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|Location: MC 10-100|
|Date: Tuesday, 20/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-10: Impact Evaluation of Land Registration|
Session Chair: Jennifer Lisher, Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Community Land Protection in Liberia: The Impact on Neocustomary Norms and Institutions
1University College London, Political Science; 2The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
Is it possible to change property rights norms, even when changes affect the position of powerful constituencies? In this paper, we explore the effects of external changes to informal property rights institutions using a quasi-experimental evaluation of an intervention designed to protect community land and promote the rights of vulnerable groups, including women, in the West African nation of Liberia. We focus on the effect of the Community Land Protection Program (CLPP), an intervention that seeks to empower communities to successfully protect communal land rights, but that also emphasizes full participation of women and other previously excluded groups. We use two rounds of survey data collected in 2014 and 2017 from 43 communities and find evidence that while some behaviors and norms prove persistent over time, others do shift as a result of an outside intervention.
Does Tenure Reform Influence Household Food Security?
Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia
This article analyzes the outcome of forest reform on household food security of forest dependent communities. Study involved 2733 respondents, 55 communities and five reforms types, and analysis done using descriptive and inferential analysis. Finding from descriptive analysis suggest the respondents in Peru indicated they were food secure and perceived tenure security had improved. In Indonesia and Uganda, both members and nonmembers were food secure. Finding from the ESR probit model suggest that perceived tenure security, land owned by communities, years of education, ownership of dwelling, age in years, forest products, ancestry and external contact, had influenced membership. Results suggest that tenure security outcomes are sensitive to the range of rights held by communities; food security outcomes are better under situations of full ownership rights regardless of whether dejure or de facto. Food security of forest adjacent communities are placed at risk where rules for harvesting forest products are strict.
Silver Bullets or Shooting Blanks: Estimating the Impact of Formal Land Property Rights on Economic Development in Rural Colombia.
1George Mason University, United States of America; 2George Mason University, United States of America
Economic development literature often portrays secure property rights as essential for growth and prosperity. Four arguments are often put forward to support this claim - First, property rights provide secure tenure from probable seizure. Second, in a situation of insecure tenure, individuals will have to incur in external costs of defending their property, therefore diverting resources that could be used for more productive activities. Third, they provide the possibility to use land to support other transactions, such as gaining access to the credit market. Finally, property rights facilitate gains from trade.
However, solid empirical evidence supporting this claim has been elusive and focused mainly on urban settings. To address this gap, we employ a novel approach to estimate economic output at the municipal level in rural Colombia using satellite nighttime lights data and along with registry-cadastre data, test the validity of the above claim.
Rural property rights and migration: evidence from Ethiopia.
The London School of Economics, United Kingdom
This paper provides evidence that security of ownership over land is of crucial importance to households when deciding whether to send a migrant. The results are particularly relevant to many developing country contexts where property rights over rural land are contingent on the occupant demonstrating productive use of the land. Using a unique farm-household panel dataset from the highlands of Ethiopia, this study demonstrates a robust positive relationship between tenure security and migration. The identification strategy relies on the gradual roll-out of a land certification program at the village level, as well as exogenous variation in water availability, a likely trigger of out-migration from agriculture. The results demonstrate that households with tenure certificates are around 15 percent more likely to have a member that has migrated for work. We further document that water scarcity during the growing season encourages out-migration from agriculture, however, droughts during the planting period discourage migration.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-10: Efficiency and Growth Effects of Land Interventions|
Session Chair: Michael Toman, World Bank, United States of America
Legitimizing the State or a Grievance?: Land Restitution and Titling in Colombia
Columbia University, United States of America
Can granting formal property rights incentivize political engagement or help rebuild war-torn communities? This paper examines whether the formal recognition of a right----in particular, a formal property right to land---affects an individual's incentives to engage in politics. Theoretically, I argue that formal property rights are powerful symbols that legitimize claim-making and incentivize property owners to engage in politics. However, this impact is conditional on the broader institutional environment and whether the state can adequately guarantee rights. I examine titling programs in Colombia's countryside, including an ambitious land restitution policy targeted specifically at victims of internal displacement and armed conflict. I find evidence that formalization is associated with increases in voter turnout, use of courts, and willingness to engage in politics, but only in areas with weak institutions. I support these findings with qualitative evidence suggesting that property rights have a symbolic importance that goes beyond changes in tenure security.
Land and Growth
World Bank, United States of America
Land and Growth
Firms need capital, labor and land to produce output. More efficient firms can produce more output if they have better access to factors of production. While there may not be such a thing as a perfectly efficient factor allocation, there are huge gains to be made by reducing factor misallocation. However, our knowledge of which factor market is more distorted is still at an early stage. Might it be the case that land markets are much more distorted than capital and labor markets in developing countries? If yes, there is huge need and scope to scale up investments in advisory services focused on land and growth.
Property Rights Reforms and Local Economic Development: Evidence from Mexico
UC Berkeley, United States of America
A recent literature explores the effects of rural land titling programs on labor reallocation. Yet, we have little evidence on the second-order effects titling programs can have on the non-agricultural sector for both local areas and surrounding cities. This paper fills that gap by using the rollout of the Mexican land title program Procede together with restricted-access data on non-agricultural firms. We employ a panel fixed effects research design to control for the non-random rollout of the program. Our preliminary results suggest that outmigration, as opposed to increased local labor supply or income effects, from rural areas is the likely dominating force with total wages and the number of large firms decreasing. The results of the land reform are heterogeneous – areas favorable to agriculture have differentially more firms, driven primarily by small-scale manufacturing, but lower wages. Further iterations of this paper will include analysis on cities and agricultural production.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-10: Impact Urban Land Reform on Affordable Housing|
Session Chair: Eric Heikkila, University of Southern California, United States of America
Land Tenure Systems and Urban Land Use: theory, and evidence from Kampala City
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
The local land tenure systems within Kampala strongly correlate with the density of different types of households and firms. However this simple analysis doesn’t control for the economic geography of the city. Using a Computable Spatial General Equilibrium Model, we develop a benchmark version of a city with firms and households optimally making their location decisions across the urban space, when faced with transport costs for shipping goods, commuting, and a fixed supply of urban land. The model is calibrated using detailed disaggregate data on Kampala, revealing local productivity and amenity parameters. These are explained using city-wide variation in land tenure systems. The evidence reveals that Mailo and Customary land, areas with relatively weak land rights, are particularly dense in informal housing, and difficult for firms to locate on. Simulating changes in local land tenure reveals potential economic benefits of land reform, and the unequal distribution of these welfare gains.
Understanding Housing Consumption Behavior Across The Formal And Informal Land Market Divide: Econometric Estimations And Household Views From Metropolitan Buenos Aires
1Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic; 2Inter American Development Bank
In Latin American metropolitan areas, the mismatch between formal supply and demand for housing and serviced land is generally attributed to the dynamics of land markets including land market regulation. These regulations define an implicit, spatially differentiated upper bound on how many households can be accommodated within the formal housing sector. If the actual population exceeds the absorptive capacity of the formal sector, informal settlements are an inevitable outcome. The challenge addressed in this study is to build on a theoretical model of formal and informal housing sectors, enhancing its potential for application to specific LAC real world context, to understand the housing consumption behavior across the formal and informal land market divide, conditional on the effects of the land use regulations. The empirical estimations are based on innovative data, including households’ income & expenditure data, land use regulation and land prices, covering formal (regulated) and informal land markets.
The Brazilian Housing Program - Minha Casa Minha Vida – Effect on Urban Sprawl
Fundacao Getulio Vargas - Sao Paulo, Brazil
The Federal Brazilian Housing Subsidy Program “Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida”-PMCMV (My House My Life) was created in 2009 and has been the largest housing Program ever implemented in Latin America. We analyse the effects of the PMCMV on urban sprawl and its trend comparing the urban footprint in 2005 and 2015 and then the change in trend from 1995 to 2005 vis a vis 2005 to 2015, using satellite images. The conclusion is that the Program itself has no significant impact on urban sprawl: municipalities that received investments from the Program did not sprawl more than municipalities that did receive those investments. However, the number of house units do have an impact on the spatial pattern of the urban footprint. This is not a clear indication that the Program is causing sprawl, but it is an evidence that the Program does have an impact on the urban footprint.
Housing at the Centre of Urban Policies: The Case of Peru
129x55, Peru; 2World Bank
The “Housing at the Center” requires a paradigm shift from basic construction of houses to a more holistic approach which integrates regulatory frameworks, urban planning and finance, human rights and the need to place people at the center of sustainable urban development. The existing government’s strategy, programs and budget in Peru have been inadequate to the achievement of such goals. In this paper we produce multiple binary indicators for housing deficit that could close these information gaps that prevent housing policies in Peru to be more effective. We do so by using the National Household Surveys from 2001-2016 (near 100,000 questionnaires), where detailed information from the housing characteristics (including land tenure) and its occupants. With this information base, we have been able (i) to characterize the process of housing improvement and (ii) to identify the impact from labor income
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-10: Games & Experimental Economics|
Session Chair: Tobias Vorlaufer, University of Marburg, Germany
Political Trust, Risk Preferences, and Land-Taking Compensation: Evidence from Survey Experiments in China
1University of Connecticut, United States of America; 2Zhejiang University, P.R. China
Land acquisition becomes a touchstone for protests and conflict during China's urbanization, driving local governments to diversify land-taking compensation from solely one-time cash payments to multiple payments, notably, in the form of pension insurance and yearly dividends. To what extent do farmers support the new compensation schemes? This study establishes the importance of political trust and risk preferences on individual decision-making. Political distrust induces farmers to choose traditional one-time cash payments over multiple cash payments. Both risk-averse and risk-seeking individuals prefer one-time cash payments to yearly dividends. The findings are developed using two choice experiments: We elicit individual compensation decision-making by asking farmers to state their preferences over hypothetical alternative compensation instruments; We elicit risk preferences using a lottery-choice experiment with varying probability of winning real monetary rewards. The findings are important to understanding to what extent the government efforts in innovative compensation designs are effective at quelling rural anger.
Introducing and Terminating External Incentives: A Field Experimental Study of Forest Conservation as a Common-Pool Resource Dilemma
University of Marburg, Germany
The aim of this study is to analyze whether external institutional incentives have a lasting effect on conservation that persists even after incentives are terminated. We set up a forestry-framed common-pool resource game in Namibia and introduced positive(reward) and negative(fee) incentives that aimed to increase cooperation. The participants in the game were small-scale farmers and they had to make decisions about either clearing new fields in the forest or staying on their old ones, which resembles decisions they make in real life. The game was played over several periods and the incentives were ceased after some time to test for persisting effects in a post-incentive period. Results show that increases in cooperation persist after termination of negative incentives. After termination of positive incentives, cooperation decreased, albeit not significantly. We also find that cooperation increased over time in a control group that had never received additional incentives.
System Dynamics model for preventing land expropriation conflict
1huazhong university of science and tecnhongy, China, People's Republic of; 2huazhong university of science and tecnhongy, China, People's Republic of; 3huazhong university of science and tecnhongy, China, People's Republic of
Land expropriation conflict (LEC) shall be such a gradual procedure from land expropriation risk, to the contradiction in land expropriation and then the LEC. The prevention on LEC shall also be such a complex system problem, in this study it depends on entropy principle to interpret the cutting process of the energy in LEC, and construct the system dynamics model for preventive measures of LEC. Then it analyzes the evolution and prevention process of LEC by taking Wuhan as example. The studies shown that, the prevention on LEC shall be the process with the interaction between positive entropy and negative entropy, such preventive system meets the dissipation structure characteristics. When the negative entropy input was quite low and it cannot inhibit the increase of positive entropy, the probability of land expropriation shall increase accordingly.
Political Instability and Perceptions of Land Tenure and Governance in Zambia
The Cloudburst Group, United States of America
On August 11th, 2016 the incumbent president of Zambia, Edgar Lungu, was re-elected amid allegations of electoral fraud from his primary opponent Hakainde Hichilema. Rising tensions in Zambia and a series of events (including a motorcade confrontation and market fire) led to Hichilema’s arrest and later President Lungu’s invocation of emergency powers on July 3rd, 2017. This paper explores the effects of the political instability on perceptions of land tenure security and governance in Zambia. Specifically, this paper asks if individuals holding geographically contrarian political views exhibit lower tenure security than their peers. This is accomplished by analyzing a large-N household survey collected for the impact evaluation of U.S. Agency for International Development’s Tenure and Global Climate Change Zambia program in combination with by polling-station level election results published by the Electoral Commission of Zambia.
|Date: Wednesday, 21/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||05-10: Impact of Land Markets Changes|
Session Chair: Benjamin Linkow, Landesa, United States of America
Impact Of Land Rental on Smallholders’ Commercialization Evidence From Northern Ethiopia: A Panel Data Analysis
Norwegain University of Life Sciences, Norway
The purpose of this study is to examine whether participation in the land rental market from the demand side affects participation and degree of participation in the output market of smallholder farmers. We use a correlated random effects probit and tobit models to analyze the effect of area rented in on participation and degree of participation in the output market as crop seller. We apply a control function approach to control for possible endogeneity associated with access to area rented in. Results show that for a change of area rented in by one ha, the likelihood of participation in the output market as a crop seller increased by about 8 % and degree of participation increased by about Birr 602-616 per household per year. Thus, promoting land rental market appeared to have a more robust impact on smallholder commercialization in a land-scarce economy.
Grassland Rental Markets And Herder Technical Efficiency: Ability Effect or Resource Equilibration Effect?
Renmin University of China, China, People's Republic of China
To explore whether grassland rental markets improve herder technical efficiency, to what extent and how, this study applies Metafrontier-DEA approach by employing field data collected from 416 herder households to examine the impacts of herder participation in grassland rental markets on their technical efficiencies. Results show that herders involved in the grassland rental markets can increase their technical efficiency by 2.75%. Compared with the autarky group, the lessors increase their efficiency by 3.36%, and the lessees increase efficiency by 2.76%. No significant efficiency difference is found between the lessors and the lessees. We conclude that grassland rental markets improve herder technical efficiency mainly through resource equilibration effect rather than ability effect. This suggests that under the current institutional environment, more attention should be paid to normalize and guide the grassland rental markets rather than to address land transfer from the less-able to the more-able producers.
Assessing Livelihood And Environmental Impacts Of Secure Access To Land For Landless Youth Under The Ethiopia Sustainable Land Management Program
The World Bank, United States of America
An innovative land tenure intervention being piloted under the World Bank supported Sustainable Land Management Project II provides landless youth with secure access to land. Under this initiative, degraded communal land is allocated to landless youth who undertake soil and water conservation measures to halt the degradation process and return the land to a productive state. Early evidence from field reports, interviews, and anecdotal accounts have been positive, reducing youth unemployment and migration, increasing stewardship, while boosting climate resilience and carbon storage. However, sound empirical evidence is lacking and further analysis is necessary to justify scaling up. To help fill the information gap necessary before making a recommendation on the appropriateness of scaling up this activity, a more structured approach to evaluate the impact of the intervention is needed.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-10: Socio-Economic Effects of Tenure Regularization|
Session Chair: Frits Van Der Wal, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands, The
Agricultural Policies in Colombia: The Dilemma between Food Security and Commodity–Export Agriculture (Case Study of Tolima, Colombia)
1Mississippi State University, United States of America; 2Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin, Colombia
Is there a disconnect between food and agricultural policies in Colombia? If so, why is that the case? This paper suggests that in a scenario of the structural transformation of agricultural production, central governments no longer need to rely in their rural periphery to obtain foods, instead they can rely on external sources to do so. On the other side of the equation, rural areas are no longer existential for state consolidation, but critical for obtaining tax revenue from export-oriented agricultural production in order to sustain the provision of public goods in urban areas (Rico Mendez, 2016).
Using the case of Tolima-Colombia the paper will approach the problem through the analysis of: 1) National policies for food security and agricultural production; 2) the structural transformation in food systems; and 3) institutional changes in rural areas. Results from this research are critical for the post-accords in Colombia.
Macroeconomic and Fiscal Impacts of Land Reform in Uganda: Lessons Drawn from Bank Funded Operations in PSCP and CEDP
World Bank, Uganda
The Government of the Republic of Uganda (GoU) through the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD) has been implementing the Land Component under the Competitive and Enterprise Development Project (CEDP) with funds provided by the World Bank and the GoU.
In order to evaluate impact, the forthcoming paper intends to discuss whether the above described program of reforms have (a) provided security of tenure to the targeted populations, (b) enabled the newly secured owners to use their property as collateral for obtaining credit, or to invest in productivity optimizing activities; (c) promoted land and property markets, (d) reduced transaction cost for land and property transfers; ( e) improved land administration effectiveness, (f) improved government revenue through land and property taxation, (g) encouraged improved investment in rural and urban low income housing; (h) improved and assured better access to rural and urban land services, (i) assured improved planning decisions.
A Land Administration Project In Honduras Assesses The Positive Effects Of Land Titling
1FAO, Italy; 2Instituto de la Propiedad, Honduras; 3RegioPlan, Honduras; 4World Bank
In 2016, the second phase of the Land Administration Project in Honduras (PATH II) conducted by the Property Institute (IP), carried out a study to determine to which degree supporting the security of tenure improves livelihoods in poor households. This program, which received a loan from the World Bank and technical support of the FAO Investment Center, was the continuity and expansion of the previous PATH I. Both projects focused on strengthening land information systems and land administration institutions, updating cadaster, land titling for poor households and the recognition of indigenous territorial rights. The assessment clearly demonstrates the positive impacts of the land titling program on the perception of tenure security in poor households, which has translated into greater investments made in housing and businesses. This evaluation also highlights the relevance of this project, since poor households have very limited opportunities to obtain land titles of their own accord.
Security of Tenure Model: Its Impact on Livelihoods of Small Holder Farmers in Zimbabwe Following the Land Reform Programme. A Case Study of Chifundi and Elmily Park in Makonde District: Mashonaland West Province.
Ministry of Lands,Agriculture and Rural Resettlement, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe has an agricultural based economy hence land is a fundamental pillar for economic growth and employment creation. Post-Independence, the Government embarked on a Land Reform Programme which saw Zimbabweans who hitherto were landless now being owners of productive land. Tenure security issued to small holder farmers in resettled areas has contributed to increased productivity and substantial developments. Over the years, the level of productivity and investment in the study area has improved significantly. Women in the study area have acknowledged land is an essential resource in their lives and secured access to the resource has empowered women to support their livelihoods. Efforts by the Government to accord every land holder secure tenure should be strengthened as this influences the relationship between people and the land, the level of investment the land owner will make and the financial assistance the land holder will receive ultimately resulting in transformed livelihoods.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-10: Streamlining Land Administration Procedures|
Session Chair: David Egiashvili, FAO, Italy
On Common Ground – Addressing Land Rights in the African Great Lakes Region
ZOA, Netherlands, The
The paper addresses the multi-dimensional causalities of land rights challenges and their interconnections with violent conflict in three countries of the African Great Lakes region: Uganda, Burundi and the DR Congo. While each of these countries has its own very specific context and challenges, the author argues that there are commonalities that allow for the drawing of broader lessons for practically working on land rights issues in the great lakes region, based on the experiences of locally-based projects in three countries, extensive expert consultations and the results of existing research.
Mozambique: Even a Progressive Land Law Needs Revision after a Generation of Experience
DAI, United States of America
Mozambique is widely regarded as having a modern and progressive land tenure framework. However, implementation has not always lived up to the promise of the original law. Twenty years of experience have revealed several areas in which the legal framework would benefit from revision and better serve its primary aims of promoting productive land use while still protecting legitimate customary land rights.
Topics that were once off-limit – for example, loosening the restrictions on land rights transfers in rural areas – are now being discussed and openly debated. The time is ripe to address this and other weaknesses in the legal framework and thereby catalyze investment, increase productivity and enhance transparency in land administration. This paper examines the existing legal framework and prioritizes recommendations to achieve the above-mentioned goals while simultaneously safeguarding legitimate land rights of communities and individuals.
Assessment of Land Administration Service Delivery In Three Selected States In Nigeria - Experiences From Ekiti, Kebbi and Niger States
1Presidential Technical Committee on Land Reform, Nigeria; 2Federal Ministry of Power, Works and Housing, Nigeria; 3University of Lagos, Nigeria
Good and sustainable land administration is a key factor in the overall socio-economic development of any nation. World Bank Report on Doing Business 2017 ranked Nigeria 182 among 190 economies on the ease of registering property. Since registration of land parcels commenced in Nigeria in 1863, not more than three percent of the nation’s land mass of 923,768 square kilometres have been surveyed and registered. This underlines the depth of the problem of land administration in the country.
To further the appreciate the scale of the problem, the land reform committee established by government in 2009, with a mandate to recommend measures for improving land governance in the country, undertook land administration service delivery study in three states - Ekiti, Kebbi and Niger States - in addition to the study earlier undertaken in seven others.
This paper will present the findings of the study and the measures recommended for improving the system.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-10: Economic Benefits from Land Administration Reform|
Session Chair: Michael Graglia, New America, United States of America
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre of Republic of Macedonia - Before and after the reforms, lessons learned, business orientation
Agency for Real Estate Cadastre, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
The Government of RM has identified AREC, as a significant part in the governmental overall program as a catalyst to transition to a market economy and to support private investment and business creation.
The number of days to record the purchase or sale of property or mortgages dropped from 30 days in 2005 to just one day. AREC is widely recognized as a valuable asset for the real estate market growth, demonstrated by the increase not just in the number of transactions but also in the number of mortgages, both of which grew exponentially: the number of property transactions more than tripled, while the number of mortgages more than quintupled. Increased numbers of foreign and domestic investments, such as Greenfield investments, have a direct influence on the Government Development Agenda, improvement of the economic growth and competitiveness on a permanent basis, higher employment, higher living standards and quality of life.
Improving Land Administration – Strategical Outlook
In many countries around the world, the trend of building and maintaining efficient land administration and spatial data infrastructures has expanded rapidly in the last couple of decades. Efficient land administration depends on the efficient response of land administration organizations, transparent procedures and information technologies supporting the keeping, maintaining, archiving, and disseminating of data and information.
Three different land administration systems (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia) in Central and Southeastern Europe are briefly presented, together with strategical orientation to execute the primary function of efficient land administration as well as to deal with challenges and changes.
All three of these counties have made remarkable progress towards meeting the national and citizens’ needs and requirements, which in the long term will be demonstrated by achieving sustainable land administration development.
Finding Common Ground
1Kadaster, Netherlands, The; 2ATR/BPN Indonesia
Indonesia has the ambition to register all individual landrights by 2025. The estimated number of individual parcels is around 110 million. The organisation tasked with this effort is ATR/BPN, the Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Development. ATR/BPN has adopted a multipath strategy to face this challenge. They strengthen and enhance the internal and external surveying capacity, diversify registration qualities to suit specific land administration purposes and seek a collaborative approach to land registration. The partners in this approach will come from ATR/BPN, Kadaster, civil society, private sector innovators and rural communities. Two pilots will be organised to validate the effects of the approach amongst rural communities with varying attitudes towards land registration. Within these pilots, a Fit For Purpose approach to land administration will be implemented balancing cost, time and quality factors with the actual land administration purposes to be served.
|Date: Thursday, 22/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-10: Evaluating Impact of Land Tenure Projects|
Session Chair: Cynthia Goytia, Harvard University and Torcuato Di Tella University, Argentine Republic
Beyond Titling: Impacts of a Multifaceted Land Governance Intervention on Land Conflict in Burkina Faso
Landesa, United States of America
In recent years, international development programs to secure property rights have shifted from an emphasis on issuing formal property documents to a broader approach that includes institution-building, citizen participation, and recognition of customary systems. One such program was the Millennium Challenge Account funded Rural Land Governance (RLG) activity in Burkina Faso. This paper investigates the impacts of a pilot of the RLG on the incidence of land conflict using household survey panel data. We find that the RLG substantially reduced the incidence of certain types of land conflicts in the project area. In particular, the predicted incidence of land conflicts that respondents characterized as “very serious” was 2 per 1,000 households following RLG, as compared to a predicted rate of 56 per 1,000 households in the absence of the program.
Tools for Impact Evaluation of Land Tenure and Governance
Millennium Challenge Corporation, United States of America
Tools for Impact Evaluation of Land Tenure and Governance
Impacts of customary land use rights formalization on smallholder tenure security and economic outcomes: Midline results from a RCT impact evaluation of USAID’s Land Tenure Assistance activity in Tanzania
1NORC at the University of Chicago, United States of America; 2MSI, Inc; 3United States Agency for International Development; 4Landesa
We report on baseline and midline findings from a USAID-supported randomized controlled trial impact evaluation of the effects of Certificate of Customary Right of Occupancy provisioning on a set of household outcomes hypothesized to improve with formalization of smallholder customary land use rights: tenure security, land disputes, land investment, empowerment, and smallholder economic outcomes. Results are based on baseline and midline findings from the evaluation of USAID’s Land Tenure Assistance Activity in Tanzania, after two rounds of household survey data collection. In addition, we explore the spatial distribution of plots in surveyed villages and use contextual spatial data to examine variation in outcomes on the basis of village and parcel characteristics. Given donor, implementer and government interest to find low-cost, scalable and sustainable approaches to achieve land formalization goals, our results have varying entry points of interest across donor, government, academic and other land sector audiences.
The Impact of Customary Land Certification on Land Tenure and Resource Governance: Results of the Tenure and Global Climate Change RCT in Zambia
Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America
This paper presents the endline results from a randomized control trial of the Tenure and Global Climate Change (TGCC) program in Zambia. TGCC was developed by USAID to explore the relationship between secure resource tenure and the achievement of climate change adaptation and mitigation goals. The evaluation uses a four-arm randomized design to investigate three key research questions: (1) whether an agroforestry extension program increased farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry, (2) whether village and household land tenure interventions strengthen the security of land tenure and resource rights for smallholders in a customary context, and (3) whether stronger tenure security increases farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry and uptake of other CSA practices. Through the first cross-cutting RCT of a customary certification program, this study aims to advance the literature and inform future programming on the impacts of tenure security on CSA practices.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-10: Impact of Payment for Environmental Services|
Session Chair: Anne Larson, CIFOR, Peru
Households’ Decisions to Participate in China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program and Reallocate Their Labour Times: Is There Endogeneity Bias?
1Department of Forestry, Michigan State University, United States of America; 2China National Forestry Economics and Development Research Center, No. 18 East Heping Street, Beijing, 100714; 3College of Economics and Management, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin’an, 311300, China
Past impact evaluations of China’s largest ecological restoration program have assumed the absence of self-selection (endogeneity) in the likelihood and extent of participation. Using appropriate testing procedures and a panel dataset of more than 1,000 households over 11 years in two primary provinces, we found evidence of self-selection in household behavior of generating off-farm income. But the hypothesis was rejected that there was a significant self-selection component in households’ decision to participate in the program and generate farming income. Evaluations ignoring the self-section for off-farm labor were found to be biased and overly positive on program impact. Self-selection should be explicitly included, unless there is counter evidence, in any study of this kind.
Triggers and Outcomes to Collective Action in Common-Pool Resources Management: A Devolution Case of Collective Forests in China
1University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2World Bank
This paper examines determinants and consequences of collective action in forest management in China. Since 2003, a devolution reform has given villages the right to decentralize their collectively-owned forests to households. Based on village collective decisions the following tenure types are observed and regarded “collective action”: (i) collective management in villages with the reform versus (ii) where no reform, and (iii) partnership, ie household joint management on a voluntary basis. Analyzing a two-period panel dataset of 3,000 randomly surveyed households in 256 villages, we test two hypotheses: 1) clear and secured tenure rights incentivize cooperation as transaction costs to achieving a collective action are reduced; 2) cooperation improves efficiency in allocating resources and thus has a positive impact on household income growth and poverty alleviation. The estimation considers heterogeneity in plot tenure rights, household management skills, opportunity costs, social capital, village size and pre-existing preferences (pro-cooperative or pro-independent management).
Effect Analysis of Market-based Grassland Management and Reciprocal Grassland Management: A Study on Inner Mongolian Pastoral Area
Renmin University of China, China, People's Republic of
After the Grassland Contracting System initiated in 1990s, the traditional community-based grassland management was replaced by single-house grassland management. To achieve more efficient grassland management, two grassland management patterns were developed on the basis of the single-household management : the market-based grassland management and the reciprocal grassland management. In the market-based pattern, households re-allocate grassland resource through participating in grassland market. In the reciprocal grassland management, households jointly use grasslands through personnel negotiation. The market-based grassland management and the reciprocal grassland management have raised increasingly attention from policy and academic aspects. But the management effects of the two patterns, especially the comparative management effects of the two patterns has not been well studied . This study analyses and compares the effects of the market-based grassland management and the reciprocal grassland management from economical, ecological and social aspects using the 417 household data of Inner Mongolia collected during our field work in 2011.
Land Conservation Payments Also Conserve Communal Social Capital
1Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.; 2Economics Department, Environmental Studies Affiliate, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, USA.; 3World Bank Development Impact Evaluation Unit, Washington, D.C., USA.; 4Evaluation Department, National Forestry Commission of Mexico, Guadalajara, Jalisco, MX.
Payments for Ecosystem Services programs incentivize landowners to protect or improve natural resources. Many conservationists fear that introducing compensation for actions previously offered voluntarily will reduce social capital – the institutions, relationships, attitudes, and values that govern human interactions – yet little rigorous research investigates this concern. We examined the social capital impacts of Mexico’s federal conservation payments program, one of the largest in the world. We used regression discontinuity to identify impacts, comparing outcomes for beneficiaries and similar rejected applicants close to scoring cutoffs. We found that payments increased land-cover management activities while maintaining or slightly improving pro-social work effort and social capital. These findings demonstrate that major environmental conditional cash transfer programs can support land management and also conserve the attitudes and institutions underpinning pro-social behavior.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-10: Studies on Youth and Migration|
Session Chair: Hosaena Ghebru, International Food Policy Research Institute, United States of America
Pulled or pushed out? Causes and consequences of youth migration from densely populated areas of rural Kenya
1Michigan State University, United States of America; 2Tegemeo Institute, Egerton University, Kenya
This study investigates youth access to agricultural land, and how land access influences youth’s permanent and seasonal migration in the densely populated areas of rural Kenya using panel data. Results show that youth’s permanent migration is a function of land access (own or control) rather than the amount of land the family owns. Youth migration increases with the age and reduces with education attainment of the youth. Permanent migration is more prevalent with youths of the male gender. At the household level, youth migration increases with intra household competition for land, and is more prevalent among households headed by women. Seasonal migration among the youth is not influenced by the youth’s land access and family land. It is a function of the individual’s age, gender and education achievement. At the community level, the results show that youth migration reduces with land productivity and village wage rate, and increases with land rental rates.
From Conflict to Conflicts: War-Induced Displacement, Land Conflicts, and Agricultural Productivity in Post-war Northern Uganda
1National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Japan; 2Otaru University of Commerce
For two decades since 1986, Northern Uganda experienced an armed conflict resulting in the internally displacement of people. Following ceasefire agreement in 2006 nearly all the displaced persons have now resettled to their original homes. This paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement on land conflicts in post-war period. We find noteworthy results: households that were displaced far away from their homes are more likely to have new land conflicts, more likely to be concerned about land conflicts, have higher proportion of parcels with new land conflicts, and higher proportion of parcels with concerns about land conflicts. Our results are robust to a number of robustness checks. The number of years the household spent without doing farming in home village, and weakening of informal institutions of land governance seem to be the main transmission mechanisms of the obtained results. We also find that land conflicts are detrimental to agricultural productivity.
Land Tenure Security, Land Holdings and Migration in Rural Ethiopia
Heriot Watt University, United Kingdom
Recent policies in Ethiopia have promoted land tenure security by granting landholders to transfer their land rights to family members and to rent out their plot up to 25 years. This study examines the impact of land tenure security on land concentration and rural-urban migration. We propose that land tenure security through the issuance of land title certificates can result in large scale adjustments to labor and land allocations. Using the Ethiopian large-scale land certification program from 2002-2007, we employ the standard difference-in-difference analysis on a panel of household-level data that describe economic and migration conditions. In the analysis, the non-uniform timing of certification is used to exploit the variation between treatment and control groups. We find that land title certification program led to increased migration of household member out of rural areas. We also show that rental markets are the main channel through which land certification affect migration.
|Date: Friday, 23/Mar/2018|
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-10: Development of Indicators for Measuring Progress in Pastoral Land Tenure Policy, Legislation and Tenure Reform|
Session Chair: Aimen Frija, ICARDA, Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of
Development of Indicators for Measuring Progress in Pastoral Land Tenure Policy, Legislation and Tenure Reform
1International Livestock Research Institute, Ethiopia; 2International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
This Masterclass will start the process of developing a set of globally recognised indicators for measuring progress for facilitating policy, legislation and enabling structures for the appropriate governance and management of pastoral lands. This will be a key input into the implementation of the VGGTs and other land governance and tenure frameworks. It will be used to lobby organisations responsible for developing global, regional and national indicators on land to pay more attention to pastoral land governance and tenure, while providing a benchmark for assessing progress of countries in doing the same. The Masterclass will be an interactive session involving all participants interested in land policy legislation and reform, land monitoring, and rangelands and pastoral lands. Participants will include government representatives, researchers, multilateral agencies, development agencies, NGOs and other participants of the Conference.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-10: Crime Prevention through Inclusive Environmental Design|
Session Chair: Bontje Zangerling, World Bank, United States of America
Crime Prevention through Inclusive Environmental Design
World Bank Group, Romania
Safe and Inclusive Cities KSB presents:CPTED Masterclass
This masterclass will focus on how to improve the built environment in a way that prevents crime & violence in neighbourhoods and enhances perceptions of safety. The event feature ‘Mainstreaming Crime Prevention through Inclusive Environmental Design (CPTED)’ methodology and real-world examples (Bank and non-Bank projects) aimed at crime and violence prevention.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-10: Anti-corruption solutions to land governance challenges in Africa|
Anti-corruption solutions to land governance challenges in Africa: An analysis of Transparency International ‘s Land and Corruption Project in Africa
1Transparency International Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; 2Ghana Intergrity Intiative; 3Transparency International Zambia
The Master Class by Transparency International (TI) through its National Chapters seek to present evidence on anti-corruption solutions to land governance challenges. The paper is informed by an analysis of various interventions by TI’s Land and Corruption Project in Africa. The paper will highlight how such interventions as participatory video documentaries, community open land dialogues, mobile legal aid clinics among many other interventions have created opportunities for local communities affected by land corruption to seek redress and demand for justice, transparency and accountability. The paper seeks to inspire the adoption of such interventions by actors with interest in improved land governance as well as the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 1 on ending poverty in all its forms, SDG 5 on achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls and SDG 11 on making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.