in Mozambique
World Bank, Mozambique
Forest plantations can provide rural livelihood opportunities and enhance natural resource management in Mozambique. In order for these benefits to be achieved, different sized multi-purpose plantation mosaics led by local landholders and potential external investors in partnership with them need to be fostered. Mozambique can be a competitive location for forest planting given the potential land availability and reasonable growth potential. Currently this potential is under-realized due to competition with illegal logging, infrastructure shortcomings, and particulalry challenges related to land access and barriers in access to finance. This brief suggest ways to address these barriers through a variety of measures tailored for different size and purpose of forest plantations, including investment financing, emission reductions payments, matching grants and xxx. These will facilitate planting decisions, but for the sector to become long-term self-sustaining, the currently quite low financial profitability of the practice and low skills levels needs to be addressed.
Labor Impacts of Large Agricultural Investments: focus on Mozambique, Kenya and Madagascar
1French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and Malagasy Land Observatory, Madagascar; 2CIRAD and International Land Coalition (ILC), Rome; 3CIRAD and University of Pretoria, South Africa; 4CIRAD, France; 5Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 6CETRAD (Centre for Training and Integrated Research In ASAL Development), Kenya; 7University of Kyoto, Japan
What are the concrete impacts of large-scale agricultural investment development with regards labor creation? This paper compares the employment impacts of private farming enterprises in Kenya, Mozambique and Madagascar. Using a methodology common, a total of 1,800 household were randomly selected and interviewed in impacted areas (buffer zone around farming enterprises) and in counterfactual zones. Impacts of the enterprises in terms of jobs created and household living conditions depend on: the business models of the enterprises, the crops produced and, in particular, the intensity of labor requirements. The jobs often benefit the most vulnerable segments of the population: poor households, migrants, youth and / or women. This can be seen as an advantage in terms of poverty reduction or critically considered as the direct result of the absence of alternatives for the most vulnerable. All these results help to inform decision-makers on the models of agriculture to be promoted.
Legal Claim Making in Large-Scale Land Based Investments – Does it Help Affected Communities?
University of Tuebingen, Germany
The paper focuses on one way in which global regulatory frameworks in regards to large-scale land based investments are supposed to work: Through providing local actors with arguments and instruments through which they can defend their rights vis-à-vis investing companies (legal mobilization). So far, systematic research into this issue is missing. The paper will address this gap through providing a theoretical framework based on the concept of legal opportunity structure that includes both a top-down, institutional as well as a bottom-up, actor centered view. Applying the framework to Sierra Leone shows that both legal reform as well as practical opportunities have to be considered for improving the bargaining situation of local actors. Apart from supporting existing research, my findings create new insights: The role of legal assistance for local actors as well as the differences between companies in dealing with legal mobilization should be subject of further research.