The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Location: MC 6-100|
|Date: Tuesday, 20/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-06: Tools for Responsible Agro Investment|
Session Chair: Kathryn Elizabeth Mathias, Illovo Sugar Africa Ltd, United Kingdom
Benefits Sharing Model on Large Scale Investment in Land: A Case of Large Scale Investment in Tanzania
Ministry of Lands Housing and Human Settlements Development, Land Tenure Support Programme (LTSP), Tanzania
Tanzania is among the African countries in which investors have shown keen interest in acquiring large tracts of land for investment. As part of its policy initiatives, the Government seeks to attract such investment, in large part in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT). The government announced its initiative which includes plans to secure 25 large commercial farming deals for rice and sugarcane production. The government hopes to achieve this by encouraging investors to utilize investment structures that ensure that all parties—local communities, national and sub-national governments and investors—equitably share in the financial and other benefits accruing from new agricultural investment. Despite of all these aspirations the Government of Tanzania has not establish a crystal clear model through which benefit sharing on large scale investment in land can be guaranteed. A study has been undertaken to analyze various benefit sharing models and make recommendations suitable for Tanzania context.
Identifying Community Membership in Collective Land Tenure: Exploring Linkages and Sharing Experiences in the Case of River Cess County in Liberia
The Sustainable Development Institute (SDI)
Over the past ten years, Liberia has implemented progressive land tenure reforms. The Community Rights Law (CRL) of 2009, the Land Rights Policy (LRP) of 2013, and draft Land Rights Act (LRA) to a varying degree, recognize customary rights to land. These rights include rights of the community as a collective and the rights of individuals, groups, or families within the community. However, the membership of communities has been significantly altered over the years, partly due to the protracted civil war in the country. This has made community definition, membership, and benefit sharing mechanisms precarious. This paper assesses how communities identified as customary land holding units define “community membership” and distinguish between the rights of a community “member” and that of an “outsider.” It provides an analysis on how individuals and groups gain access and benefit to shared land and resources.
Innovative Mechanisms For Better Responsible In Large-Scale Land Based Investment In Agriculture And Forestry Development In Vietnam
1Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam; 2OXFAM Vietnam
Land fragmentation is a barrier to the development and that is leading to development of the land accumulation policy in Vietnam. However, the friction between the limited tenure rights offered to citizens and the state’s power of compulsory land requisition is the primary driver of land disputes.
While a number of incentives for investors/enterprises have been developed, there is lack of a legislative requirements to attach responsibility of enterprises in land based investments, lacking an effective mechanism for land use right holders in monitoring land management and ineffective of court system in solving land conflict are being seen as the main causes for land governance limitation.
This paper provides practical evidences and solutions to ensure land use right and to improve livelihood of smallholder in Vietnam through (1) developing a code of conduct on responsible investment on agricultural land and (2) a citizen monitoring land governance in Vietnam.
Towards Responsible Agricultural Investment in Lao PDR: a study of agribusiness experiences
GIZ, Lao People's Democratic Republic
In 2017, a study team supported by GIZ sought to document diverse experiences of agricultural investments in Lao PDR (Laos), and identify success factors for making agricultural investments more sustainable. The study also aimed to examine the extent to which international guidance – such as the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests within the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) and the Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS Principles) – shapes interactions between the various stakeholders, especially local communities. Key findings of the study include the emerging trend of local community-investor agreements, analysis of recent reforms to the Lao legal and regulatory framework coupled with gaps in implementation and enforcement, and the potential to apply regional guidance to improve practices of Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese investors in Laos.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-06: How Does Land Governance Affect Investors Risk Perceptions?|
Session Chair: Chris Jochnick, Landesa, United States of America
Deforestation Risks: Financial Costs and Tropical Agriculture Supply Chains
Climate Advisers, United States of America
25% of GHG emissions come from agriculture and land‐use. 70% of tropical deforestation is caused by agriculture. In 2016, BlackRock suggested deforestation is a material risk for investors. In 2017, UBS stated that the FSB’s Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures “enables (investors) to address material deforestation risks in agriculture supply chains and for downstream (corporate) buyers.” CDP reported that 200 corporations had $900 billion in revenueat‐risk from deforestation commodities: soy, palm oil, cattle, timber. Corporate zero-deforestation commitments have increased 200% since 2015. Chain Reaction Research analysis has shown material financial risk to corporations.
This presentation will discuss how these material risks impact corporations with deforestation in their supply chains. Eight risk management tools will be presented. Eight real-world case studies will highlight equity valuation, debt ratings, cash flow, financial accounting, and divestment risks. Results will demonstrate how companies’ valuation decrease if they do not address deforestation-related supply chains.
Facing Criticism: Responsibility, Large-Scale Land Acquisition, and its Critics
University of Cologne, Germany
This presentation discusses how corporations, investors and agribusinesses involved in large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) respond to actors concerned about LSLA, such as NGOs, local communities, peasant movements, scholars, and journalists. Over the last ten years, these critics have been very vocal in raising concerns about the responsibilities of investors involved in LSLA – and also of institutional actors and policy makers facilitating the investments. Largely absent in most debates, however, are explicit analyses about how corporations respond to the concerns raised by their critics.
The presentation demonstrates that the extent to which an investor responds to the criticism it (directly or indirectly) faces depends on the investor’s profile. Moreover, it argues that the most critical voices in the LSLA debates play a central role in shaping investors’ responses to the concerns raised.
Land and Poverty through the prism of the Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries: Sustainable development, Large Scale Land Based investments and its impacts on land rights, poverty alleviation and food security in Tanzania.
University of Oslo, Norway
This paper focuses on the Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries and its investments in the agribusiness sector in the United Republic of Tanzania. The paper is based on the preliminary findings of my fieldwork research in Norway. Thus, it briefly presents the Fund, the investment and the concerns raised in relation to it (in terms of land governance, development outcomes, poverty alleviation and food security). This paper seeks to contribute to a better understanding and open a space for dialogue on the role played by Development Finance Institutions in land governance and poverty alleviation.
The paper is particularly relevant to two of the ten themes of the conference (1 and 10):
New academic research on the impact of land tenure security for sustainable development, equity and prosperity, (results and their policy relevance; new research methodologies);
Achieving responsible large-scale land based investments: lessons learned 10 years on.
The First Biennial Investor Survey on Land Rights: Revealing the perceptions and practices of the private sector on land and resource issues and risks
1Indufor North America, United States of America; 2USAID; 3Individual
USAID has initiated a voluntary Investor Survey on Land Rights, conducted by Indufor, with a primary objective of establishing and analyzing a database on private sector perceptions of land tenure risks with quantified direct and indirect costs. The paper will highlight findings from the first biennial survey, including land-based investments and risks, investments rejected due to land tenure uncertainties or risks, challenges faced among private sector actors regarding land disputes, and strategies to resolve land tenure disputes or promote better land governance. The research will serve as a valuable resource on responsible investing.
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-06: Can Supply Chain Management Help Improve Land Governance?|
Session Chair: Mario Cerutti, Luigi Lavazza SPA, Italy
Leveraging Big Data to Promote Sustainable Supply Chains: The Case of Paraguay’s Beef Sector
1USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Project, Tetra Tech; 2World Resources Institute
Cattle ranching is expanding in the Paraguayan Chaco and has contributed to the degradation and loss of forests and associated ecosystem services. Today, most land in the Paraguayan Chaco is private land, with a significant amount also in large public protected areas. Deforestation rates on private lands are considerably higher than on indigenous lands and lands in the public protected estate. As cattle production expands, the risk of more deforestation on private lands is high. Protecting the land rights of indigenous peoples could help secure their livelihoods and protect the remaining forests in the Paraguayan Chaco. This paper describes an assessment of the deforestation and land rights risks to meatpackers sourcing cattle from the Paraguayan Chaco, as well as the development of a bottom up platform for documenting indigenous claims to land in this region.
Can Consumer-Led Initiatives Reinforce Government Action To Arrest Tropical Deforestation Driven By Industrial Agriculture?
Natural Capital Advisors, United States of America
Theme: New rigorous impact evaluations on scalable approaches toward strengthening land governance.
Industrial agriculture—mainly for export commodities like oil palm, beef, and soy—drives most deforestation in the tropics, and the forest clearing is often illegal. This masterclass evaluates whether actions taken by consumers in conjunction with governments can help reverse the patterns of forest loss in the tropics. Experience suggests that in order to reverse commodity-driven deforestation in the tropics, two mutually reinforcing approaches are necessary, and neither sufficient alone: government action is needed to rationalize and enforce land use laws, and consumer initiatives are needed that push agribusiness to be both responsible (e.g., zero-deforestation) and legal.
Multi-level public-private governance arrangements for sustainable palm oil in Indonesia
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia
This work examines the potential and limits of private and public sector arrangements to advance sustainable palm oil supply. Using a multi-level focus which drills down from national level to specific ‘case study” provinces, we analyze connections between subnational actors influencing decisions at higher governance levels and vice versa. We look at Central and West Kalimantan, important frontiers of oil palm expansion, where provincial governments have made commitments to advance sustainability in their jurisdictions through jurisdictional approaches. Based on interviews to key informants, literature review, and discussions with key stakeholders we characterize the main institutional arrangements, and analyze their potential and limitations, and the tensions, contradictions and complementarities to implement the public and/or private sustainability agenda, and the prevailing structural and operational constraints limiting progress.
Are Sustainable Pathways Possible for Oil Palm Development in Latin America?
1ENSAIA, Nancy, France.; 2Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.; 3CIRAD - Forests and Societies research unit, Montpellier, France.; 4CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.; 5ICRAF, Lima, Peru.
The palm oil sector in Latin America emerged in the 1930s with investments of private industries. After a long period of poor development, the sector has known a new youth in the 1970s with the involvement of the States. Public incentives then favored an agro-industrial business model. Since the 1980s it has been experiencing a promotion of more growers’ inclusion in the value chain, local development and sustainability of production. ‘Strategic alliances’ and ‘social sector’ models emerged as answers to this demand. They now represent almost 30% of the regional production. The agro-industrial sector is also moving towards a more sustainable production by adopting the RSPO criteria and certification, and by developing ‘strategic alliances’, with the support of national public policies. Latin America appears on the way to lead sustainability in the palm oil sector. But challenges are numerous and the way is still long and perilous.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-06: Adressing Impact of Large Scale Land Investments|
Session Chair: Jean-Philippe Colin, IRD, France
From Abundance to Scarcity: Consequences of Large Scale Land Acquisitions in central Mali.
Lancaster University/IIED, United Kingdom
This longitudinal study of land and livelihoods in Kala, central Mali explores how the bush has filled up with migrant farmers, and consequences for agricultural sustainability, and farmer-herder relations. In 1980, when I first visited the region, the villagers of Kala said – “the bush is so big, it can never finish”. Now the villages say sadly “the bush is finished”. How has land abundance turned to scarcity? From the 1970s, farmers have been fleeing from villages close to the irrigated Office du Niger because of bird damage to crops. In 2009, 20,000 ha was given by the Malian government to a Chinese sugar company, to the south-east of Kala. Hundreds of farmers lost their farms, and they too are all now flooding into the Kala area begging for land to cultivate. Satellite images for the last 20 years illustrate clearly how space around this and neighbouring villages is filling up.
Bottlenecks and Opportunities to Generate Economic and Environmental Benefits out of Sustainable Forest Plantations in Mozambique
World Bank, Mozambique
Forest plantations can provide rural livelihood opportunities and enhance natural resource management in Mozambique. In order for these benefits to be achieved, different sized multi-purpose plantation mosaics led by local landholders and potential external investors in partnership with them need to be fostered. Mozambique can be a competitive location for forest planting given the potential land availability and reasonable growth potential. Currently this potential is under-realized due to competition with illegal logging, infrastructure shortcomings, and particulalry challenges related to land access and barriers in access to finance. This brief suggest ways to address these barriers through a variety of measures tailored for different size and purpose of forest plantations, including investment financing, emission reductions payments, matching grants and xxx. These will facilitate planting decisions, but for the sector to become long-term self-sustaining, the currently quite low financial profitability of the practice and low skills levels needs to be addressed.
Labor Impacts of Large Agricultural Investments: focus on Mozambique, Kenya and Madagascar
1French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and Malagasy Land Observatory, Madagascar; 2CIRAD and International Land Coalition (ILC), Rome; 3CIRAD and University of Pretoria, South Africa; 4CIRAD, France; 5Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland; 6CETRAD (Centre for Training and Integrated Research In ASAL Development), Kenya; 7University of Kyoto, Japan
What are the concrete impacts of large-scale agricultural investment development with regards labor creation? This paper compares the employment impacts of private farming enterprises in Kenya, Mozambique and Madagascar. Using a methodology common, a total of 1,800 household were randomly selected and interviewed in impacted areas (buffer zone around farming enterprises) and in counterfactual zones. Impacts of the enterprises in terms of jobs created and household living conditions depend on: the business models of the enterprises, the crops produced and, in particular, the intensity of labor requirements. The jobs often benefit the most vulnerable segments of the population: poor households, migrants, youth and / or women. This can be seen as an advantage in terms of poverty reduction or critically considered as the direct result of the absence of alternatives for the most vulnerable. All these results help to inform decision-makers on the models of agriculture to be promoted.
Legal Claim Making in Large-Scale Land Based Investments – Does it Help Affected Communities?
University of Tuebingen, Germany
The paper focuses on one way in which global regulatory frameworks in regards to large-scale land based investments are supposed to work: Through providing local actors with arguments and instruments through which they can defend their rights vis-à-vis investing companies (legal mobilization). So far, systematic research into this issue is missing. The paper will address this gap through providing a theoretical framework based on the concept of legal opportunity structure that includes both a top-down, institutional as well as a bottom-up, actor centered view. Applying the framework to Sierra Leone shows that both legal reform as well as practical opportunities have to be considered for improving the bargaining situation of local actors. Apart from supporting existing research, my findings create new insights: The role of legal assistance for local actors as well as the differences between companies in dealing with legal mobilization should be subject of further research.
|Date: Wednesday, 21/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-06: Securing Land Rights in Mining Investments|
Session Chair: Estherine Lisinge Fotabong, NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, Cameroon
Assessment of Legal and policy Frameworks Affecting Land Access for Extractive Projects in Kenya.
Land Development and Governance Institute, Kenya
Before year 2012, extractive projects in Kenya mainly covered medium and small scale mining operations. Thereafter, an incredible growth in the sector has taken place owing to the discovery of commercially viable oil deposits. This growth has occasioned acquisition of large tracts of land to roll out extractive related projects. The acquisition is mainly affecting unregistered community land and is threatening security of tenure rights. It is likely to increase land related conflicts. How these threats are addressed is of significant importance.
A need has emerged for assessing the adequacy of the legal and policy frameworks governing land acquisition (access) in relation to oil and gas exploration, development, production and mining operations in Kenya. This paper provides an assessment of these frameworks. It is guided by sustainable development principles.
Women's Land Rights In Large- Scale Based Investments: The Case Of Uganda's Oil And Gas Sector.
MINISTRY OF LANDS, HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, Uganda
Land acquisitions throughout Africa are largely driven by increased investments in land triggered by increased global demand for energy, minerals, oil resources, food and infrastructure development (Cotula, L 2009). In Uganda, land acquisitions are largely triggered by infrastructure development for electricity generation, transmission and distribution, roads, mineral and petroleum extraction, agricultural investments, re settlements for war/conflict and environmental refugees, conservation purposes and preservation and restoration of the environment.
Both public and private sector projects involve acquiring land which often requires people to move elsewhere and resettle. In general, resettlement has not always been successful and there are several recent examples where impacted people have claimed negative human rights outcomes (Uganda Draft LARRP, 2017). The consequences of poorly planned resettlement are well known internationally and include landlessness, homelessness, joblessness, relatively higher mortality and morbidity, food insecurity, lack of access to common property and public services, and disruption of the existing social organization.
Illegal Mining and Land Governance in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana.
Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana
In Ghana, a number of human activities including mining, tree felling, bush and charcoal burning, overgrazing, improper use of agro-chemicals among others continue to hamper efficient the efforts by governments towards efficient land and environment governance. In February 2017, Ghana’s Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources (MLNR) initiated a program aimed at stopping the proliferating trend of illegal small scale mining locally referred to as Galamsey to help save and protect the land and forests from destruction. The specific objectives of this research are: to explain the strategy employed by MLNR in operation “Stop Galamsey”; and to assess the effectiveness of MLNR Strategy at curtailing Galamsey. The study recommends a process of monitoring of the program located within Civil Society to ensure sustainability and also pushes for the development of guidelines on mine closure.
The Political Economy Land And Extractives In Post-liberalisation Tanzania: Towards A Synthesis
1DIIS, Denmark; 2Roskilde University, Denmark; University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and, University of Dodoma, Tanzania; 3University of Dar es Salaam
The land grabbing literature depicts large-scale investments as infringements on locals’ rights. Initially, the literature’s main focus was on foreign investors from the global North as land grabbers, but increasingly the role of other actors has been recognised. Since then, the scale of land acquisitions as well as the research methodologies have been up for revision and the research agenda has diversified into new fields. This paper suggests revisiting the grab literature’s point of departure by focusing on the reasons why some groups lose access to their land and others not. By combining a political economy approach with case studies of mining and natural gas investments in mainland Tanzania it argues that state leverage has been strengthened and that it may not always be the rural smallholders losing out. A renewed emphasis on national ownership of resources and populist electoral politics have weakened the hand of foreign investors.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-06: The Political Economy of Land and Mining|
Session Chair: Philippe Lavigne Delville, Institut de recherche pour le développement, France
The Capture of the Commons: Militarized Pastoralism and Struggles for Control of Surface and Sub-Surface Resources in Southwest Central African Republic
Tetra Tech ARD, United States of America
Deep seated political and economic instability in the Central African Republic (CAR) is linked to the migration of militarized pastoralist groups from surrounding countries into the southwest long occupied by sedentary peoples engaged in farming, forest product extraction, and artisanal mining of rich alluvial diamond and gold deposits. Pastoralist herds owned by urban elites of the surrounding countries are attracted to the rich water and pasture resources of the southwest, but also, the gold and diamond deposits, a major source of income from illicit mining. Traditional and statutory land management institutions have collapsed over the past decade, thereby rendering large parts of the country a defacto open access resource tenure regime. The situation may appear intractable, but this paper suggests that Local Pacts, negotiated conventions advocated by the Bangui Peace Forum, may resolve deep seated struggles over surface and sub-surface resources while contributing to peace building and social cohesion.
Customary Tenure Adaptation and the International Economy: Engagement with Global Markets through the Transformation of Surface and Sub-Surface Customary Tenure Regimes in Diamond Mining Areas of northern Côte d’Ivoire
Tetra Tech ARD, United States of America
The West African Sahel and Sudano-Guinean zones have long been integrated into the global economy through commodity exports. Few studies explore how resource tenure evolves as a consequence. This paper portrays how two diamond mining areas of northern Côte d’Ivoire (Séguéla and Tortiya) are adapting in an astonishingly rapid fashion not only to changing dynamics in the diamond economy, but also, around new markets for cashews. Both customary and statutory tenurial institutions and local level rule-making are redefining traditional land use norms and resource tenure arrangements to surface and sub-surface resources. Local communities plan for the use of their territorial spaces, and as in these two cases, community land use planning is often more efficient, effective, and adaptable than government land policies and land use development plans. Weak states, confronted with severe human and financial constraints should encourage these endogenous planning processes rather than impose cumbersome territorial land use planning.
Managing Conflict and Fostering Cooperation Between the State and Customary Land Owners as a Precondition for the Effective Formalization of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in West Africa: The Case of Diamonds in Côte d’Ivoire
Tetra Tech, United States of America
The disconnect between customary and statutory land tenure systems is a key feature and challenge in francophone sub-Saharan Africa, especially with respect to mineral resources. Policy-makers and practitioners engaged with artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), however, rarely take a property rights lens on the social, political and environmental challenges of the sector. Instead they focus on the concept of formalization, and how removing barriers to legalization and better integration into the formal economy helps promote good governance and local development. This paper examines how the customary-statutory divide in land management can help explain and offer new policy options for ASM formalization. The paper draws upon the case of artisanal diamond mining in Côte d’Ivoire and the ways in which conflict and cooperation between state and traditional land owners over diamond mining during the last 30 years has been decisive in determining the extent and sustainability of formalization.
Customary Authorities and their Impact on the Political Economy of the Artisanal Mining Sector in Eastern DRC
Tetratech, ARD, Congo, Democratic Republic of the
In Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) customary authorities have varying roles related to tenure rights, and in particular access to land and mineral resources. This presentation draws on two case studies to illustrate differences in how customary authority impacts the local mining economy and the establishment of conflict free minerals supply chains in the DRC. This includes n access to mineral resources, investment,and related impacts for conflict free sourcing initiatives.
The first case study focuses on Walungu Territory, where the traditional authority owns the rights over land. The second case study focuses on Mwenga territory where traditional authorities do not have rights over land.
The impacts of these two different models of customary authority on the artisanal mining sector and land use/access will be discussed, including implications for policy, investment and the establishment of conflict free minerals for the DRC
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-06: Agricultural Growth Poles & Corridors: A Fad or The Future?|
Session Chair: Lorenzo Cotula, IIED, United Kingdom
Challenge Of Shrinking Public Land In East Africa
Walker Kontos, Kenya
This paper will examine the challenge of shrinking public land in the context of massive energy, infrastructural and housing projects by national and county governments, as well as local and international investors. It deals with the problem of rapid urbanization, urban sprawl and informal settlements in East Africa where planning laws and regulations are either non-existent or in need of reform. It considers the effect that shrinking public land has in slowing development projects due to the high cost of land acquisition and relocation as well the severe strain on environment and in achieving sustainable development. It offers several solutions based on comparative analysis and the uniqueness of East Africa. It will examine reforms in urban planning and development as it applies to East Africa to increase the efficiency of use of land for urban development
Towards making robust land use decisions: An empirical assessment of non-material co-benefits of rural production landscapes in India
1The Unviersity of Tokyo, Japan; 2United Nation's University, Tokyo, Japan
Societies derive multiple material and non-material benefits from production landscapes, of which, non-material benefits are largely overlooked in issues such as land acquisition. While material benefits are generally well-accounted in state-run land acquisition programs, understanding non-material benefits is equally important for socially inclusive land acquisition. To facilitate a rapid, landscape-scale empirical assessment of non-material benefits of production landscapes, we narrate a case study of participatory mapping of non-material co-benefits of multiple rural production landscapes from the lower Gangetic delta in India. The study attempts to map five non-material benefits, namely spiritual, aesthetics, heritage, recreational and educational, by utilizing a combination of household survey and participatory GIS. The methodology of this study relies on a rapid appraisal method which integrates the notion of place attachment and participatory mapping. As such, the results facilitate comparative understanding of non-material co-benefits on rural production landscapes; besides providing valuable information for local planners and administrators.
The Rise of Agricultural Growth Poles in Africa
International Institute for Sustainable Development
This paper analyzes the key challenges and opportunities linked with the development of Agricultural growth poles, also known as agropoles, in Africa. These poles represent a new trend in Africa’s agricultural development strategy, and are on the rise as many countries are implementing them or considering doing so. The paper found that Africa has seen the emergence of 36 agricultural growth poles and 9 corridors over the past 15 years, covering at least 3.5 million hectares of land in 23 countries.
The paper reflects on the role of laws, policies and institutions in maximizing the opportunities offered by increased investment in agriculture through agricultural growth poles and corridors. It also presents the three key stages for developing Responsible Agricultural Growth Poles, providing key recommendations for each stage.
: vision, design and implementation.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-06: New Approaches to Developing Agricultural Value Chains|
Session Chair: Dietmar Stoian, Bioversity International, France
Learning from Civil Society - Business Innovation Pilots for Governance of Agricultural Investments in Sub-Saharan Africa
University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
Given the role of private sector investment in agricultural transformation and concerns surrounding negative impacts of large-scale investments on customary land rights, some donor and civil society - private sector partnership initiatives seek to test how practical engagement by corporate business can leverage broader concerted action by governments to improve land rights protection and the environment for sustainable investment and economic development. This paper examines a set of localized, donor assisted civil society - business partnerships that test innovations in company practices, tools, and business models, and the lessons emerging to identify the value these potentially add to governance systems that are ultimately territorial jurisdictional responsibilities of states. It identifies available channels to connect the learning underway with broader improvements in company practice and national governments’ performance. In conclusion, some emerging implications and questions for policy and research to achieve sustainable improvements in land governance for economic development are identified.
Value Chain Development And Land Tenure Regularization In Mozambique. The Case Of Prosul, Linking Market To Land Tenure Secured Communities And Smallholder Farmers
1Agricultural Development Fund (FDA)/ Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MASA), Mozambique; 2International Agricultural Development Fund (IFAD)
the paper that will be drafted for the 2018 Land & Poverty conference will pay specific attention to two key issues that the project believes are central to the land tenure security process in Mozambique. The first one is related to community participation, and to how this can be further promoted, guaranteed and strengthened. Across all project components and the three VCs, community consultations and community participation represent a key aspect to the sustainable maintenance of the agreed limits and boundaries. The second aspect is related to the targeting of women and youth, and their benefits from the land tenure regularization process in PROSUL, and moreover the effects this has had on their productivity and participation in the VCs.
Land markets as a new way of managing lands in Senegal River valley?
1CIRAD, France / UGB Saint Louis Sénégal; 2CIRAD, France / ISRA BAME Dakar
In Senegal, The promotion of new models for land governance and tenure questions their concrete applications on the ground and their impacts on durability: What will be the social, economic and environmental impacts of these news projects? How to promote integrating different production systems, at least in a transition phase and how to promote inclusiveness for improved management of land and water? Interactions between stakeholders (farmers, breeders, investors) and their territories will be analyzed through a comprehensive study of the different forms of arrangements on land and water management, which will further be used to analyze social, economic and environmental impacts of the development of new projects. The study will analyze the functioning of informal land markets. It will aim at understanding the strategies of the various stakeholders (family farmers, agrobusiness, communities, etc.) in these markets, as well as the regulating rules.
Land and Tree Tenure Innovations for Financing Smallholder Cocoa Rehabilitation in Ghana
1USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Program, Winrock International; 2USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Program; 3USAID Tenure and Global Climate Change Program, Tetra Tech
Over the past sixty years, cocoa has been a central element of Ghanaian economic and cultural life. As Ghana aims to maintain its market share, it is important to rehabilitate its aging farms. The private sector, through cocoa buying companies and international chocolate brands, is interested in supporting rehabilitation of cocoa farms, but faces constraints in reaching and providing finance. Based on initial research, land and tree tenure constraints are major barriers to cocoa farm rehabilitation financing, affecting a large percentage of poor farmers. Yet private companies have largely been unaware what they can do to reduce these constraints as influential but individual entities. USAID has partnered with the private sector to develop a financing model based on reducing risk through strengthening local land and resource tenure. This paper provides a synthesis of activities to integrate land and tree tenure into a financing model for smallholder cultivation of tree crop commodities.
|Date: Thursday, 22/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-06: Drivers and Impacts of Large-Scale Agro Investments|
Session Chair: Jann Lay, GIGA - Germany, Germany
The Globalization of Farmland: Theory and Empirical Evidence
1World Bank, United States of America; 2International Monetary Fund, United States of America
Following the great recession of 2007-2008, there has been a booming interest in the direct acquisition of farmland in developing countries. To capture stylized facts of the rush for land, we develop a model that accounts for technology, geography and institutions as determinants of transnational investments in land, and that differentiates between investments that resemble platform FDI and those that seek to increase food independence in the origin country. Using updated global data on large-scale land acquisitions and cultivation suitability, and for the first time at the subnational level, we find that investors favored countries with smaller, not larger, agricultural market potential, which is consistent with the food-independence motive for land investments and a trend of agricultural globalization.
Impacts Of Large Agricultural Investments - A Comparative Analysis From Three African Countries
1University of Bern, Switzerland; 2French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and International Land Coalition (ILC), Rome; 3Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria, South Africa; 4CIRAD, France; 5University of Pretoria, South Africa; 6Malagasy Land Observatory, Madagascar; 7CETRAD (Centre for Training and Integrated Research In ASAL Development) Nanyuki, Kenya; 8Study of Governance Innovation, University of Pretoria, South Africa; 9University of Pretoria, Department of Plant Production and Soil Science
Utilizing a cross-country comparative approach – focused on Kenya, Mozambique and Madagascar – we shed light on differences in the national contexts that shape the concrete outcomes and impacts of distant drivers of land use change. The project comprises three main lines of inquiry. First, it seeks to understand what drivers and rules of the game serve to pull, push, or regulate agricultural investments at the global and respective national and infra-national levels. Second, it investigates investors’ strategies, examining how their business models evolve (or not) in relation to global drivers and national/local governance. Third, it aims to understand and assess how these agricultural investments impact natural resources, poverty, and food security at the national, local, and household level. This cross-country, comparative approach sheds light on how differences in national contexts mediate and reshape the influence of international drivers of change, determining the concrete outcomes and impacts of agricultural investment.
Towards normalization? Comparison and evolution of land acquisitions in eight African countries
1Land Matrix Initiative; 2International Land Coalition; 3CIRAD; 4University of Pretoria; 5Centre for Development and Environment (CDE) - University of Bern
Large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) have been the subject of a large body of research, focusing particularly on global or sector specific dynamics. This paper rather takes an inter-country perspective. Using data from the Land Matrix and applying a comparative case study design, the comparison and evolution of land acquisition mechanisms is presented for eight African countries. The presentation of comparative figures is complemented with an analysis of the respective regulatory frameworks. Results show that convergences are observed for several data variables; investor countries, location drivers and nature of the deal, while there is diversity in the scale, intention and temporal data. The policy frameworks implemented may account for some of these findings. International guidelines do not account for the diversity, as they are in their infancy or have not (yet) been launched. The role of external factors and the requirements from investors themselves likely explain most of the trends.
Tainted Lands: Corruption In Large-Scale Land Deals
1University of Louvain (UCL, Belgium) and at SciencesPo (Paris); 2Global Witness
This report details the findings of the Tainted Lands project, which was jointly launched in 2015 by the International Corporate Accountability Roundtable (ICAR) and Global Witness. At the outset of the project, ICAR and Global Witness commissioned Professor Olivier De Schutter to author this report, which is the result of a series of stakeholder consultations and extensive desk-based research. The intention of this report is twofold. First, the report aims to raise awareness of large-scale land deals, corruption, and the combined effects of these two issue areas on human rights around the world. Second, the report intends to provide practical steps that corporations, financial institutions, and governments must take to prevent human rights harms from occurring in the context of corruption and land.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-06: Monitoring Implementation of Large Agro Investments|
Session Chair: Francine Picard, IISD, Switzerland
Forms of land tenure and property in a municipality in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, and strategies for community land rights protection.
1ActionAid USA, United States of America; 2ActionAid Guatemala; 3CONGCOOP Guatemala
Pressure to sell land to palm oil companies after the civil war has increased the vulnerability of indigenous-peasant communities in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. This situation stems from the forms of land allocation by the state, which do not guarantee collective rights of communities. When community land tenure is disrupted, the systems of community life are also violated.
The paper explores the material and symbolic relationship of people to land in these indigenous communities. Concepts of possession and ownership of the land have arisen as a result of the different types of political, economic and legal approaches that have emerged over time in response to indigenous concepts, generating new approaches and challenges to understanding individual and collective land rights. The tenure forms discussed include: a) state ownership, b) private ownership, c) communal tenure d) other forms promoted by agrarian programs.The paper concludes with proposals for the protection of the community lands.
Fostering Transparent and Evidence-Based Reporting: the Case of Uganda
1IFAD, Italy; 2Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries of Uganda
The increase in large-scale land acquisitions by foreign investors in recent years has put land rights issues and responsible agricultural investment more visibly back on the global development agenda. While the topic has attracted a lot of attention internationally, access to reliable data on the phenomenon of large-scale land acquisitions has been a major challenge in the debate on their actual impact on rural people. This paper highlights the issues that affect the sourcing and reporting of large-scale land acquisitions. After providing this framework, the study intends to analyse the reporting of a project supported by IFAD - the Vegetable Oil Development Project” (VODP) in Uganda - to analyse the dynamics behind the reporting system of land platforms.
Collaborative planning for land-based investments in agriculture and forestry in Tanzania, Mozambique and Uganda
1Shared Value Foundation; 2CIFOR; 3LANDac; 4Utrecht University
Multi-stakeholder approaches have in recent years received increased policy and media attention. Yet theoretical frameworks focussing on, and explaining processes of collaborative planning remain scant. Existing theories point in the direction of a shift in governance and planning, with more appreciation of multiple and changing goals, nonlinear planning processes, and interdependent clusters of epistemic communities informed by both local and global sources of knowledge. Building on theory of collaborative rationality, this paper aims to expand its geographic scope and explore its applicability in the context of land-based investments in agriculture and forestry in Tanzania, Mozambique and Uganda. We will draw on our own experiences in organising and monitoring three multi-stakeholder dialogues in investments hubs in the sample countries. We argue for the importance of local knowledge to support 'authentic dialogue', and we stress the role of continuous engagement and collaborative monitoring in achieving changes on the ground.
Emerging Developments in Responsible Large-Scale Agricultural Investment in the Mekong
1Land Equity International Pty Ltd, Australia; 2Independent; 3Gret
This paper presents the Mekong Region Land Governance project’s role as a convenor on responsible agricultural investment issues in the Mekong, as well as substantive content and developments agreed during a Regional Workshop in November 2017.
In the Mekong Region, as with other parts of the world, there has been a new wave of large-scale land acquisitions for agricultural investments coming into Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar in particular. In the Mekong region, significant areas of land have been granted to companies for agro-industrial investments with an expectation to generate Foreign Direct Investment in the agricultural sector, boost productivity and spur modernisation, create jobs in rural areas and increase government revenues in countries that were thought to be “land-abundant.” In reality, the trend is proving seriously problematic, due to impacts on smallholder farming systems, limited return to local economies, and overlaps of land claims leading to conflicts and evictions.
|12:00pm - 2:00pm||Women's caucus|
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-06: Principles of Responsible Agro Investment: Next Steps|
Session Chair: Chris Brett, World Bank, United States of America
Land Rights as a Critical Factor in Donor Agricultural Investments: Constraints and Opportunities for YieldWise in Kenya’s Mango Value Chain
Landesa, United States of America
Investment to improve the efficiency of smallholder farmers has the potential to strengthen food security, improve livelihoods, and enhance supply chains. Given the foundational nature of land rights to agriculture, the authors argue it’s important to accompany agricultural interventions with land tenure assessments to understand how those interventions can be impacted by – and potentially impact – smallholder’s land rights. This paper explores how land assessments in agricultural interventions can highlight barriers affecting program uptake, sustainability, and success, thereby shedding light on new solutions for donors and implementers. The authors draw on the land tenure assessment they conducted for the Rockefeller Foundation on its YieldWise Initiative programming in Kenya, presenting findings and recommendations from that assessment. The authors present six land-related issues and accompanying recommendations to help Rockefeller and program implementers design, implement, and monitor the program to attain more sustainable and equitable outcomes, particularly for women and youth.
Responsible Large-Scale Land Investments In Uganda - Current Application And Potential Scope Of International Safeguards
1Justus Liebig University Giessen; 2University of Marburg; 3Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
As a consequence of the sharp increase in large-scale agricultural land investments on a global level, a number of international initiatives and investment principles have emerged to foster responsible investments in land and agriculture in developing countries. This paper focuses on how these voluntary safeguards are operationalized by large-scale agricultural land investments in Uganda and whether the resulting activities successfully mitigate risks of (land) disputes. In this context, data collection through key informant interviews during a field research revealed limited awareness of these safeguards among various stakeholders and limited awareness of investors for the risks of land disputes and potential mitigation measures. Moreover, barriers for the implementation of voluntary safeguards from an investor’s perspective such as lacking monitoring capacities and secondary effects on land markets are identified. In conclusion, potential interventions for governments, international organizations and donors to stipulate responsible agricultural investments in land are outlined by this paper.
Governing Land Investments: Do Governments have Legal Support Gaps?
Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America
The terms governing land investments can shape whether host countries and local communities benefit from investment projects. Yet host governments in low- and middle- income countries often lack sufficient legal and technical capacity to prepare for, negotiate, implement, and monitor investments, and can confront barriers in accessing necessary expertise. This report focuses on the “legal support gaps” encountered by low- and middle- income countries in the context of land investments for agricultural and forestry projects that are regulated by investor-state contracts. It offers good practices—for host governments, donors, legal support providers, and investors—that can increase government access to, and use of, legal support and improve the capacity of lawyers to help governments achieve responsible land investments.
From Abstract to Actionable: The Status and Prospects of Emerging Tools and Innovations to Achieve Responsible Land Based Investments
Rights and Resources Initiative, United States of America
The Interlaken Group is an informal network of individual leaders from influential companies, investors, CSOs, government and international organizations. The purpose of the Group is to expand and leverage private sector action to secure community land rights. Together they develop, adopt and disseminate new tools and advance new “pre-competitive” mechanisms to accelerate private sector learning on responsible land rights practices.
This presentation will provide an update on the status, progress, and next steps of efforts being undertaken or steered by the Interlaken Group towards narrowing the “implementation gap” between private sector commitments to respect community rights to land and forests, and actual change on the ground.
|Date: Friday, 23/Mar/2018|
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-06: Achieving Responsible Land Based Investments|
Session Chair: Lukasz Czerwinski, Landesa, United States of America
Achieving Responsible Land Based Investments: Why Aren’t Best Practices a Done Deal?
Landesa, United States of America
This 90-minute masterclass will be a panel discussion on FPIC, Grievances Mechanism, and, Gender Issues, three of the toughest aspects of implementing best practices in responsible investments in land. There is clear consensus that investments in land should be done responsibly. Well-known instruments, such as the AU Guiding Principles and the VGGT, have been developed to provide guidance. But a number of challenges have emerged when applying these standards. For example, to what extent should consent be obtained from communities? How can a company establish a grievance mechanism? How can the needs of women be considered and addressed? There will be no power points or notes. The majority of the time will focus on responding to tough questions from the audience.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-06: Considering and Negotiating Community-Investor Contracts|
Session Chair: Rachael Knight, Namati, United States of America
Considering and Negotiating Community-Investor Contracts: A New Resource
1Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, United States of America; 2Namati; 3Mapbox
There are many potential benefits and risks for local communities who decide to enter into negotiations with an investor or company seeking to use community lands and natural resources for an investment. This interactive MasterClass presents and works with new Guides developed by Namati and the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI) to support communities and their advocates when interacting with investors. The guide is designed to assist communities to: be prepared in case an investor or company contacts them and asks to use their land; to decide whether or not to enter into negotiations with an investor or company; and where relevant, to negotiate an equitable, just agreement. The interactive MasterClass will cover key components of the Guides, and will also provide an opportunity for participants from different countries to share their own experiences, insights, and challenges tied to community-investor agreements.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-06: A Toolkit for Screening Prospective Investors in Agriculture|
Session Chair: William Speller, UNCTAD, Switzerland
A Toolkit For Screening Prospective Investors In Agriculture
1UNCTAD, Switzerland; 2World Bank, Washington DC; 3University of Reading, UK
UNCTAD-World Bank research, and other work, shows that agricultural investments vary greatly in the extent to which they generate benefits or impose risks on host countries and affected communities. Screening and selection of prospective investments is a critical component of countries’ policy framework aimed at meeting the challenge of how to ensure that investments maximize the social, economic and environmental benefits, while minimizing the risks. This paper summarises existing available resources on how to screen agricultural investors. It calls on donors, international organisations, and civil society organisations to develop more. It provides a detailed toolkit that can be adapted to host countries’ individual circumstances.