The conference agenda provides an overview and details of sessions. In order to view sessions on a specific day or for a certain room, please select an appropriate date or room link. You may also select a session to explore available abstracts and download papers and presentations.
|Location: MC 9-100|
|Date: Tuesday, 20/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||01-09: Towards Effective and Participatory Land Use Planning|
Session Chair: Jes Weigelt, TMG Research. TMG ThinkTank for Sustainability, Germany
Development Control in Practice: Protection of Agricultural Land in Kosovo
1GIZ, Kosovo; 2Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning
Reframing Local Land Use Planning Methods and Tools In South West Cameroon as a Foundation for Secure Tenure, Sustainable and Equitable Rural Development, and REDD+
1Ministry of Economy, Plan and Territorial Management (MINEPAT); 2LTS international; 3Rainbow Environment Consult; 4Ajemalebu Self Help (AJESH); 5Rainforest Foundation UK; 6European Forest Institute (EFI); 7Technical University of Munich (TUM)
The "Where?" in Participatory Local Land Use Planning: A Web Mapping Approach in South-West Cameroon
1LTS international; 2World Resources Institute (WRI); 3German Federal Geosciences Institute (BGR); 4Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK); 5Ajemalebu Self Help (AJESH); 6Rainbow Environment Consult; 7European Forest Institute (EFI); 8International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA); 9Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development (MINEPAT), Cameroon
A Tool for Ensuring Policy Impacting Research Results in Land Use Land Cover and Land use Planning
World Bank Group, Rwanda
Village by Village, Map by Map: Lessons for One Map Implementation - Affecting Synergies Between Villages, Regulatory and Administrative Structures, Through an Interconnected, Participatory and Community Centred-Approach to Village Boundary Settings (VBS) in Indonesia.
Abt Associates, Indonesia
|10:30am - 12:00pm||02-09: Linking Land Use to Tenure: Lessons From Brazil's CAR|
Session Chair: Bastiaan Philip Reydon, UNICAMP, Brazil
Environmental Rural Cadaster (CAR) in the Priority Municipalities for Deforestation Monitoring and Control in Amazonia, Brazil
1Brazilian Forest Service / Ministry of the Environment; 2Pro-Nature Foundation, Brazil; 3German Agency for International Cooperation - GIZ
The Environmental Rural Registry (CAR) is an important instrument for the management of landholdings environmental information in Brazil. All this information is compiled in the National Environmental Rural Registry System (SICAR) and represents an important source of data for environmental and economic control, monitoring and planning, as well as to combat deforestation. This publication provides information included in the SICAR database until October 10th 2017. This publication is developed for the geographical context known as the Priority Municipalities for deforestation control and monitoring in Amazon. In this paper, we present the total number and area of landholdings, remaining’s of native vegetation areas, permanent preservation areas and the area of legal reserves declared for each municipality. Furthermore, we present the Brazilian official deforestation data until 2016, and make a comparison between the total deforestation in the municipality and the part of the deforestation that occurred inside registered farms.
Rural environmental registry for traditional peoples and communities: Social participation and the history of enhancement of the module of registration
1Ministry of Environment, Brazil; 2GITEC-IGIP GmbH
Environmental policies that impact the territories of Traditional Peoples and Communities must include social participation methods in order to succeed. The history of the Rural Environmental Registry (cadastro ambiental rural – CAR) in Brazil is not different: only after the implementation of social control mechanisms and greater dialogue between the government and civil society, could the registration methodology of traditional territories be improved and gain more acceptance. This article will expose the important contribution of the National Council of Traditional Peoples and Communities (CNPCT), plus its partner organizations and social movements, to the definition of guidelines and safeguards that must be considered when registering in the CAR the territories of Traditional Peoples and Communities. Changes in the execution of public projects coordinated by the Brazilian Forest Service and consistent improvement of the database module have been possible thanks to this open dialogue.
FNDF Semi-arid Rural Environmental Registry Public Call: Experiences, Results and Perspectives
Brazilian Forest Service, Brazil
National Fund for Forest Development (FNDF) Semi-Arid Rural Environmental Registry public call was launched with the aim of making 56 thousand registrations in the Rural Environmental Registry in the Brazilian semi-arid region, aiming to increase the regularization of small rural properties in this region.
The result was the hiring of five private non-profit institutions that developed projects for the realization of rural property inscriptions of family agriculture and traditional peoples and communities. This public call made possible the innovation in methods and technologies for the realization of the registration in the CAR very successful.
In view of the positive results obtained in the field and with the information on the basis of SiCAR, the Brazilian Forest Service decided to develop the second phase with the objective of promoting the recomposition of the vegetation cover in the areas of the first public call.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||03-09: Implementing Land Consolidation in Practice|
Session Chair: Morten Hartvigsen, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hungary
Improving Land Management By Introducing The Achievements Gained Through Pilot Projects
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Directorate for Agricultural Land, Serbia
Within the framework of the activities on improving the management of agricultural land at the level of local self-governments in the Republic of Serbia, the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection - Directorate for Agricultural Land and the German Organization for International Cooperation GIZ are implementing the project Strengthening Municipal Land Management in Serbia. In the ongoing project phase the focus is on further improvement of human and institutional capacities in the field of rural development.
The project objective is to build up rural development in Serbia through an effective management of agricultural land including implementation of land consolidation schemes, measures to reduce abandoned agricultural land, development and implementation of the land policy programmes and appropriate legal regulations concerning agricultural land. Also, a major part of the project is related to the establishment and further upgrade of an information system for management of agricultural state-owned land.
Making Land Consolidation Feasible in the Western Balkans - Establishing a Focal Sub-Regional Expert Hub
GIZ - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Kosovo
Agricultural land fragmentation constrains agricultural development in countries of the Western Balkans on the way to become a member of EU. Investments into effective land consolidation programs contribute towards updated land cadasters, better infrastructure, better rural living and working conditions, increased investments, employment and increased direct and indirect tax revenues. Rural infrastructure can be improved, as state investments in agricultural infrastructure is often followed by much higher private sector investments. After land consolidation, land parcels become attractive for lease, sale and investments. Due to their history, countries in the Western Balkans are now seeking to modernize their mechanisms for land consolidation. The project “Strengthening Spatial Planning and Land Management” funded by the German Government, implemented by GIZ is supporting the Kosovo government in modernizing its legal framework on land consolidation. One approach sustaining the project’s efforts is to strengthen the ties between neighboring countries and establish mechanisms for peer-to-peer learning.
An Evaluation Of Land Consolidation Practices And Impact Assessment Of Projects: A Case Study Of Beyazaltin Village Land Consolidation Project In Eskisehir Province, Turkey
1General Directorate; 2Ankara University
An Evaluation Of Land Consolidation Practices And Impact Assessment Of Projects: A Case Study Of Beyazaltin Village Land Consolidation Project In Eskisehir Province, Turkey
Land Consolidation in Kosovo, Constrains and Difficulties
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Gmbh, Kosovo
The Republic of Kosovo is a small country in the Southeastern Europe, with an entire territory of 10. 908 km2. As such, it faces a complex situation pertaining to the land administration and ownership matters in general. Aside from a solid legal framework, land fragmentation proves to be the mayor obstacle when it comes to the land use versus spatial planning policies in place. Subsequently, there is a polarized agricultural sector with few large holdings and a large sector of small holdings. One major obstacle impeding land regulation in the field, remains the so called ‘old land consolidation’. This is has started back in 1983-1986 (under the ex YU legislation in force that time), and due to the social and political developments in place, it remains unfinished as of to date. The existing “Law on Land Regulation” follows the principle of voluntary land consolidation, as such not yet implementable.
InteGra Powered PRIDE(TM)s - Resolving the problem of land fragmentation and enhancing crop productivity
Tata Consultancy Services, India
The present paper addresses the problems related to land fragmentation and provide solutions to increase crop productivity through scientific farming practices, with the help of data science and digital technologies. The InteGra suite of technologies, developed at the Innovation Labs of Tata Consultancy Services enable farmers to record their information digitally, including the farm boundaries. The farm boundaries are documented at geo-spatial database with other relevant characteristics of the lands and crops. The analytical algorithm calculates the area based on the recorded farm boundary, which is further verified with documents available with farmer. The concept of PRIDETM enables the farmers to group themselves and access precision agriculture tools provided through InteGra services to become more competitive in the market. The digital farming services is one of the stepping stone for evergreen revolution and sustainable agriculture. These services are accessed by ~1 million farmers in 12 states of India.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||04-09: Land Readjustment: Case Studies|
Session Chair: Mansha Chen, World Bank, United States of America
World Bank, United States of America
Housing Policies to Increase Resilience to Disaster and Climate Related Events in Colombia
World Bank, Colombia
The need for safer, affordable housing is now global, and interest among cash-starved governments in retrofitting existing housing is increasing. For good reason: retrofit solutions would not only reduce the budget-busting costs of recovering from catastrophic natural disasters, they would save thousands of lives. Standardized and cost-effective retrofit techniques could raise existing substandard structures to adequate safety standards comparable to those for new construction. Upgraded housing policies could also induce voluntary resettlement for households living in areas where risk cannot be mitigated. In this paper we analyze the case of Colombia where according to UNGRD, 30,376 emergencies have affected 1.6 million housing units generating economic losses above US$5.6 billion between 1998 and 2016. We conclude that by rethinking the budget allocation and administrative of its housing programs Colombia could save lives, protect assets and significantly reduce the economic and life losses of different disaster and climate related events.
Land governance: Public and Private Planning practice for Land readjustment in Peri Urban areas in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Ardhi University, Tanzania
Rapid urbanization in Africa contributes to challenges in spatial distribution of people and utilization of land resources. Cities’ sprawl is gradually becoming harder to deal with owing to this ever-increasing urban population, which demand for land and consequentially influence changes in land planning in peri-urban areas, where conversion of agricultural land to urban land uses is rampant. While development of peri-urban areas in the global south is shaped by new plans both formal and informal, remarkably, little attention has been paid to the LR as one of the promising tool to address the informality of land in these areas. The study adopted qualitative research methodology to bring the discussion on LR projects to facilitate production of spaces in peri urban areas. Encouraging Private Public Partnership (PPP) in land delivering projects in peri-urban areas is important to ensure effective use of resources and reduce delays to achieving the new urban agenda.
Amaravati Capital City Land Pooling Scheme
1The World Bank, United States of America; 2Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority, India
After state bifurcation in 2014, the Government of Andhra Pradesh selected the Amaravati region as the new capital of Andhra Pradesh. A Land Pooling Scheme (LPS) has been adopted as the main instrument for land assembly for development of the Amaravati Capital City area of 217 sqkm, wherein the land parcels owned by individuals or group of owners are legally consolidated. Under the LPS, landowners voluntarily sign ownership rights over to Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA) and will receive back proportionate developed plots after urban infrastructure such as roads, sewage lines, electricity connections, etc. are put in place. To date, the LPS covers about 85-90% of the 38,500 acres of required private land that belong to about 24,900 land owners who have come forward and consented to participate in the scheme. The LPS has been designed to minimize physical resettlement.
Land Readjustment: Solving Urban Problems Through Innovative Approach
1The Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan; 2The University of Tokyo, Department of Urban Engineering, Japan
Land readjustment is an important instrument for the development and the redevelopment of urban areas widely used around the world, especially in Japan, but still relatively unknown in several other countries. In this sense, the Japan International Cooperation Agency gathered international specialists and published “Land Readjustment: Solving Urban Problems Through Innovative Approach” to provide high quality knowledge for the international audience. The past decade saw an unprecedented interest on land readjustment and, in an interconnected world, the instrument needs to be learned, critically examined and adapted to the most diverse urban contexts. The major value of this publication is to bring together theory, an overview of the Japanese experience and 19 case studies from different countries, ranging from the basic functions to the most complex land readjustment processes, in order to reach a better understanding of the fundamental contributions of the method to different systems of governance and urban planning.
|Date: Wednesday, 21/Mar/2018|
|10:30am - 12:00pm||06-09: Outside Investment at Forest Frontiers: Curse or Blessing?|
Session Chair: Liz Alden Wily, independent, Kenya
Land Trafficking: Agribusiness, Titling Campaigns and Deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon
This paper focuses on the politics of agribusiness expansion in peripheral areas of the Peruvian Amazon. The paper analyzes the mechanisms through which forested land is brought into the land market for agrarian purposes and the unintended role played by titling campaigns –supposedly aimed at regularizing the spontaneous occupation of the Amazon– in the expansion of the corporate agribusiness frontier. The legal requirements for forest conversion into agriculture are overlooked in titling campaigns, unlike the cases of corporate projects in which there is a stricter scrutiny. In this context, buying titled lands has become an attractive avenue for plantation development to skip environmental requirements. This situation has led to intensified colonization of forested lands to acquire titles and sell them to interested parties. The paper shows how the titling mechanism has been used perversely to promote processes of deforestation and land grabbing and characterizes this dynamic as land trafficking.
Land Formalization Turned Land Rush: The Case of the Palm Oil Industry in Papua New Guinea
SOAS, University of London, United Kingdom
This paper uses the case study of Papua New Guinea to engage with the debate around customary land formalization processes, derived from Hernando de Soto’s ‘Mystery of Capital’ (2000). The case of the oil palm industry in PNG demonstrates that customary land registration processes may be captured by powerful ‘big men’ and companies within an environment of weak and changing governance. Weak or non-existent state capacity for the regulation and enforcement of the palm oil industry have been exploited by logging/oil palm companies, surpassing various government agencies at different levels. Instead of increasing agricultural activity and national income, the case shows that customary land formalization has led to worsening poverty and wealth inequality due to biased land lease agreements between customary landowners and developers, loss of tax revenues due to tax exemptions, and a lack of service provision such as roads, schools, and health centers.
Sustainable Land Use by Smallholder Rubber Farmers in Southwest China: Acceptance, Adoption and Governance of Environmental Programs
1University of Hannover, Germany; 2Peking University, China
This study deals with the implementation of sustainable land use systems in Southern China. The objective of the study is to assess the opportunities and constraints of introducing environmentally friendly rubber plantation (EFRP) among smallholder farmers in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (XSBN). We developed three models: (i) an OLS to identify the determinants of EFRP acceptance by smallholders; (ii) a panel model to analyze the changes in intercropping adoption between 2012 and 2014; (iii) an endogenous switching model to account for possible endogeneity of intercropping adoption. We find that the success of a program like EFRP in China is affected by economic conditions. Decline in rubber profitability and off-farm income opportunities pose major challenges. We conclude that without a well-designed implementation plan, i.e. a targeted extension program, and appropriate and attractive incentive schemes a program like EFRP is unlikely to achieve its expected its goals.
Farm production efficiency and natural forest extraction: Evidence from Cambodia
1Leibniz University Hannover, Germany; 2Manchester University, United Kingdom
Farm production and natural forest extraction remain principal livelihood strategies of local
people in many rural areas of the developing world. In this paper, we apply stochastic frontier analysis to evaluate farm production efficiency and simultaneous equations modelling to estimate the interrelationship between farm production efficiency and natural forest extraction. We use a two year panel data set of 430 rural households in Stung Treng province of Cambodia. We find that natural forest extraction is decreasing in farm production efficiency. Our results suggest that improving farm production efficiency, via the promotion of rural education and privatization of farm land, should be considered an integral component of natural forest conservation policy.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||07-09: Forest Tenure and Migration|
Session Chair: Jorge Munoz, World Bank, United States of America
Emergent Dynamics of Migration and Their Potential Effects on Forest and Land use in North Kalimantan, Indonesia
1Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia; 2Brunel University London, UK
Based on a mixed-method research in Malinau District, Indonesia, we find educational purpose is the main driver of youth migration. The need to finance youth migration affected the left behind's livelihood strategies and land use decisions.The stage of development of an area played a role in defining what strategy was adopted. In addition, discussions with the educated youth returnee migrants and current education migrants reveal youth aspiration to return home upon the completion of their education. These youths also indicated their aspiration to continue agriculture and forest-based livelihoods upon their return, albeit as a side job. Our findings are significant for two reasons. It questions a common assumption in the contemporary discourses on rural development that youth are exiting agriculture/forestry sectors. It points to the need to include the next generation and their shifting aspirations and life trajectories, in policies and programs aimed at promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
What Is The Impact Of Out-migration For Employment On People and Land? Lessons For Policy And Research In Nepal
1Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia; 2Forest Action, Nepal
This presentation will highlight findings from a collaborative CIFOR-Forest Action research on how out-migration for foreign employment purposes is impacting on left behind and land uses in forestry and agriculture in rural Nepal. Our research reveals that migration is a highly gendered and generation-specific phenomenon. Whether or not migration contributes to the welfare of migrant-sending communities is contingent on modes of inclusion, exclusion and adverse incorporation into migration processes. One of the profound effects of migration across the research sites is the growing disassociation of land with agriculture and food production. While one research site is experiencing greater commodification and speculation of land, another is undergoing heightened instances of fallow and underutilization of land. The findings point to the importance of broadening the debate on migration and its effects on the country, and considering the relationship between migration and land use change more seriously in policy research and public policy-making.
The effects of migration on property rights and livelihoods on forest frontiers in the Peruvian Amazon
Center for International Forestry Research, Peru
In the Peruvian Amazon, migration is a common strategy used by residents to access land and adapt to environmental or economic change. These patterns have drawn the attention of policy makers that flag migration and migratory agriculture as crucial drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. However, the lack of information about current migration processes and their effects on forest access have inhibited effective policy responses to perceived threats to the region’s forests. This paper draws on recent research among twelve non-indigenous rural communities to understand variation in household migration patterns, property claims and the influence of these factors on livelihood and forest. We conducted 24 focus groups and interviewed 240 randomly selected households to understand the linkages between migration patterns, property rights and forest use. While land titling initiatives have increase property rights security, informal claims persist and the interpretation of regulations excludes options for forest management by smallholders.
Land Tenure Security, Migration and the VGGTs
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Italy
A good understanding of the relationship between land tenure security and migration is of strategic importance for political and development agendas. Yet, relatively little attention has been given to its study and a strong evidence base, necessary for adequate policy formulation and programme development is lacking. Hypothetically, increased tenure security would be associated to reduced migration through a weakening of push factors, while tenure insecurity would constitute an important push factor and hence increase migration. However, the relationship is more complex. China evidence shows an increase of rural-urban migration with increased tenure security in the absence of rental rights. Many dimensions in the security of tenure as well as contextual factors may alter the relationship and produce different migration outcomes. This article analyses the current literature on the subject, proposes a framework for its analysis and discusses the relevance and scope of the application of the VGGT to address the relevant issues.
|3:45pm - 5:15pm||08-09: Comparing Approaches to Securing Forest Tenure|
Session Chair: Gerardo Segura Warnholtz, World Bank, United States of America
Governing the Commons – Jointly Owned Forest as a Solution
1National Land Survey of Finland; 2Department of Built Environment, Aalto University School of Engineering, Finland
Governing the Commons–Jointly Owned Forest as Solution
Today, approximately 60% of Finnish forests are private.
Owners are partially unable of managing their forests. Forests also have significant effects on the climate. On the one hand, forests contribute to half of Finland's total pollutant emis-sions. On the other hand, active forest management and use maintain their ability to bind carbon dioxide as fossil fuels and other non-renewable materials are replaced by renewable sources.
The article contains an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the jointly owned forest system. There is an example of the foundation of a jointly owned forest in conjunction with a forest land reallotment. The aim is increasing the understanding of jointly owned forests as a form of ownership and thus to provide others with ideas on how to develop their own sys-tems with the assistance of similar instruments.
Social Differentiation In Collective Tenure Regimes: Women Rights And Forest Tenure Reforms
This article analyses how gender and social inclusion have been addressed in the drafting of different types of reforms in Indonesia, Uganda and Peru. Reform types include social forestry schemes in Indonesia, community based and collaborative management in Uganda and indigenous titling in Peru. Results focus on two aspects. First, we analyzed to which extent the design of laws and policies behind reform processes have incorporated gender considerations in the drafting of implementation provisions. Second we analyzed the local regulations including existing customary arrangements around reform processes to assess how these affect women and men in terms of access and control of resources. Research is based on extensive research on forest tenure reforms. Information was collected for 54 sites across five different tenure regime types. At the community level, key information interviews (133) and focus group discussions (162) provided information of the origins and nature of reform outcomes.
Understanding the Emerging Dynamics in Forest Governance in Ethiopia
The World Bank Group
The Chilimo community forest is one of the few remnants of a dry, mountainous forest that once covered Ethiopia’s Central Plateau and prioritized for PFM in the mid 1990s. This paper presents forest governance in Ethiopia with Chilimo as a show case. While forest governance is a broad term, embracing a varied set of actors and factors with complex interrelations the study focuses on what institutional factors contribute to more secure forest tenure as one dimension of forest governance? And how people acted in relation to the newly introduced institutional arrangement and how they situated themselves in the unfolding practices. To illustrate these phenomena, we assess a range of actors that shape decisions about how forests are managed and used. By narrating the rules that affect forest tenure rights, it discusses how actors develop and apply rules to drive practices at an operational level and its implications to sustainability.
|Date: Thursday, 22/Mar/2018|
|8:30am - 10:00am||09-09: Land Tenure Regularization and Agricultural Intensification|
Session Chair: Innocent Matshe, African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Kenya
Acknowledging Middle-Scale Farmers in Senegal: From Land Use/Acquisition Processes To Their Role in Agricultural Intensification
1ISRA Bame, Senegal; 2CIRAD/ISRA Bame, Senegal; 3CIRAD/FIDA, Italy; 4Michigan State University
To date, the rise of emerging farmers described in other African countries has not been assessed nor documented in Senegal. This study intends to analyze the growth of emergent farmers in different agro-ecological zones in the country and to contribute to the current debate opposing smallholder farmers and agricultural firms. More specifically, this study includes several related research objectives, namely: (1) to understand the rate of land expansion of medium- and large-scale farms in Senegal; (2) to consider the implications of the rise of medium/large scale farms on Senegal’s agricultural development path ; (3) to understand the relationship between farm size and efficiency in Senegal, including the range of factors that might condition this relationship.
The Impact of Land Governance on the Economic Development Potential of Small Scale Farmers in Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia
It has been argued that the quality of land governance is related to the manifestation of land tenure related problems (Palmer et al, 2009). Therefore in order to achieve the economic development goals expected from improved tenure arrangements, it is often required that land governance must improve. Using a democratic land governance framework that is biased in favor of the landless poor, we are able to apply the land governance principles as proposed by (Zakout et al, 2006) to assess land governance, not only in terms of service delivery, but also on the desirability of that service. However in the case study of small scale farmers in Namibia it becomes clear that despite tenure improvements and reforms to benefit the poor, the governance processes instead serves to concentrate power in the hands of the state and reduces legal tenure security for the beneficiaries.
The Impact of Informal Land Tenure Security on Credit Taking and Land Rental Markets in Zambia’s Eastern Province
1Cloudburst Consulting Group, United States of America; 2United States Agency for International Development
Increased tenure security has long been hypothesized to incentivize greater land investment and improve household economic outcomes, including through a greater ability to obtain credit and increased engagement in land rental markets. However, the empirical support for a strong and positive link between stronger tenure security and household obtainment of credit or engagement in land rental markets has been mixed or tenuous, especially in customary contexts. To provide policy relevant programming recommendations, this paper analyzes the relationship between tenure security and household credit taking and engagement in land rental markets in the customary setting of Zambia’s Eastern Province. This analysis draws on cross-sectional and panel data collected as part of USAID-funded impact evaluations of interventions designed to strengthen customary land tenure. This study represents an important contribution to the literature, through the use of panel data and a more robust set of tenure security indicators than have previously been available.
|10:30am - 12:00pm||10-09: Is There a Need to Promote Land Access by the Youth?|
Session Chair: Mamadou Baro, University of Arizona, United States of America
Challenges of Governance Responses to Land Use Change and Poverty Among Indigenous People in Northeast Cambodia
1The University of Auckland, New Zealand; 2Research Consultant
This paper focuses on livelihood transitions emerging from land use change in an indigenous commune of northeast Cambodia. The paper argues that despite overall poverty reduction among households in the commune from 2003 to 2012, the rapid expansion of the market economy resulted in dispossession from land and forest resources, an over reliance on cash crops, land commodification and concentration, social differentiation, and socioeconomic inequality. In January 2018 a follow-up survey conducted in the commune found that rapid household population growth at 56 percent from 2012 to 2018 circumscribed overall economic growth and outpaced the capacity of the commune’s resources to sustain it. Without government protection of indigenous land rights, non-indigenous in-migration will undoubtedly proceed at pace to the point where the indigenous residents of the commune will become the minority poorer population.
Understanding Adivasiness as Caste Expression and Land Rights Claim in Central-Eastern India
1Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; 2University of Bergen, Norway
The adivasi population represents a special case in India’s new land wars. Strong individual and community rights to agricultural and forest lands, while existent, have been enacted based on notions of adivasi identities as primeval, without linking these to economic and political influence. This article interrogates the adivasi land question seen through a caste lens. It does so via case studies in two states to understand the ways in which adivasi identity is mobilised for its instrumental value and used to demand land rights. Available evidence indicates the challenges involved in bringing support for land rights that are premised on the supposedly unchanging identity of adivasis when these go against dominant interests. This circumstance serves to highlight how equable the plight of adivasis is in some regards to that of caste groups, despite their usually distinct treatment in scholarly analyses.
Land Access, Tenure Security and the Fate of Rural Youth in Africa: The Case of Mozambique
1International Food Policy Research Institute; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique
Unlike the existing literature that focuses on land access, this paper assess whether land access and tenure security have effect on youth employment and migration choices. We consider four indicators: youth land acquisition and youth expected inheritance of land for land access and private risk and public risk for tenure security. This paper hypothesizes that access to land and tenure security are important factor that drive youth in the rural areas to look for non-agricultural livelihood strategies. We employed data gathered in Central and Northern Mozambique with a sample of 3,510 households. Our sample consists of 5,750 youth coming from 2,890 sampled households. Our findings suggest that both land access and tenure secure are positively associated with employment in the agricultural sector. With respect to association between land access and migration, we found mixed results. Furthermore, tenure security is negatively correlated with permanent migration, but positively correlated with temporary migration.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||11-09: How Legal & Institutional Factors Affect Rural Land Markets|
Session Chair: Daniel Monchuk, The World Bank, United States of America
Regulating Rural Land Markets in West Africa: Issues and Priorities for Land Policies
Institut de recherche pour le développement, France
Regulating Rural Land Markets in West Africa: Issues and Priorities for Land Policies
The emergence and dynamics of rural land markets in West Africa: key issues, key insights and remaining questions.
In many rural areas of West Africa, market transactions are emerging or increasing in large numbers. This paper provides a glimpse of a much larger literature review prepared as part of an expertise commissioned by the West African Economic and Monetary Union. In order to be concise, the focus has been selectively placed on four key issues: (i) the conditions for land commodification, (ii) the institutional arrangements, actors and rationales for land transactions, (iii) the impact of land markets in terms of conflicts, actors’ securing strategies, efficiency and equity considerations, and (iv) avenues for future research regarding land transactions in West Africa.
Land Markets Under the Radar: A Cross-Country Analysis of Market Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa
1University of Washington, United States of America; 2Michigan State University, United States of America
Generalizations abound regarding the extent and nature of land market activity in rural sub-Saharan Africa, and considerably more attention is given to land rental than to sales markets. However, evidence indicates that land sales markets constitute an important avenue through which agricultural households access land. In this paper, we provide quantitative evidence of land market activity in five countries, including Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Noting that rates of market participation range from 3% to almost 40% across these countries, we then discuss potential explanations for the observed cross-country differences in market activity. Our intent is to acknowledge the heterogeneity across countries, theorize the factors explaining differences in rental and sales market activity within and across countries, and highlight the need for a deeper understanding of the process of land commoditization in Africa.
|Date: Friday, 23/Mar/2018|
|9:00am - 10:30am||12-09: The Dashboard on People-Centered Land Monitoring|
Session Chair: Ward Anseeuw, CIRAD / INternational Land Coalition, Italy
The Dashboard: How People-Centered Land Monitoring can Contribute to the Realization of the SDGs and VGGTs
1CIRAD / International Land Coalition, Italy; 2International Land Coalition, Italy
The adoption of the VGGTs and the SDGs marked a major advancement towards the recognition of the central role that land tenure and land governance play in global efforts to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development. While these new global frameworks define ambitious goals, the key to their success lies in our ability to give them substance and produce results that can be seen in practice. It was in this context, that the Dashboard was conceptualized in 2016 as a people-led monitoring tool aimed to monitor the overall status of land governance at national level.
The aim of this MasterClass is to
- Present and discuss the Dashboard initiative
- Introduce the initial work undertaken, including an overview of ongoing land monitoring initiative and existing indicators
- Offer results from our preliminary consultations and final list of indicators, still under development
Organized by the International Land Coalition.
|11:00am - 12:30pm||13-09: Peri-urban Land Development and inclusiveness|
Session Chair: Oreoluwa Fika, Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, Netherlands, The
Peri-urban Land Development: Does Formal Tenure Benefit the Poor? Preliminary Research from Lagos and Bangalore.
Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, Netherlands, The
The fluidity and complexity of land tenure systems and how they are governed in Africa and Asia more often leaves the poor deprived of access to land, creates conflicts and increases insecurity amongst low-income communities. In the developing countries, tenure systems exist in a continuum that ranges from statutory to customary to informal and many other forms in-between. In many cases, it proves challenging to distinguish the tenure status of land and more so in peri-urban areas with its dynamic spatial nature, changes in land-use and the consequent rapid socio-economic changes that occur. The MasterClass will address peri-urban land-use changes and tenure types. Based on preliminary qualitative research from peri-urban Lagos and Bangalore, the class will discuss current land-use changes, ownership trends, land tenure changes and the reasons why. Finally the class will discuss tenure types that could enable access and sustainable retention of land by the poor.
|1:30pm - 3:00pm||14-09: Smart Sketch Maps for the Documentation of Land using Hand Drawn Maps|
Session Chair: Malumbo Chipofya, University of Münster, Germany
Smart Sketch Maps: A Tool for Community-driven Land Documentation using Hand Drawn Maps
1University of Münster, Germany; 2Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
In this Master Class we will present new tools designed to support bottom-up land tenure, land rights, and land resource mapping using hand drawn maps. These tools which form part of a system called Smart Sketch Maps, SmartSkeMa (pronounced smärt skē-mə) in short, facilitate automatic and semi-automatic interpretation of free-hand sketches. SmartSkeMa is part of a suite of tools for land tenure recording being developed in the EU funded project its4land. By the end of the Master Class participants will have an appreciation for how SmartSkeMa can improve their current community mapping workflows or help them explore community mapping as a possible approach in their work.