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01-07: Boundary Demarcation and Territorial Governance
Mapping and Territory: What Critical Cartography Offers to an Analysis of Land Governance?
Cornell University, USA
The field of critical cartography attends to the ways in which cartographic practices “produce” territory through mapping. Critical cartography problematizes the assumptions of objectivity often presupposed in “technical” activities such as land surveying or identifying customary land tenure. Although this constructivists lens has significant implications for land governance analysis, the insights of critical cartography are usually not transferred into policy discussions. Building on the case of the Miskitu people in the region of Moskitia in eastern Honduras, this paper examines how cartographic practices have contributed to the making of indigenous territories. This paper argues that participatory mapping projects significantly influenced the formation of the indigenous territories, known as territorial councils in Honduras, transforming how stakeholders think about boundaries and the management of natural resources. Integrating the lens of critical cartography can contribute to a better identification of the dynamics that emerge as effects of mapping and finding the most appropriate solutions.
Conflict in Collective Formalization Processes: Opportunities for Transformation?
1CIFOR, Peru; 2CIFOR, Kenya; 3CIFOR, Indonesia
Conflict in relation to forest and land tenure security is multi-dimensional, although the most common problems are usually associated with overlapping claims or boundaries. This article examines conflict in the context of the formalization of collective forest rights in three countries, Peru, Indonesia and Uganda. This research specifically examines the nature of conflicts by combining results from multiple scales and perspectives – from national and subnational government implementers of tenure reforms, to communities and male and female household members. It asks how formalization processes alter the nature and/or trajectories of land and resource-related conflict and examines the association of conflicts with the different types of tenure regimes in which they occur. It explores factors that contribute to exacerbate or transform conflict.
Urgency of Village Boundary Setting / Resource Mapping, Villages and Land Governance in Indonesia
1Millennium Challenge Account - Indonesia (MCA-Indonesia); 2Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
Millennium Challenge Account Indonesia (MCA-I) has adopted methodology and approaches that combines the state guidance – Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) Regulation No 45 of 2016 on Village Boundary Delineation and Demarcation – on how to implement Village Boundary Setting and Resource Mapping (VBS/RM) in Indonesia; participatory approaches where villagers are being the key actors of the implementation activities in village level; as well as newest technology such as GIS (geography information system), GNSS (global navigation and satellite system) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to produce the best result in terms of map’s quality and accuracy. The combined VBS/RM approaches using the state guidance, participatory approaches, and advances technology are important tools that have produced not only an adequate village boundary map with technical accuracy, social legitimacy but also formal recognition from the government who has sole authority in doing VBS/RM activities in Indonesia.
Addressing Encroachment on State Forest Land in Tunisia
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy
Tunisia’s state forest lands face a common problem of encroachment due to increasing pressure from developers, farmers, and pastoralists. Moreover, the boundaries of State forest land are unclear; archival maps are outdated and boundary markers are insufficient. The paper describes a pilot activity in Siliana governorate adopted by the government's Direction Générale des Forêts (DGF) to address the tenure issues affecting state forest areas. The open source software Open Tenure was used to collect data on encroachment.
While country contexts differ significantly, the lessons gained through the experience in Tunisia provide insight for other countries interested to address the issue of forest land encroachment. This topic has wider ranging application for global efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation.